Conquest of Mecca

The conquest of Mecca, which is also known as Ghazwah al-Fath Al-Azam, took place in Ramadan 8 AH.

(Sharh al-Zurqani ‘ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1996], p. 386)

In Tarikh al-Tabari it is written that when the Holy Prophet (sa) ordered the people to begin preparations, he told his family to make provisions for him. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) went to his daughter, Hazrat ‘Aisha (ra), and at the time she was making provisions for the Holy Prophet (sa). Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) asked, “O my daughter! Has the Messenger (sa) of Allah ordered you to make provisions?” To this, she replied in the affirmative. He asked her, “Where do you think the Holy Prophet (sa) is intending to go?” Hazrat ‘Aisha (ra) replied, “I do not know at all.” Then the Holy Prophet (sa) informed the people that they were heading towards Mecca and that they ought to make preparations immediately. He then prayed, “O Allah! May You keep the spies and informants of the Quraysh heedless of this to the extent whereby we reach their area without them knowing. Upon this, the people began preparations.

(Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 3, Dhikr al-Khabr ‘an Fath Makkah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2002], p. 166)

Elaborating further upon this incident, it is written in Sirat al-Halabiyyah:

“Whilst Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was enquiring from Hazrat ‘Aisha (ra), the Holy Prophet (sa) arrived. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) asked the Holy Prophet (sa), ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Are you intending to travel?’ The Holy Prophet (sa) replied in the affirmative. Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, ‘Shall I also prepare?’ The Holy Prophet (sa) replied in the affirmative again. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) enquired, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Where are you intending to travel?’ The Holy Prophet (sa) stated, ‘to fight against the Quraish, but Abu Bakr keep this confidential.’ (He told him, but also said to keep this fact confidential) The Holy Prophet (sa) instructed the people to prepare, however, he did not disclose to them where he was going. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Does not the time period of the pact and treaty between us and the Quraish still remain?’ The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, ‘Yes, but they have dishonoured their treaty and broke it, but you must keep everything I have said to you confidential.’”

In another narration, it states that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Do you intend to set out on a journey?” The Holy Prophet (sa) replied in the affirmative. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “Perhaps you intend to travel towards the Banu Asfar (i.e. the Byzantines).” The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, “no”. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, “Do you plan to travel towards Najd?” Again, the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “no”. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Perhaps you intend to travel towards the Quraish?” The Holy Prophet (sa) replied in the affirmative. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! The time period of the peace treaty established between you and them still remains.” The Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “Do you not know what they have done to the Banu Ka‘b, (i.e. the Banu Khuza‘ah).” Thereafter, the Holy Prophet (sa) sent a message to the neighbouring villages and Muslims and stated, “Whoever believes in Allah the Almighty and the Day of Judgment should gather in Madinah in the month of Ramadan.” Upon this instruction of the Holy Prophet (sa) various tribes of Arabia began to converge in Madinah. Amongst the tribes which arrived in Madinah were the Banu Aslam, Banu Ghaffar, Bannu Muzainah, Banu Ashja and Banu Juhainah. At the time, the Holy Prophet (sa) prayed, “O Allah! Stop the informants and spies of the Quraish, so that we can reach their areas without them knowing.” The Holy Prophet (sa) then stationed various parties along the entire way in order to gather information of anyone who passed by. The Holy Prophet (sa) instructed them that if any stranger passed by them, they should stop him and the Quraish should not learn of the preparations being made by the Muslims.

(Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], pp. 107-108)

Whilst mentioning the details of this incident, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states,

“The Holy Prophet (sa) once addressed one of his wives and said, ‘Prepare my provisions for a journey.’ She began to make preparations for his travels. He then told Hazrat ‘Aisha (ra) to roast some seeds and grains for him. These were the kind of provisions typically available in those days. Thus, she began to sift out any dust or dirt from the seeds. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) came to visit his daughter at home and saw these preparations and asked Hazrat ‘Aisha (ra), ‘What is happening? Is the Holy Prophet (sa) preparing for a journey?’ She replied, ‘It seems to be so because the Holy Prophet (sa) told us to make preparations for travel.’ Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) enquired if there were plans for a battle, but she replied, ‘I do not know. The Holy Prophet (sa) just told us to prepare for travel and that is what we are doing.’ Two to three days later, the Holy Prophet (sa) called upon Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat ‘Umar (ra) and told them that some men from the Khuza‘ah tribe came and related the details of an incident that took place. The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘God has informed me of the incident beforehand, that they would commit treason and we have made a covenant with them. It would go against our faith to now become fearful and not prepare for combat after witnessing the bravery and strength of the Meccans. We will have to go there, so what is your opinion on the matter?’ Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah, you have entered into a covenant with them and they are your own people.’ In other words, would he fight against his own people?

The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘We will not fight our people, we will fight those who have violated the covenant.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) then asked Hazrat ‘Umar (ra), who submitted, ‘In Allah’s name, I would pray every day that we might see this day when we could fight the disbelievers in defence of the Holy Prophet (sa).’

The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Abu Bakr is very soft-natured, but Umar is more candid in his speech.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) continued, ‘Make preparations.’ Then, the Holy Prophet (sa) had an announcement made in the surrounding tribes that everyone who believes in Allah and His Messenger (sa) should congregate in Madinah in the beginning days of Ramadan. Thus, they started to gather to the extent that an army enumerating many thousands of men were organised and they set out for war. When the Holy Prophet (sa) was about to depart, he stated, ‘O Allah! I supplicate to You that may You cause a covering upon the ears of the Meccans and upon the eyes of their spies, so that neither they will see us nor hear about us.’ Thereafter the Holy Prophet (sa) departed and despite the fact that there were many hypocrites in Madinah, and an army of 10,000 men had just departed, no news of this reached the people of Mecca. These indeed are the works of Allah the Almighty.”

(Sair-e-Ruhani [7], Anwar al-Ulum, Vol. 24, pp. 260-262)

Hazrat Abu Hurairah (ra) relates that on the day of the Conquest of Mecca, the Holy Prophet (sa) arrived into the city. The Holy Prophet (sa) appointed Hazrat Zubair (ra) and Hazrat Khalid (ra) bin Waleed to oversee each flank of the army and Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) was appointed as the commander of the infantry and also of those who were entering through the low pass of the valley.

(Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Jihad, Bab Fath Makkah, Hadith 1780)

On the day of the Conquest of Mecca, when the Messenger (sa) of Allah entered the Ka‘bah, Hazrat Bilal (ra) also accompanied him.

Hazrat Ibn Umar (ra) narrates, “The Holy Prophet (sa) arrived at Mecca on the day of the Conquest of Mecca and sent for Uthman bin Talha (ra). He opened the door of the Ka‘bah and the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Bilal (ra), Hazrat Usama bin Zaid (ra) and Hazrat Uthman bin Talha(ra) went inside and then closed the door behind them. They stayed there for some time and then came out.” Hazrat Ibn Umar (ra) added, “I quickly went to Hazrat Bilal (ra) and enquired from him [what happened inside]. He replied, ‘The Holy Prophet (sa) prayed in the Ka‘bah.’ I asked, ‘Where?’ He replied, ‘Between these pillars.’” Hazrat Ibn Umar (ra) would say, “I forgot to ask how many rak‘aat [units of prayer] he had offered.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Salat, Bab al-Abwab wa al-Ghalaq li al-Ka‘bah wa al-Masajid, Hadith 468)

Hazrat Bilal (ra) would later tell people where in the Ka‘bah the Holy Prophet (sa) had prayed.

It is narrated by Hazrat Ibn abi Mulaikah (ra), “On the day of the Conquest of Mecca, the Messenger of Allah (sa) ordered Hazrat Bilal (ra) to call the Azan from the rooftop of the Ka‘bah. Hence, Hazrat Bilal (ra) called the Azan from the rooftop.”

(Ibn Sa‘d, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Bilal bin Rabah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2017] 177)

Whilst mentioning Hazrat Bilal (ra) in relation to the Conquest of Mecca, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II (ra) states:

“Hazrat Abbas (ra) took Abu Sufyan and went to the Holy Prophet (sa) during a gathering. The Holy Prophet (sa) saw Abu Sufyan and said, ‘Woe unto you! Do you still not believe that God is One?’ Abu Sufyan replied, ‘Why would I not believe? If there was another god, would he not have helped us?’ Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Woe unto you! Do you still not believe that Muhammad (sa) is the Prophet of Allah?’ He replied, ‘Regarding this, I am still unsure.’ Hazrat Abbas (ra) said to Abu Sufyan, ‘O unfortunate soul! Pledge your allegiance; through this, you and your nation will be saved!’ Abu Sufyan replied, ‘Very well, I will do so.’ On the insistence of Hazrat Abbas (ra), he performed the Bai‘at [pledge of initiation] on that occasion, but his heart was not fully convinced by it. However, later on, he became a true Muslim. Nevertheless, he performed Bai‘at, upon which Hazrat Abbas (ra) said that now, he ought to ask for his people to be spared, otherwise they would be destroyed. At that moment, the hearts of the muhajireen were apprehensive. They were originally from Mecca and believed that once the honour of Mecca was destroyed, it could not be restored. Despite having been subjected to extreme torture [in Mecca], they still prayed for a peaceful resolution.

“In contrast however, the Ansar were filled with great zeal and passion. The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘What have you come to ask for?’ In reply, Abu Sufyan said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Will you not show mercy to your people? You are indeed merciful and benevolent. Moreover, I am your relative, your brother and I should be honoured in some way as well, as I have now entered Islam.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Very well! Go and make an announcement in Mecca that whoever enters the house of Abu Sufyan shall be granted protection.’ He replied, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! My house is of a limited size, how many people could it possibly accommodate? This is such a large city; how can its inhabitants all be accommodated in my home?’ The Holy Prophet (sa) then said, ‘Very well! Whoever enters the Ka‘bah will be given refuge.’

“Abu Sufyan replied, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Some people will still remain [without protection].’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Alright! The one who throws down his weapons will be left in peace.’ Abu Sufyan replied, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Some people will still remain.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Alright! Whoever closes the doors of their home will be given refuge as well.’ Abu Sufyan replied, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! The poor people living on the streets will be killed.’ The Holy Prophet(sa) said, ‘Very well! Prepare a flag for Bilal (ra) and bring it to me.’ Abi Ruwaiha (ra) was a companion, and when the Holy Prophet (sa) formed bonds of brotherhood in Medina between the Muhajireen and the Ansar, he established a bond of brotherhood between Abi Ruwaiha(ra) and Bilal (ra). Perhaps Bilal (ra) was not present at the time or due to some other reason. Nevertheless, the Holy Prophet (sa) had a flag made for Bilal (ra) and gave it to Abi Ruwaiha (ra) and said, ‘This is the flag of Bilal (ra). Go forth into the city and announce that whoever stands under the flag of Bilal (ra) will be granted refuge.’ Abu Sufyan said, ‘This is sufficient. Mecca will now be saved.’ He then requested permission to leave. The Holy Prophet(sa) said, ‘You may go! Since the leader has already accepted defeat, now whether or not the people of Mecca learn of [the conquest of Mecca] it makes no difference.

“Abu Sufyan entered Mecca anxiously and continuously said, ‘O People! Close the doors to your homes. O People! Throw away your weapons. O People! Enter the Ka‘bah. Bilal’s (ra) flag has been raised aloft, go and stand underneath it.’ In the meantime, people started closing their doors. Some started entering the Ka‘bah and others cast their weapons outside. Meanwhile, the Islamic army entered the city and people gathered under the banner of Bilal (ra).”

Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) further states:

“The most extraordinary point worth noting from this incident is the flag of Hazrat Bilal (ra). The Holy Prophet (sa) arranged a flag for Hazrat Bilal (ra) and said that whoever stands beneath the standard of Bilal (ra) shall be granted refuge. Even though the Holy Prophet (sa) was the leader, he raised no flag for himself. After him, in terms of the level of sacrifices offered, was Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), yet no flag was raised for him either. Following him in terms of the leaders from among the Muslims was Hazrat Umar (ra), yet he too had no flag raised. The worthiest after him was Hazrat Uthman (ra), the son-in-law of the Holy Prophet (sa), yet for him also, no flag was raised. Thereafter was Hazrat Ali (ra), who was his cousin and son-in-law, but again, he also had no flag raised for him. Then, Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra), regarding whom the Holy Prophet (sa) stated that as long as he lives, there shall be no discord among the Muslims, yet despite this, he too was not granted a flag. The Holy Prophet (sa) did not even raise a flag for Hazrat Abbas (ra), his uncle, and who, at times, would even speak boldly in front of the Holy Prophet (sa) of which he would never be displeased by, and yet, he too was not granted a flag. Furthermore, all the other chieftains and people of great eminence were present. There was Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed (ra), the son of a chieftain and who was very well-known himself. Hazrat Amr bin As (ra), another son of a chieftain was present, as well as the children of other chiefs, yet none of them had a banner raised. A flag was only prepared and granted to Hazrat Bilal (ra). What was the reason for this? This was because when a skirmish was about to break out in the vicinity of the Kab‘ah, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) saw that the ones who were about to be killed were his brethren. Thus, he went to the Holy Prophet (sa) saying, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah, will they [i.e. the Muslims] kill their own brothers?’ At that point he had forgotten about the injustices committed against them and overlooking this aspect only saw that they were his brethren. Hazrat Umar (ra) who would usually say, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah, kill these disbelievers [of Mecca]’, but when the Holy Prophet (sa) decided to forgive them all, even Hazrat Umar (ra) would have thought to himself that it was better that our brothers were pardoned. And despite having committed great injustices against them, Hazrat Uthman (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra) would also have been thinking the same. Even whilst the Holy Prophet (sa) was pardoning them, a thought may have arisen that among them were his uncles, brothers, sons-in-law, relatives and dear ones; thus, if he was to pardon them, it would be better as his relatives would be saved. However, there was only one person who had no relatives in Mecca; he did not wield any influence in Mecca; who had no helper in Mecca and who was tortured in a state of utter helplessness. Neither was Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) subject to this [torture], nor Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Usman (ra) or Hazrat Umar (ra). In fact, the Holy Prophet (sa) himself did not suffer affliction in the same manner.”

Hazrat Bilal (ra) was the only one to suffer atrocities of such nature. Here too, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) has not rejected the notion that they suffered injustices; rather, he is stating that no one experienced the same kind of torture that Hazrat Bilal (ra) went through.

Whilst describing some of the details of the torture carried out against Hazrat Bilal (ra), Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) says:

“Hazrat Bilal (ra) was made to lay naked on the burning sand. We can see for ourselves that we cannot walk barefoot in the months of May and June, yet he was made to lay unclothed in burning sand. Then children wearing shoes with nails would jump up and down on his chest telling him, ‘Say, there are more gods other than the One God, say Muhammad (sa) is a liar.’ When they would beat him constantly, Hazrat Bilal (ra) would respond only this much in his own way of speaking, ‘As-hadu allaa ilaaha illallah. As-hadu allaa ilaaha illallah.’ meaning, ‘How can I utter this after witnessing that God is One, and no matter how much you may torture me, after learning that Muhammad (sa) is the true Messenger of Allah, how can I call him a liar?’ Thereupon the children would beat him even more. He was treated in this manner in the summer months, i.e. the months of intense heat. During the winter months, they would tie his feet with rope and drag him in the stony streets and his skin would be wounded. They would drag him telling him to say, ‘Muhammad (sa) is a liar and there are other gods besides God.’ His response, however, was, ‘As-hadu allaa ilaaha illAllah. As-hadu allaa ilaaha illallah.’

“Now that the Islamic army, numbering 10,000, was ready to enter Mecca, Bilal (ra) must have thought that today would be the day for retribution against those who used to stamp on his chest with their shoes and that he would be recompensed for the cruel beatings and torture he endured. However, when the Holy Prophet (sa) declared that all those who either entered the home of Abu Sufyan, entered the Holy Ka‘bah, laid down their arms or closed the doors of their homes would be forgiven, the thought may have crossed Bilal’s (ra) mind that the Holy Prophet (sa) was pardoning his own kith and kin, which was indeed a noble deed, but how would he receive retribution? The Holy Prophet (sa) knew that on that day, there was only one person who could be pained by him forgiving these people, and that was Bilal (ra), as these people were not his family or tribesmen. The pain he was made to endure was not endured by anyone else. Thus, the Holy Prophet (sa) decided that he would seek retribution for Bilal’s (ra) pain, but he would do so in a manner that upheld the dignity of his prophethood, whilst at the same time remaining mindful of Bilal’s sentiments. The Holy Prophet (sa) instructed that Bilal’s (ra) flag should be raised and the chieftains of Mecca, who used to stamp on Bilal’s chest with their shoes; who used to tie a rope to his feet and drag him; who used to make him lay on burning sand, should be informed that if they wish to save their own lives, as well as the lives of their wives and children, they must come and stand under the flag of Bilal (ra).

“It is my belief that since the creation of this world and since man has entered a stage of his development where he has been in a position of strength to be able to seek retribution against another for an injustice committed against them, never has anyone sought retribution in such a magnificent manner. When Bilal’s (ra) flag was pitched in the grounds in front of the Holy Ka‘bah, the circumstances were very different to how they used to be. The chieftains of Mecca who used to crush Bilal (ra) under their feet, demanding from him to declare Muhammad (sa), the Messenger of God, as a liar, the same chieftains would have come running, holding the hands of their wives and children, to seek refuge under the flag of Bilal (ra) in order to save their lives.

“Just think of the love and devotion Bilal’s heart and soul must have felt for the Holy Prophet(sa) in that moment. He must have thought to himself, ‘I did not know whether I would ever obtain retribution from the disbelievers, or whether I would even have the ability to do so. Now, I have been able to take retribution in a manner whereby every person who used to stamp down on my chest, their heads have been lowered beneath my feet.’”

This was his retribution; those who used to stomp on Bilal’s (ra) chest with their shoes were now made to lower their heads at the feet of Bilal (ra).

“This retribution was far more magnificent than the retribution of Joseph (as) because Joseph (as) forgave his brothers for the sake of his father.” The person for whose sake he forgave them was his father, and the people who he forgave were his brothers. “The Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa) forgave his uncles and his brothers only after they submitted at the feet of a [former] slave. Thus, the retribution of Joseph (as) is of no comparison.”

(Sair-e-Ruhani, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 24, pp. 268-273)

It is stated in Introduction to the Study of the Holy Quran:

“Abu Sufyan (ra) asked the Holy Prophet (sa) whether the Meccans would be safe if they did not take up arms. The Holy Prophet (sa) replied in the affirmative. He said that every person who closed the door to their home would remain safe. Hazrat Abbas (ra) said to the Holy Prophet (sa) that Abu Sufyan was a very proud person and what he wanted to ask was whether his honour would be duly regarded.” This is an additional detail mentioned here with reference to Hazrat Abbas (ra). “The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Very well, whoever enters the home of Abu Sufyan would also be granted security. Whoever enters the Ka‘bah, lays down their arms, closes the doors to their homes, or enters the home of Hakim bin Hizam would also be granted security.’ After this, the Holy Prophet (sa) called Abi Ruwaiha – a bond of brotherhood had been established between him and the [former] Abyssinian slave, Bilal (ra). The Holy Prophet (sa) said, whoever came and took refuge under the flag of Abi Ruwaiha would be granted amnesty. He also instructed Bilal (ra) to announce that whoever stood under the flag of Abi Ruwaiha would be granted security.” The part where Hazrat Bilal (ra) makes an announcement is an addition to the earlier account.

“This commandment of the Holy Prophet (sa) was full of profound wisdom. The people of Mecca used to tie a rope to Bilal’s (ra) feet and drag him through the streets. The streets and plains of Mecca were not a peaceful place for Bilal (ra), but were a place of torture; a place where he was humiliated and mocked. The Holy Prophet (sa) thought that on this day, Bilal’s (ra) heart must be inclined towards seeking retribution; it is necessary that this extremely loyal companion should be granted his retribution; however, it was also necessary for this retribution to be in accordance with the pristine teachings of Islam. Thus, the Holy Prophet (sa) did not seek retribution for Bilal (ra) by severing the heads of his enemies with the sword, rather he handed a flag to his brother and commissioned Bilal (ra) to announce that all those who stood under his brother’s flag would be saved. How glorious and beautiful this retribution was; as Bilal (ra) made this announcement in a loud voice, that ‘O people of Mecca, come stand under my brother’s flag so that you may be granted protection’, the feelings of retribution must have subsided from his heart. He must have felt that there could have been no retribution more magnificent and beautiful than the retribution arranged for him by the Holy Prophet (sa).”

(Dibachah Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar al-Ulum, Vol. 20, p. 340)

Mentioning Hazrat Bilal’s (ra) patience and his condition at the time of the Conquest of Mecca, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II (ra) states:

“Such were the hardships that Bilal (ra) was made to endure.” The persecution he faced at Mecca has been mentioned earlier. “However, on the occasion of the Conquest of Mecca, do you know how the Holy Prophet (sa) took retribution against the disbeliever and bestowed honour upon this [former] Abyssinian slave on whose chest the chieftains of Mecca would stamp on? At the Conquest of Mecca, the Holy Prophet (sa) handed Bilal (ra) a flag and announced, ‘O leaders of Mecca! If you wish to safeguard your lives, take refuge under the flag of Bilal (ra).’ In other words, the Holy Prophet (sa) announced to Mecca that the only means to guarantee the protection of their lives was to submit before Bilal (ra), upon whose chest the chieftains of Mecca would stamp on; even though Bilal (ra) was a [former] slave and they were the chiefs.”

(Aindah Vohi Qaumein Izzat Paeingi Jo Mali-o-Jani Qurbanion Mein Hissah Lein Gi, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 21, p. 164)

Thus, whether the flag was handed to Bilal’s brother and Bilal(ra) was appointed to stand next to him, or in the instance of handing the flag to Bilal(ra), the end result was ultimately the same. Despite a small difference in the details of how the events unfolded, the same point is inferred and the conclusion is the same nonetheless.

Whilst mentioning the conquest of Mecca, Dr Ali Muhammad al-Sallabi has written that when the Holy Prophet (sa) reached Marr-uz-Zahran, Abu Sufyan began to worry about himself. Hazrat Abbas (ra), the paternal uncle of the Holy Prophet (sa), suggested to him to seek the protection of the Holy Prophet (sa).

Hazrat Abbas (ra) relates:

“I said to Abu Sufyan, ‘You are extremely unfortunate because look the Holy Prophet (sa) is now present amongst the people. Abu Sufyan replied, ‘May my parents be sacrificed for your sake! What can I do now to be protected from this?’ I said, ‘By Allah! If they take hold of you, they will most certainly execute you. Ride behind me on the mule. I will take you to the Holy Prophet (sa) and then I will seek his protection for you.’”

Hazrat Abbas (ra) says, “He rode behind me. Whenever I passed by a campfire of the Muslims, they would ask who this individual was.” It was night and fires were lit. “When they saw me riding upon the mule of the Holy Prophet (sa), they would say that the paternal uncle of the Holy Prophet (sa) was riding his mule.

“This continued until I passed by the campfire of Umar bin Khattab (ra). He asked, ‘Who is this?’ and stood by my side. When he saw Abu Sufyan, he said, ‘Aby Sufyan, the enemy of Allah. All praise belongs to Allah, Who granted us an unconditional victory over you.’ Hazrat Abbas (ra) then dragged him”, i.e. Abu Sufyan, “along with him and presented himself before the Holy Prophet (sa). Hazrat Umar (ra) also went to the Holy Prophet (sa) and said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Permit me to sever his head.’”

Hazrat Abbas (ra) relates, “I said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! I have granted him protection.’ When Hazrat Umar (ra) insisted on his stance, I said, ‘O Umar, wait! By Allah, if he had belonged to [the tribe of] Banu Adi, you would not have said such things. However, you are aware of the fact that he belongs to the Banu Abd Manaf.’ Upon this, Hazrat Umar (ra) said, ‘O Abbas, hold on! By Allah I was so overjoyed when you accepted Islam that I wouldn’t have felt this much happiness even if my father Khattab accepted Islam, and I knew that your acceptance of Islam was dearer to the Holy Prophet (sa) than that of Khattab if he had done so.’ Thereafter, the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, ‘O Abbas, take Abu Sufyan away and bring him in the morning.’”

(Umar bin Al-Khattab, Ali Muhammad al-Sallabi, p. 51, Dar-ul-Ma‘rifah, Beirut 2007)

In any case, this conversation between Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Abbas (ra) continued and in the end, the Holy Prophet (sa) told Hazrat Abbas (ra) to take him away, for he had granted him refuge and that nothing should be said to him.

When the Holy Prophet (sa) announced the message of peace during the Conquest of Mecca, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said to him, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah, Abu Sufyan desires honour.” The Holy Prophet (sa) therefore stated, “Whoever enters the house of Abu Sufyan shall be granted security.”

(Sharh al-Zurqani ‘ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 3, Ghazwat al-Fath al-A’zam [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1996], p. 421)

After conquering Mecca, the Holy Prophet (sa) gave an order regarding the idol Hubal; it was taken down and the Holy Prophet (sa) was standing beside it. Hazrat Zubair bin al-Awwam (ra) then said to Abu Sufyan, “O Abu Sufyan, Hubal has been overthrown, yet on the day of the Battle of Uhud, you very arrogantly proclaimed that it had rewarded you all.” In response, Abu Sufyan said, “O son of Awwam, leave such talk, for I have realised that if there were any god beside the God of Muhammad (sa), then what has happened today would never have come to pass.”

The Holy Prophet (sa) then sat in one corner of the Kabah, and the people gathered around him. Hazrat Abu Hurairah (ra) relates that the Holy Prophet (sa) was sat during the Conquest of Mecca and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was beside him with his sword unsheathed on guard, i.e. he was stood right next to him.

(Mustafa ‘Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-‘Ibad, Vol. 5, Ghazwat al-Fath al-A’zam [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 235)

It is written in Al-Tabaqat by Ibn Sa‘d that the Muslim army reached Marr Al-Zahran at Isha [evening]. Marr Al-Zahran is 25 kilometres from Mecca in the direction of Madinah. In other words, it is 25 kilometres from Mecca. According to the instruction of the Holy Prophet (sa), the companions lit a fire in 10,000 different places. Though the news of the Muslim army’s departure had not reached the Quraish, nonetheless they were worried on account of having to fight against the Muslims. Although they did not receive news, the Quraish thought that they would now have to fight, and this is why they were fearful. It seems here that it has been incorrectly written here. In fact, they had received news of their departure after they arrived there [Marr Al-Zahran]. When the Muslims set camp there and lit the fire in 10,000 different places, the Quraish sent Abu Sufyan to gather information. They stated that if he were to meet the Holy Prophet (sa) he should enter into a peace treaty. And so, Abu Sufyan bin Harb, Hakeem bin Hizam and Budail bin Waraqah left and when they saw the Muslim army, they became greatly worried. The Holy Prophet (sa) had appointed Hazrat ‘Umar (ra) to oversee those standing guard that night. When Hazrat Abbas (ra) heard the voice of Abu Sufyan, he stated, “O Abu Hanzla!” (This was the title of Abu Sufyan). Upon this, Abu Sufyan responded, “I am here.” He then asked Hazrat Abbas, “What is this behind you?” Hazrat Abbas (ra) replied, “It is the Messenger (sa) of Allah along with 10,000 of his people.” Hazrat Abbas (ra) then granted him refuge and took him and his two companions before the Holy Prophet (sa) and all three accepted Islam.

(Ibn Sa‘d, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 2, Ghazwat Rasul (sa) Allah ‘Aam al-Fath [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2017], pp. 102-103) (Atlas Sirat Nabawisa, p. 396, Maktabat Dar al-Salam)

With regard to the accounts in relation to the Conquest of Mecca, which took place in 8 AH, a detailed narration can be found in Sunan al-Nasai about those individuals whom the Holy Prophet (sa) had ordered to be executed on this occasion. Hazrat Mus‘ab bin Saad (ra) relates from his father:

“On the day of the Conquest of Mecca, the Holy Prophet (sa) granted protection to all disbelievers, save four men and two women. The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Kill these four individuals, even if you find them clinging on to the covers of the Ka‘bah.’ These were Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, Abdullah bin Khatal, Maqees bin Subaba and Abdullah bin Saad bin Abi Sarh.

“When Abdullah bin Khatal was seized, he was holding on to the covers of the Ka‘bah. Saeed bin Huraith and Ammar bin Yasir, both rushed toward him. Saeed advanced and killed him. Maqees was caught by the people in the marketplace and killed. Ikrimah ran towards the sea. The people aboard the ship were caught in a storm, upon which they said, ‘Be sincere and truthful, as your gods will be of no avail to you here.’ Hearing this, Ikrimah said, ‘By God! If there is anything that can save me on sea, it is sincerity and truthfulness. Furthermore, it is sincerity and truthfulness alone that can save me on land as well. O Allah! I sincerely pledge to You that if You save me from this storm, I will go to Muhammad (sa) and place my hand in his and I am certain that I will find him forgiving and benevolent.’ Following this, he returned and accepted Islam.”

The more commonly known narration is that before boarding the ship, his wife caught up with him and convinced him to return. This narration will be mentioned later on. Nevertheless, this aforementioned narration was from Sunan al-Nasai.

As for Abdullah bin Abi Sarh, he hid in the home of Hazrat Uthman (ra) bin Affan. Then, when the Holy Prophet (sa) invited people to pledge allegiance, Hazrat Uthman (ra) took him to the Holy Prophet (sa) and said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah, accept the pledge of allegiance from Abdullah.” The Holy Prophet (sa) looked up at him three times and refused each time. Eventually, the Holy Prophet (sa) accepted his pledge of allegiance and then later said, “Was there no wise person amongst you who could have killed that man whose pledge of allegiance I was hesitant about accepting?” They replied saying, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! How could we know what was in your heart? Why did you not indicate this to us by signalling with your eyes?” The Holy Prophet (sa) said, “It does not behove a prophet to cast a glance in a deceptive manner.”

This narration is recorded in Sunan Abi Dawood. Although another [similar] narration is also present in Sunan Abi Dawood, the last part about killing him is not mentioned. Thus, in this narration [of Abu Dawood], Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) states that Abdullah bin Saad bin Abi Sarh used to be a scribe for the Holy Prophet (sa), but Satan drove him astray due to which he joined the disbelievers. On the day of the Conquest of Mecca, the Holy Prophet (sa) ordered for him to be killed. Hazrat Uthman (ra) bin Affan sought protection for him upon which the Holy Prophet (sa) granted him protection.

(Sunan al-Nasai, Kitab al-Maharibah, Bab al-Hukm fi al-Murtad, Hadith 2072) (Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab al-Hudud, Bab al-Hukm fi man Irtadda, Hadith 2358-2359)

With regard to the statement of the Holy Prophet (sa) saying that Abdullah should have been killed and asking why he was not, one explanation about this is that this narration of the Holy Prophet (sa), in which he says to his Companions that when he had delayed accepting his pledge of allegiance, why had they not killed him is questionable, had the Holy Prophet (sa) not wished to accept his pledge of allegiance and wanted to remain firm on his decision to kill him, then he could have ordered for him to be killed. He was the victor and the leader of the state and the verdict of the death penalty was based upon justice. Thus, it is possible that a narrator added their own views in this narration. Furthermore, this narration is not found in Bukhari or Muslim and another version of this narration on the same subject is found in Abu Dawood related by Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) which has already been referred to earlier, and this also makes no mention of the part about the killing.

On the occasion of the conquest of Mecca, Hazrat Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas (ra) held one of the three flags of the Muhajireen.

(Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 105, Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Hazrat Zubair (ra) was also among the three people whom the Holy Prophet (sa) sent to inquire about the woman who was delivering a letter of Hazrat Hatib bin Abi Balta (ra) to the disbelievers.

Hazrat Ali (ra) narrates, “Whilst sending me, Hazrat Zubair (ra) and Hazrat Miqdad (ra) to a certain location, the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, ‘When you reach Raudha-e-Khaakh, there you will find a woman who has a letter. Take the letter from her and return.’”

Hazrat Ali (ra) further relates, “Subsequently, we set off for Raudha-e-Khaakh”, which is the name of an area situated between Mecca and Medina. “Upon reaching there, we indeed found a woman [as mentioned by the Holy Prophet (sa)]. We instructed her to hand over the letter; however, she denied having any letter. We then warned her that either she should produce the letter or we would be compelled to use force and remove her clothes [in order to search for it].”

In other words, they would be willing to go to any length in order to search for the letter.

“Left with no choice, she took out the letter which was concealed in the bun of her hair and handed it over to us. We took the letter and returned to the Holy Prophet (sa). Upon opening the letter, we found out that the letter was written from Hazrat Hatib bin Abi Balta (ra) in which he had addressed some idolaters of Mecca and was revealing information about a certain directive the Holy Prophet (sa) had issued. The Holy Prophet (sa) asked him to explain the matter and Hazrat Hatib (ra) submitted, ‘O Messenger of Allah (ra)! Please do not make a decision in haste with regard to me. [The reason I have done this is because] I am not from the Quraish, but in fact I came and joined them, therefore I wished to do a favour for them. I did not commit this act owing to disbelief or apostasy, or by giving preference to disbelief having accepted Islam. Instead, I simply did this in order to extend them a favour.’ Upon hearing this, the Holy Prophet (sa) stated that Hazrat Balta (ra) had indeed spoken the truth. At the time, Hazrat Umar (ra) was overcome with extreme anger and submitted to the Holy Prophet (sa), ‘Grant me permission so that I may sever the head of this hypocrite.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) stated, ‘He has participated in the Battle of Badr. Do you not know that observing the people of Badr from the heavens, Allah the Almighty has declared that He has already granted them His forgiveness, regardless of what they do?’”

(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, vol. 1, p. 251, Ali ibn Talib, Hadith no. 600, Alam-ul-Kutb, Beirut, 1998) (Farhang Sirat, Syed Fazl-ul-Rehman, p. 136)

Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (ra) relates that when the Holy Prophet (sa) entered Mecca during the Conquest of Mecca, he saw the women were hitting their scarves upon the faces of the horses in order to push them back. The Holy Prophet (sa) smiled and turned to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) asking, “O Abu Bakr, what is it that Hassan bin Thabit said?” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) recited the following couplets:

عَدِمتُ‭ ‬بُنَيَّتِي‭ ‬إنْ‭ ‬لَمْ‭ ‬تَرَوْهَا‬‬‬‬ تُثِيْرُ‭ ‬النَّقْعَ‭ ‬مَوْعِدُهَا‭ ‬كَدَاءُ‬‬‬ يُنَازِعْنَ‭ ‬الأَعِنَّةَ‭ ‬مُسْرِحَاتٍ‬‬ يُلَطِّمُهُنَّ‭ ‬بِالْخُمُرِ‭ ‬النِّسَاءُ‬‬

“I would lose my beloved daughter if you see not; An army which scatters dust all over, the promised place of which is Mount Kada’;

“They hold the reins of their swift horses; The women strike them with their scarves.”

Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, “Enter this city from the place Hassan mentioned, i.e. Kada’.”

(Mustafa ‘Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-‘Ibad, Vol. 5 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 227), (Sharh al-Zurqani ‘ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 3, [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1996], p. 415)

Kada’ is another name for Arafat. It is an elevated path that descends from the outer parts of Mecca to its inner area. This is from where the Holy Prophet (sa) entered Mecca during the Conquest of Mecca.

(Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 242)

When the Holy Prophet (sa) was making preparations for the conquest of Mecca, he did not disclose this. And even though the Companions (ra) were preparing for it, however it was not widely known that Mecca was about to be invaded. During this time, a companion who had fought in the Battle of Badr by the name of Hatib (ra) bin Baltah handed a secret letter out of his naivety and simplicity to a lady who had come from Mecca to send back to Mecca. He had mentioned all of the preparations for the invasion of Mecca in the letter. The lady took the letter and went on her way. God Almighty informed the Holy Prophet (sa) of this, so he sent Hazrat Ali (ra) and three other people, among whom was Hazrat Ammar bin Yasir (ra), to pursue that woman and intercept the letter.

Whilst describing this incident, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih I (ra) states, “A woman named Sarah who was a resident of Mecca, and had been brought up by the Bani Hashim family, had come to the Holy Prophet (sa) in Medina when he was preparing to leave for the conquest of Mecca.

“The Holy Prophet (sa) asked her if she had accepted Islam and escaped from Mecca. She replied, ‘No, I have not come as a Muslim, but because I am in need. I have been brought up by your family, therefore I have come to you to seek financial support.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) asked of the people and they gave some clothes and money etc. after which the lady returned to her hometown. When she was about to depart, Hatib (ra), a Companion who had fought in the Battle of Badr, gave her ten Dirhams and said he wished to give her a letter which she must hand to the people of Mecca. She agreed to do so and took the letter.

“In this letter, Hatib wrote to the people of Mecca that the Holy Prophet (sa) had decided to conquer Mecca, so they should be careful. That lady was yet to leave Medina when the Holy Prophet(sa) was informed through Divine revelation that she had taken the letter. Hence, the Holy Prophet (sa) immediately sent Hazrat Ali (ra) and Hazrat Ammar (ra) with a group to pursue her and to get hold of the letter, and if she refused to hand it over then she should be punished. Thus, this delegation caught up with her on route. She refused and swore that she did not have a letter with her, to which Hazrat Ali(ra) drew his sword saying, ‘We have not been lied to, through Divine revelation we have been informed that you surely have the letter with you.’ Out of fear of the sword, she took out the letter from her hair. When they took the letter back, they realised it was written by Hatib(ra), and subsequently he was summoned. The Holy Prophet (sa) asked him why he did such a thing. He replied, ‘By God, ever since I accepted Islam I have not disbelieved. The only thing is that there is no one to defend or protect my tribe in Mecca and the only benefit I could get from writing this letter was that I did not want the infidels to harm my tribe.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) wished to kill Hatib (ra) but the Holy Prophet (sa)forbade him from doing so and said, ‘God Almighty has expressed His pleasure with the people who took part in the Battle of Badr and said that whatever happens, He will forgive them.’”

(Haqaiq-ul-Furqan, Vol. 4, pp. 528-529)

Thus, this error of his was out of naivety and not to cause harm to the Muslims.

When the Holy Prophet (sa) was granted victory over Mecca, Hazrat Zubair bin al-Awwam (ra) stood on the right flank of the army, while Hazrat Miqdad bin Aswad (ra) was appointed to stand on its left flank. When the Holy Prophet (sa) entered the city of Mecca and the people felt assured [against any retribution be carried out against them], Hazrat Zubair (ra) and Hazrat Miqdad (ra) both arrived whilst mounted on their horses. The Holy Prophet (sa) stood and began to wipe the dust from their faces with his own mantle and then stated, “I have assigned two portions [of the spoil] for the cavaliers and one for those on foot. Whosoever gives a share less than this, may Allah grant them less as well.”

(al-Tabaqat al-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 77, Zubair bin al-Awwam (ra), Dar-ul-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Whilst narrating an incident from the life of Hazrat Zubair (ra), Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II (ra) states:

“When the Holy Prophet (sa) struck the idol, Hubal, with his staff, and it fell down in fragments, Hazrat Zubair (ra) looked at Abu Sufyan with a smile and reminded him of Uhud, stating, ‘Do you remember the day when Muslims wounded and exhausted stood by and you arrogantly shouted, “Glory to Hubal, Glory to Hubal” and that it was Hubal who gave you victory over the Muslims on the day of Uhud? But today you can see Hubal shattered before you in pieces.’ Upon this, Abu Sufyan stated, ‘Zubair (ra), let those matters go now for had there been any other god beside the God of Muhammad (sa), it would not have been possible to witness the scenes we are seeing today. Indeed, there is only one God, Who is the God of Muhammad (sa).’”

(Dibacha Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, pp. 346-347)

The incident of Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl’s acceptance of Islam as mentioned in the narration of Sunan al-Nasai is different to the account mentioned in the books of Islamic history. As I have mentioned before, Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl was among those whom the Holy Prophet (sa) ordered to be killed during the Conquest of Mecca. Ikrimah and his father used to cause much pain to the Holy Prophet (sa) and severely persecuted the Muslims. When he discovered that the Holy Prophet (sa) had ordered for his execution, he fled towards Yemen. His wife pursued him after having accepted Islam and reached Ikrimah at the coast as he was about to board a ship. According to one account, she found him after he had already boarded the ship. She stopped him saying, “O son of my uncle! I have come to you from that person who unites people the most, who is the most pious and who is most well-wishing among the people. Do not put yourself in ruin for I have sought security on your behalf.” Thereupon he returned with his wife, accepted Islam and he did so in an exceptional manner.

According to one narration, when Ikrimah came before the Holy Prophet (sa), he said, “O Muhammad (sa)! My wife has informed me that you have granted me amnesty.” The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, “You speak the truth. Indeed, you have been given amnesty.” Thereupon Ikrimah said, “I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, He has no partner and that you are His servant and Messenger” and then lowered his head out of embarrassment. Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, “O Ikrimah! I shall grant you whatever you ask of me, so long as I have the power to bestow it.” He replied, “Pray for my forgiveness for every transgression I committed against you.” Upon this the Holy Prophet (sa) supplicated, “O Allah, forgive Ikrimah for all the transgressions he committed against me, or forgive him for all his evil deeds.” Then the Holy Prophet (sa) stood up brimming with joy and covered Ikrimah in his own cloak, saying, “Welcome, o ye, who has come to us in a state of faith and having migrated.”

Ikrimah was later counted among the most eminent companions. Ikrimah’s acceptance of Islam was also a fulfilment of that prophecy which the Holy Prophet (sa) narrated to his companions. He had seen in a dream that he was in paradise, where he saw a bunch of grapes which looked very pleasing to him. The Holy Prophet (sa) enquired, “Who is this for?” It was said that it was for Abu Jahl. This was displeasing to the Holy Prophet (sa) and troubled him greatly. The Holy Prophet (sa) said, “None shall enter paradise except a believer, so how can this be for Abu Jahl?” Later, when Ikrimah accepted Islam, this pleased the Holy Prophet (sa) greatly and he interpreted that the bunch of grapes referred to Ikrimah.

(Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 3, Bab Dhikr Maghaziyah, Ghazwat Fath Makkah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], 132-133.)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) mentions these incidents in the commentary of Surah al-Mu‘minun, verse 15:

“There is a historical incident associated with this verse which is necessary to mention here. There was a scribe by the name of Abdullah bin Abi Sarh who would write down the revelations received by the Holy Prophet (sa). Whenever the Holy Prophet (sa) received a revelation, he would call him and have it written down. One day, while dictating these very verses [i.e. Surah al-Mu‘minun verse 15], when he reached:

ثُمَّ أَنشَأۡنَٰهُ خَلۡقًا ءَاخَرَۚ

“[‘Then we developed it into another creation’ (Ch.23: V.15)], Abdullah spontaneously uttered the words:

فَتَبٰرَكَ‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬اَحۡسَنُ‭ ‬الۡخٰلِقِيۡنَ‬‬‬

“[‘So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators’ (Ch.23: V.15)]. The Holy Prophet (sa) said that this is exactly what the revelation was and that he should write it down. That wretched person did not realise that these words were the natural result of the preceding verses. Abdullah thought that since the words he had uttered were accepted by the Holy Prophet (sa) to be the same as the revelation, therefore he thought that the Holy Prophet (sa) was, God-forbid, making up the rest of the Quran himself. Thus, he became an apostate and went to Mecca. On the occasion of the Conquest of Mecca, Abdullah bin Abi Sarh was among those whom the Holy Prophet (sa) had issued the death penalty. However, Hazrat Uthman (ra) granted him protection and he hid in his home for three days. One day, when the Holy Prophet (sa) was taking the pledge of allegiance from the people of Mecca, Hazrat Uthman (ra) took Abdullah bin Abi Sarh to the Holy Prophet (sa) and requested that he accept Abdullah’s pledge of allegiance. The Holy Prophet (sa) initially showed some reluctance, but then he accepted his pledge of allegiance. Thus, Abdullah accepted Islam once again.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 6, p. 129)

In historical accounts, we find a dream of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) mentioned in relation to the Conquest of Mecca. It is mentioned that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) related his dream to the Holy Prophet (sa) and said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! I saw a dream in which I saw you; we had reached close to Makkah. A female dog came towards us barking and when we went near to her, she lay down on her back and milk started to flow from her.” Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, “Their harm has been removed and we will soon derive benefit. They will call on their relationship to you and seek refuge with you and you will soon meet some of them.” This is how the Holy Prophet (sa) interpreted the dream. The Holy Prophet (sa) said, “Hence, if you find Abu Sufyan, do not kill him!” Following this, the Muslims found Abu Sufyan and Hakim bin Hizam at Marr Al-Zahran.

(Imam Al-Baihaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwah, Vol. 5 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1988], p. 48)

Ibn Uqbah relates, “When Abu Sufyan and Hakim bin Hizam were returning [to Mecca], Hazrat Abbas (ra) said to the Holy Prophet (sa), ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! I am doubtful in relation to Abu Sufyan’s acceptance of Islam. (The manner in which Abu Sufyan agreed to obey the Holy Prophet (sa) and how he accepted Islam has previously been mentioned. Nevertheless, Hazrat Abbas (ra) said) You should call him back until he has understood the teachings of Islam and seen Allah’s army with you.’”

In another narration, Ibn Abi Shaybah relates, “When Abu Sufyan was about to return, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said to the Holy Prophet (sa), ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! If you command us then we will stop Abu Sufyan on route.’”

In yet another narration, Ibn Ishaq relates, “When Abu Sufyan was returning, the Holy Prophet (sa) said to Hazrat Abbas (ra), ‘Stop him (that is, Abu Sufyan) in the valley.’ Hence, Hazrat Abbas (ra) caught up with him and stopped him. Upon this, Abu Sufyan said, ‘O Bani Hashim! Are you deceiving me?’ Hazrat Abbas (ra) replied, ‘The people of the Prophet do not deceive!’”

According to another narration, he replied, “We do not deceive. However, you should wait here until the morning and until you see the army of Allah and what Allah has prepared for the disbelievers.” Hence, Hazrat Abbas (ra) kept Abu Sufyan in this valley until the next morning.

(Mustafa ‘Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-‘Ibad, Vol. 5, Fi Ghazwat al-Fath al-A’zam [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 218)

With regards to when the Muslim army was passing in front of Abu Sufyan, it is written in “Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad” that the contingent of the Holy Prophet (sa), dressed in green, passed in front of Abu Sufyan. This consisted of Muhajirin and Ansar and there were many banners and flags. Every tribe of the Ansar had its banner and flag and they were clad in iron, that is, they were clad in armour and chain-mail. Only their eyes could be seen. Every so often Hazrat Umar (ra) would say at the top of his voice, “March slowly so that your first division [of the army] remain connected with the last division.” It is said that this contingent contained 1,000 soldiers clad in armour. The Holy Prophet (sa) passed his banner to Hazrat Sa‘d bin Ubadah (ra) and he stayed at the forefront of the army. When Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) reached Abu Sufyan, he called out to him saying, “Today is a day of bloodshed. Today that which is prohibited shall be made permissible. Today the Quraish shall be humiliated.” Thereupon Abu Sufyan said to Abbas (ra), “O Abbas, it is your duty to protect me today.”

Thereafter, the other tribes passed by and the Holy Prophet (sa) then appeared, mounted on his camel named “Qaswah”. He came whilst speaking to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Usaid bin Hudair (ra) who were to each side of him. Hazrat Abbas (ra) said to Abu Sufyan that this was the Holy Prophet (sa).

(Mustafa ‘Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-‘Ibad, Vol. 5 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], pp. 220-221)