Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

In light of the advice of the Holy Prophet (sa) to Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal about reciting shorter surahs in [congregational] prayers, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II (ra) writes:

“It was the preference of the Holy Prophet (sa) to recite Surah al-A‘la, Surah al-Ghashiyah, Surah al-Fajr and other similar surahs [in terms of length] in obligatory prayers. al-Nisai has related from Hazrat Jabir (ra) that once, Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal was leading the prayers. A person came and joined in the [congregational] prayers behind him. Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) prolonged the prayers; according to some narrations, he began to recite Surah al-e-Imran or Surah al-Nisa.

“When the prayer became prolonged, he stopped his prayers and moving to one side, began to pray on his own. When he concluded his prayer, he left. After the prayer finished, someone informed Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) of what happened in that one person came and joined the prayer, but when the prayer became prolonged, he stopped the prayer and moving to one side, he began to pray on his own. After he finished his prayer, he then left. Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) said that perhaps he was a hypocrite and then related the entire incident to the Holy Prophet (sa). He said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! I was leading the prayer when such and such person joined the prayer. But when the prayer became prolonged, he left the prayer and began to pray on his own and left once he finished.’

“When the person against whom the complaint was raised found out that the incident had been mentioned to the Holy Prophet (sa), he also came to see the Holy Prophet (sa) and submitted, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! I came to offer the prayers and joined in when he [i.e. Hazrat Mu‘az (ra)] was leading the prayers. However, he prolonged the prayers. We work all day long and my camel was also tied up without any food. Therefore, I stopped praying in congregation and prayed on my own to one side of the mosque. I then returned home and fed my camel.’ Upon hearing this, the Holy Prophet (sa) was displeased with Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) and said to him, ‘O Mu‘az! You will place the people in great difficulty. Why do you not recite Surah al-A‘la, Surah al-Shams, Surah al-Fajr or Surah al-Lail? Why did you not recite these chapters and why did you choose to recite the longer chapters?’

“From this incident we can conclude that the Holy Prophet (sa) has deemed these [aforementioned] chapters of average length. Indeed, under special conditions, one may recite the longer chapters, or when one is unwell, they may recite even shorter chapters. However, these chapters are of average length which ought to be recited during the prayers in which the Imam recites a portion of the Holy Quran out aloud.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 8, pp. 497, Tafsir Surah al-Fajr)

It should also be remembered that this does not mean that only these chapters can be recited. The Holy Prophet (sa) has given a general instruction that one should not recite long chapters in congregational prayers. However, one can recite the chapters according to their own circumstances or according to what they have learnt. Some people have memorised shorter chapters and because there is nobody else to lead the congregation, they have to lead the prayers. Therefore, it is permissible for them to recite shorter chapters as well. However, the general instructions of the Holy Prophet (sa) is that longer chapters are not to be recited in the congregational prayers because there are various people in the congregation, some of whom are elderly, some are unwell or labourers.

Hazrat Mursad (ra) bin Abdillah narrates, “When Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (ra) came to us to take part in Jihad, Hazrat Uqbah (ra) bin Amir was the governor of Egypt at the time. One day, he offered the Maghrib prayers slightly later than its prescribed time. Upon this, Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (ra) went to him and said, ‘O Uqbah, what kind of prayer is this?’ Hazrat Uqbah (ra) replied that he was preoccupied in something. Upon this, Hazrat Abu Ayub (ra) replied, ‘I swear by Allah, my only intention in saying this is so that people do not think that you saw the Messenger (sa) of Allah doing this. Have you not heard the Messenger (sa) of Allah say, “My Ummah will remain established on virtue – or perhaps he said that it will remain established on fitrah [pure disposition] – for as long as it does not delay offering the Maghrib prayer to the extent that the stars begin to shine.”’”

(Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 7, Musnad Abu Ayub Ansari, Hadith 23931 [Beirut, Lebanon: Alam al-Kutub, 1998], 773)

Thus, one ought to offer the Maghrib prayer in the earlier part of its prescribed time.

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Once, a legal matter involving Hazrat Ali (ra) was presented before a Muslim magistrate, who showed some leniency towards Hazrat Ali (ra). Upon this, Hazrat Ali (ra) stated, ‘This is the first act of injustice on your part by showing leniency to me. At this moment, me and the other party are equal.’”

(Khutbat-e-Mahmud, Vol. 16 p. 516)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has also written with regard to returning from the area where there was the outbreak of the plague of Amwas:

“When the battle took place in Syria and there was an outbreak of the plague, Hazrat Umar (ra) also travelled there, so that he could take advice from the people and make appropriate arrangements to protect the Muslim army. However, when the impact of the disease became even more intense, the companions submitted that it was not appropriate for Hazrat Umar (ra) to remain there and that he should return to Medina. When Hazrat Umar (ra) decided to return, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) stated:

أَفِرَارًا‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬قَدَرِ‭ ‬اللّٰهِ؟

“‘Are you running away from the decree of God?’

“Hazrat Umar (ra) immediately replied:

مِنْ‭ ‬قَدَرِ‭ ‬اللّٰهِ‭ ‬إلَى‭ ‬قَدَرِ‭ ‬اللّٰهِ‭ ‬نَعْم‭ ‬نَفِرُّ

“‘I am going from one divine decree to another.’

“In other words, it is wrong to abandon worldly measures and means. Indeed, the worldly measures and means should be adopted whilst keeping them subservient to one’s faith.”

(Allah Ta‘ala se sacha aur haqiqi ta‘alluq qa‘im karne mein hi hamari kamiyabi he, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 21, p. 104)

Hazrat Ali’s (ra) jurisprudential verdicts are well-known and I will relate some of those which Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has mentioned. Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Tabari has written about an incident from the era of Hazrat Ali (ra) which illustrates the great caution they took right from the inception of Islam. The incident is as follows; Adl bin Uthman relates…”

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has also included the entire Arabic text of this narration; however, I will leave the Arabic text out for now, but insha-Allah when the sermon is officially published, it will be included in that.

‭‬رَاَيْتُ‭ ‬عَلِيًّا‭ ‬عَمَّ‭ ‬خَارِجًا‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬هَمْدَانَ‭ ‬فَرَاَي‭ ‬فِئَتَيْنِ‭ ‬تَقْتُلَانِ‭ ‬فَفَرَّقَ‭ ‬بَيْنَهُمَا‭ ‬ثُمَّ‭ ‬مَضٰي‭ ‬فَسَمِعَ‭ ‬صَوْتًا‭ ‬يَاغَوْثًا‭ ‬بِاللّٰهِ‭ ‬فَخَرَجَ‭ ‬يَحُضُّ‭ ‬نَحْوَهٗ‭ ‬حَتّٰي‭ ‬سَمِعْتُ‭ ‬خَفْقَ‭ ‬نَعْلِهٖ‭ ‬وَهُوَ‭ ‬يَقُوْلُ‭ ‬اَتَاكَ‭ ‬الْغَوْثُ‭ ‬فَاِذَا‭ ‬رَجُلٌ‭ ‬يُلَازِمُ‭ ‬رَجُلًا‭ ‬فَقَالَ‭ ‬يَا‭ ‬اَمِيْرَ‭ ‬الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ‭ ‬بِعْتُ‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬هٰذَا‭ ‬ثَوْ‭ ‬بًا‭ ‬بِتِسْعَةِ‭ ‬دَرَاهِمَ‭ ‬وَشَرَطْتُ‭ ‬عَلَيْهِ‭ ‬اَنْ‭ ‬لَّا‭ ‬يُعْطِيَنِيْ‭ ‬مَغْمُوْرًا‭ ‬وَلَا‭ ‬مَقْطُوْعًا‭ ‬وَكَانَ‭ ‬شَرْطُهُمْ‭ ‬يَوْمَئِذٍ‭ ‬فَاَتَيْتُهٗ‭ ‬بِهٰذِهِ‭ ‬الدَّرَاهِمِ‭ ‬لِيُبَدِّلَهَا‭ ‬لِيْ‭ ‬فَاَبٰي‭ ‬فَلَزِمْتُهٗ‭ ‬فَلَطَمَنِيْ‭ ‬فَقَالَ‭ ‬اَبْدِلْهُ‭ ‬فَقَالَ‭ ‬بَيِّنَتُكَ‭ ‬عَلَي‭ ‬اللَّطْمَةِ‭ ‬فَاَتَاهُ‭ ‬بِالْبَيِّنَةِ‭ ‬فَاَقْعَدَهٗ‭ ‬ثُمَّ‭ ‬قَالَ‭ ‬دُوْنَكَ‭ ‬فَاقْتَصَّ‭ ‬فَقَالَ‭ ‬اِنِّيْ‭ ‬قَدْ‭ ‬عَفَوْتُ‭ ‬يَا‭ ‬اَمِيْرَ‭ ‬الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ‭ ‬قَالَ‭ ‬اِنَّمَا‭ ‬اَرَدْتُ‭ ‬اَنْ‭ ‬اَحْتَاطَهُ‭ ‬فِيْ‭ ‬حَقِّكَ‭ ‬ثُمَ‭ ‬ضَرَبَ‭ ‬الرَّجُلَ‭ ‬تِسْعَ‭ ‬دُراتٍ‭ ‬وَقَالَ‭ ‬هٰذَا‭ ‬حَقُّ‭ ‬السُّلْطَانِ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

The translation is:

“[Adl bin Uthman relates] that Hazrat Ali (ra) was staying outside of Hamdan when he saw two groups fighting against each other. Hazrat Ali (ra) reconciled the two groups and made peace between them; however, he had not gone too far, when he heard someone calling for help. Hazrat Ali (ra) ran so quickly towards him that his footsteps could be heard and he kept repeating, ‘Help is here, help is here’. As he approached closer, he saw that one of the men had grabbed hold of another man.

“Upon seeing Hazrat Ali (ra), he said, ‘O Leader of the Faithful, I sold him a piece of cloth for nine dirhams. However, the condition also was that none of the dirhams should be faulty or defective, which he, i.e. the buyer had agreed to. However, he gave me some defective dirhams and when I came to exchange these defective dirhams, he refused to do so. When I insisted, he slapped me.’ Hazrat Ali (ra) instructed the buyer to exchange the coins. He then asked the other individual to provide proof that he slapped him. When he presented the proof, Hazrat Ali (ra) told the one who slapped him to sit down and told the other individual to seek retribution. Upon this, he said, ‘O Leader of the Faithful, I forgive him.’ Hazrat Ali (ra) replied, ‘You may have forgiven him, but I wish to act with caution in relation to your rights.’”

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) further writes, “It seems that this individual was of a very simple disposition and was not fully aware of his loss and gains. And so, the one who had perpetrated the act of slapping him was whipped nine times as punishment. Hazrat Ali (ra) stated, ‘He may have forgiven you, but this punishment has been handed to you by the government.’”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 2, pp. 362-363)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has mentioned another incident:

“We find an excellent example of Hazrat Ali’s (ra) conduct from the following incident: Once, Hazrat Ali (ra) saw that someone had physically attacked another individual. Hazrat Ali (ra) stopped him and told the victim that he should now hit him back in retribution. However, he replied that he had forgiven him. Hazrat Ali (ra) realised that this individual was only refusing to do so out of fear of the other individual as the perpetrator of the act was very oppressive. Therefore, Hazrat Ali (ra) stated, ‘You have exercised your personal right and forgiven him; however, I will exercise my official right [as a leader].’ Hazrat Ali (ra) then handed him a punishment equal to that which he had committed against the weaker individual.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 4, p. 331)

In another narration, Ata bin Yazid narrates from Hamran, the freed slave of Hazrat Uthman (ra), who stated that once Hazrat Uthman (ra) bin Affan asked for a container to be brought to him. Hazrat Uthman (ra) then placed both hands inside and washed them with water three times. He then placed his right hand inside the container and rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose. He then washed his face and his arms up to his elbows three times. He then passed his hands over his head [Masah] and then washed his feet up to the ankles three times. Hazrat Uthman (ra) then said, “The Holy Prophet (sa) used to say, ‘Whosoever performed the ablution as I have done and then offered two rak‘aat [units] of prayer in a manner that was free from all distractions, then all the sins of that individual would be forgiven.’”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Wudu, Bab al-Wudu Thalatha Thalatha, Hadith 159)

Hazrat Zubair (ra) relates that once he had a dispute in the presence of the Holy Prophet (sa) with an Ansari companion who had taken part in the Battle of Badr, in regard to the tributary they both used to irrigate their fields with. Whilst resolving the matter, the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “Zubair, water your field and leave the rest of the water for your neighbour.” The Ansari companion was displeased with this response and said, “O Messenger of Allah (ra), you have issued this verdict only because he is your cousin.” Upon hearing this, the expression of the blessed countenance of the Holy Prophet (sa) changed and he said to Hazrat Zubair (ra), “Control the flow of water so it only irrigates up to your boundary edge [of the land].” Hence, the Holy Prophet (sa) granted Hazrat Zubair (ra) his full rights, whereas previously, the advice of the Holy Prophet (sa) was such that it allowed for both Hazrat Zubair (ra) and the Ansari companion to derive benefit. However, when the Ansari expressed his discontentment at the decision of the Holy Prophet (sa), he then issued the verdict according to what was the actual due right of Hazrat Zubair (ra).

Hazrat Zubair (ra) relates, “By God, my impression is that the following verse of the Holy Quran was revealed with regards to this incident:

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُواْ فِيٓ أَنفُسِهِمۡ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيۡتَ وَيُسَلِّمُواْ تَسۡلِيمًا

‘But no, by thy Lord, they are not believers until they make thee judge in all that is in dispute between them and then find not in their hearts any demur concerning that which thou decidest and submit with full submission.’”

(Surah al-Nisa, Ch.4: V.66) (Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 1, p. 453, Musnad Zubair bin al-Awwam, Hadith 1419, ‘Alam al-Kutub, Beirut, 1998)

Hazrat Zubair (ra) narrates that when the following verse was revealed:

ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمۡ تَخۡتَصِمُونَ

“Then surely on the Day of Resurrection you will dispute with one another before your Lord” (Surah al-Zumar, Ch.31: V.32), he asked, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah, does this refer to our worldly disputes?”, to which the Holy Prophet (sa) answered, “Yes”.

Then, when the following verse was revealed:

ثُمَّ لَتُسْـَٔلُنَّ یَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِیْمِ

“Then, on that day you shall be called to account about the [worldly] favours’ (Surah al-Takathur, Ch.102: V.9), Hazrat Zubair (ra) asked the Holy Prophet (sa), “Which bounties shall we be called to account for when we only possess water and dates?” The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, “Beware, the era of bounties and wealth is well-nigh. Today there may be this restraint, but God-willing, the time of abundance is to come.”

(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 1, p. 449, Musnad Zubair bin al-Awwam, Hadith 1419, ‘Alam al-Kutub, Beirut, 1998)

Abu Wasil narrates, “I once met Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (ra) and shook his hand and noticing that my nails were very long he said that the Holy Prophet (sa) once stated, ‘There are some among you who ask about heavenly matters and yet their nails are so long like the claws of a pigeon that impurity and filth begins to gather in it.’”

(Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 7, Musnad Abu Ayub Ansari, Hadith 23938 [Beirut, Lebanon: Alam al-Kutub, 1998], 775)

In other words, they would ask highly intellectual question and yet their condition was such that their nails were extremely long. Since filth begins to gather in them, therefore one should cut their nails. This is a narration from Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal.

Hazrat Abu Hurairah (ra) reported that when the Messenger (sa) of Allah returned from the expedition of Khaybar, he walked all night and only stopped in order to sleep. The Holy Prophet (sa) told Bilal (ra) to keep note of the time for the prayer during the night. This meant that he should be mindful of the prayer time and wake him up for the Fajr prayer. Thereafter, Hazrat Bilal (ra) offered his nawafil [voluntary] prayers as much as Allah had decreed for him that night, while the Messenger (sa) of Allah and his companions slept. When the time for the Fajr prayer drew close, Bilal (ra) turned towards the direction from which the sun would rise and sat down. Since he was leaning against his camel, he was overcome by sleep. Neither Bilal (ra), nor anyone else from among the companions woke up, until sunrise. Allah’s Messenger (sa) was the first of them to wake up and in a tone of concern said, “O Bilal! O Bilal!” Bilal (ra) replied, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! I was overcome by the same state as you were,” i.e., he was also overcome by sleep.

The Holy Prophet (sa) then ordered for them to depart and travelled a short distance on their mounts. The Messenger (sa) of Allah then stopped them after a short distance and performed ablution, then gave orders to Bilal (ra) who recited the iqamah and the Holy Prophet (sa). and then led them all in the morning prayer after the sun had risen. When he finished the prayer, he said, “When anyone forgets to offer a prayer, he should pray [the missed prayer] as soon as he remembers it, for Allah the Almighty has said: ‘And observe Prayer for My remembrance.’”

(Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab al-Salat, Bab man naama ‘an al-Salat wa nasiyaha, Hadith 697)

Although howling and shrieking over a departed one is forbidden, but the Holy Prophet (sa) permitted it in this instance, or perhaps having witnessed the emotions of the people, he expressed his wish for them to also express their emotions for Hazrat Hamza (ra). But in any case, howling and shrieking over the dead is forbidden in Islam and the Holy Prophet (sa) himself forbade it.

Hazrat Anas bin Malik (ra) relates that the Holy Prophet (sa) permitted Hazrat Zubair bin al-Awwam (ra) to a wear a silk shirt during one battle as he was suffering from irritable skin condition.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Jihad wa al-Siyar, Bab al-Harir fi al-Harb, Hadith 2919)

On one occasion, Hazrat Umar (ra) decided to prohibit people from wearing cloaks from Heera, which was an area three miles from Kufa towards Najaf. The reason was that urine was added in order to dye the cloth or perhaps they would add animal urine in order to fade the cloth. Hazrat Ubayy (ra) said, “You are not authorised to sanction this because the Holy Prophet (sa) himself wore clothes of this colour and wore cloaks from there, thus we also wore it during the life of the Holy Prophet (sa) and there were no issues.” Upon hearing this, Hazrat Umar (ra) remained silent and said that Hazrat Ubayy (ra) was correct.

(Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 3 [Karachi, Pakistan: Dar al-Ishaah Urdu Bazar, 2004] 156) (Yaqut Ibn Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu‘jam al-Buldan, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi] 328) (Fiqh-e-Ahmadiyyah, Vol. 1, pp. 335-336)

The house belonging to the Holy Prophet’s (sa) paternal uncle, Hazrat Abbas (ra) was attached to one side of Masjid-e-Nabwi. Hazrat Umar (ra) wanted to extend the area of the mosque and asked Hazrat Abbas (ra) if he would sell his house so that he could include that area as part of the mosque. Hazrat Abbas (ra) stated that this was not possible.

Hazrat Umar (ra) then asked if he could gift it and again Hazrat Abbas (ra) refused to do so as he was would usually do things in his own way. Hazrat Umar (ra) then asked if he himself would then extend the mosque and this would be a great act for the benefit of the ummah if he was to extend the mosque and include his house as part of it. Hazrat Abbas (ra) replied that this was also not possible. He did not agree to this either.

Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “You will have to accept one of these three options.” Hazrat Abbas (ra) replied, “I agree to none of these options.”

Thus, as the matter remained unresolved, both of them appointed Hazrat Ubayy (ra) bin Kaab as an arbitrator. Hazrat Ubayy (ra) said to Hazrat Umar (ra), “What right do you have to take something that he is not content on giving?” and then said, “You cannot take it from him.”

Hazrat Umar (ra) asked Hazrat Ubayy (ra) whether he based his decision on the Holy Quran or a Hadith. Hazrat Ubayy (ra) stated that he based it on a hadith and then stated that when Prophet Solomanas constructed [the temple] in Jerusalem, one of the walls that was built on someone else’s land fell down. Prophet Solomonas received a revelation stating that he should seek permission from the owner before constructing on the land.

Upon hearing this, Hazrat Umar (ra) fell silent. However, Hazrat Abbas (ra) was loyal and sincere and had pledged allegiance to Khilafat and he was overcome with this passion. Although he initially refused, he had, however, a pious and virtuous disposition. He had great honour for the faith and respect for Khilafat which he demonstrated. When Hazrat Umar (ra) agreed to the decision and fell silent, Hazrat Abbas (ra) then said to Hazrat Umar (ra), “Very well, I will include my home as part of the mosque.”

(Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 3 [Karachi, Pakistan: Dar al-Ishaah Urdu Bazar, 2004] 155)

Samurah bin Jundub (ra) was an eminent companion of the Holy Prophet (sa). After reciting the takbir [“Allahu Akbar” at the start of prayer] he would pause for a while before reciting a portion [of the Quran]. After reciting “Allahu Akbar”, he would remain silent for a period of time before reciting Surah al-Fatihah. Some people complained about this.

He wrote to Hazrat Ubayy (ra) bin Kaab for him to shed light on this matter. Hazrat Ubayy (ra) wrote a concise reply saying, “Your conduct is in line with the Shariah, therefore there is no harm if you pause. Those who raise allegations against this are in the wrong.”

(Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 3 [Karachi, Pakistan: Dar al-Ishaah Urdu Bazar, 2004] 154.)

Hazrat Anas (ra) bin Malik relates that he was presenting alcohol made from dates to Hazrat Abu Talha Ansari (ra), Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) bin al-Jarrah and Hazrat Ubayy (ra) bin Ka’b, when someone arrived and informed them that alcohol had been declared forbidden. Upon hearing this, Hazrat Abu Talha (ra) stated, “O Anas! Break these pots!” Hazrat Anas (ra) states that he hit the bottom of the pots with a stone and smashed them all.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Akhbar al-Ihaad, Bab Ma Jaa’a fi Ijaazati Khabr al-Wahid al-Sudooq fil Adhan, Hadith 7253)

Abdullah bin Mas‘ud once went to see his friend, Abu Umair. However, he was not at home. So he conveyed his greetings to his wife and requested some water to drink. There was no water available in the house so she sent a female servant to bring water from the neighbours, but she did not return till very late. Umar’s wife scolded their female servant saying she was extremely lazy and cursed her. Having heard her, Hazrat Abdullah returned home thirsty. The following day he met Abu Umair and he asked him why he returned home so quickly without drinking water. He answered, “When your wife cursed the servant, the saying of the Holy Prophet (sa) came to mind that whoever is cursed but is innocent, the curse is reverted to the one who cursed. So I thought that if the servant was innocent then the curse would revert to me without cause.”

(Sira Al-Sahaba, Vol. 2, p. 223, Dar-ul-Isha‘at, Karachi)

Therefore, it is better to go without drinking. So this was the level of fear of God these people possessed that if there was even a remotest chance of God Almighty being upset with them for any reason, they would abstain and stay away from it.

When he was martyred on the day of Uhud, the father of Hazrat Khansaa settled her nikah to a person from the tribe of Muzaina. However, she did not like him and came to the Holy Prophet (sa). The Holy Prophet (sa) annulled the nikah of Hazrat Khansaa. The father had settled her nikah, but the Holy Prophet (sa) annulled the nikah since she was not happy with him. After this, Hazrat Khansaa married Hazrat Abu Lubabah and through this marriage Hazrat Sa‘ib bin Abi Lubabah was born.

(Usdul Ghaba Fi Marifati Al-Sahaba, Vol. 1, p. 187, Qatadah bin Rabi’ah, Dar-ul-Fikr, Beirut, 2003), (Al-Tabkaat-ul-Qubra Li-ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 354, Unais bin Qatadah, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-ilmiyya, Beirut, 1990)

Humran bin Aban states, “Once Hazrat Uthman (ra) bin Affan asked for water to be brought for ablution. He rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose with the water. He then washed his face three times, washed his arms three times and performed masah over his head and feet, after which he laughed. He then asked his companions, ‘Will you not ask the reason why I laughed?’ They asked, ‘O Leader of the Faithful! Why did you laugh?’ Hazrat Uthman (ra) stated, ‘I saw the Holy Prophet (sa) when he was near this place; he asked for water to be brought and performed the ablution in the same manner as I just did. He then laughed, and then asked his companions, “Will you not enquire as to the reason why I laughed?” We said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Why did you laugh?” The Holy Prophet (sa) said, “When a person requests for water and then washes their face, Allah the Almighty forgives all the sins committed by their face. Then when they wash their arms, the same happens, i.e. sins are forgiven, the same is the case when they perform masah over their head and similar is the case for when they wash their feet.”’”

(Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 1, Musnad Uthman (ra) bin Affan, Hadith 415[Beirut, Lebanon: A‘lam al-Kutub, 1998], 201.)

In actuality, this narration should have been mentioned alongside the previous narration regarding ablution. Nonetheless, it has been narrated here.

Abdur Rahman bin Uthman states, “On one occasion, we were with Hazrat Talha (ra) bin Ubaidullah in a state of Ihram [the intention to perform Umrah or Hajj]. One person brought a bird and presented it as an offering. At the time, Hazrat Talha (ra) was resting. Some of us ate from it, while others abstained from eating it. When Hazrat Talha (ra) woke up he agreed with the action of those who ate the offering and said, ‘We also ate the offerings that were hunted by others whilst in the company of the Holy Prophet (sa).’”

(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 3, p. 7, Musnad Abu Muhammad Talha bin Ubaidillah, Hadith 1383, Mu‘assisatul Risalah, 2001)

Aslam, the freed slave of Hazrat Umar (ra) narrates, “Hazrat Umar (ra) saw Hazrat Talha (ra) bin Ubaidullah wearing two garments that had been dyed using clay, despite the fact that he was in a state of Ihraam. Hazrat Umar (ra) asked, ‘O Talha! What is the meaning of these clothes?’ (since he had dyed his clothes). He replied, ‘O Amir-ul-Momineen [Leader of the believers]! I have dyed them in clay.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) replied, ‘O ye Companions! You all are leaders and people will follow your conduct. If an ignorant one sees you wearing these clothes, he will say that Talha (ra) wears coloured clothes in a state of Ihram.’” i.e regardless of whichever colour was used, people could raise an allegation that instead of wearing white clothes, he wore clothes that were coloured. In another narration, the following words are found in addition to the aforementioned Hadith that Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, “The best clothes to wear in a state of Ihram are white, therefore do not place other people in doubt regarding this matter.”

Hazrat Umar (ra) narrates that he once asked the people about the blood money in the case of an abortion. Mughira stated that the Holy Prophet (sa) had said one should free a male or female slave as blood money. Hazrat Umar (ra) then said to bring someone who would corroborate this matter he had just mentioned. Muhammad bin Maslamah confirmed that he was in the presence of the Holy Prophet (sa) and that indeed is what had been said by the Holy Prophet (sa).

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Diyat, Bab Junain al-Mar‘ah, Riwayat No. 6905-6906)

That is, if one is guilty of oppression or cruelty which leads to a miscarriage or if one forces a woman to have an abortion, then that person must give blood money. Whosoever has committed this injustice has to pay the blood money which is to free a male or female slave.

With regard to the plague of Amwas and how concerned Hazrat Umar (ra) was to protect the lives of others, it is mentioned that there is a valley called Amwas which is situated at a distance of six miles from Ramla towards the direction of Baitul Maqdas.

According to the books of history, it was named the Plague of Amwas because the outbreak of the plague started from here and spread throughout Syria. Countless deaths occurred in Syria as a result of this plague; according to some, there were around 25,000 deaths.

On 17 AH, Hazrat Umar (ra) departed from Medina for Syria and reached Sargh where he met the commander of the armies. Sargh is the name of a village near the valley of Tabuk, which is situated near the borders of Syria and Hijaz. Here, Hazrat Umar (ra) was informed that there was an outbreak of the plague in Amwas and upon seeking consultation, Hazrat Umar (ra) returned. The details of this incident have been recorded in Bukhari as follows:

(With reference to another account, this incident has been mentioned previously as well.)

Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas (ra) relates that when Hazrat Umar (ra) reached Sargh, he met the commander of the armies, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) and his fellow companions. They informed Hazrat Umar (ra) that there was an outbreak of a plague in Syria. In order to seek counsel on the matter, Hazrat Umar (ra) first and foremost invited the Muhajirin to present their suggestions. However, there was a difference of opinion amongst the Muhajirin. Some of them were of the opinion that they should continue on with their journey and not turn back, whilst the others suggested that the noble Companions of the Holy Prophet (sa) were present in the army and therefore it was not appropriate for them to be taken into an area where there was a plague and it was better to return. Hazrat Umar (ra) then told the Muhajirin to leave and invited the Ansar to present their suggestions. Just like the Muhajirin, the Ansar also had a difference of opinion. Hazrat Umar (ra) then invited the elders of the Quraish, who had accepted Islam at the occasion of the conquest of Mecca and then came and settled in Medina. All of them unanimously expressed their opinion of taking everyone back and that there was no need to enter an area where there was an outbreak of the plague. Accepting their suggestion, Hazrat Umar (ra) announced to return.

Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) then asked whether it was possible for one to escape from what Allah had decreed. Replying to Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, “O Abu Ubaidah (ra)! I wish it was someone else who had uttered what you have just said. Indeed, we are moving away from one decree of God to another decree. If you had some camels and you reached a valley which had two sides – one was a lush green area, while the other was a dry and barren land – would it not be in accordance with the decree of God if you were to take your camels to graze in the area with lots of vegetation and on the other hand, would it not also be according to the decree of God if you decided to take them to the dry and barren land?”

The narrator of the tradition states that in the meanwhile, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf came, who was not present earlier owing to some other work he was engaged in. Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf submitted, “I have the answer to this issue. I once heard the Holy Prophet (sa) say that if one learns about the outbreak of a disease in a certain area, they should not travel there. And if the disease has emerged in an area which one resides in, then they should not leave the area in order to escape from it.”

Upon hearing this, Hazrat Umar (ra) expressed his gratitude to Allah the Almighty and returned from there.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab ma Yudhkaru fi al-Ta‘un, Hadith 5729) (Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1990], pp. 213-215) (Yaqut Ibn Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu‘jam al-Buldan, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah], p. 239)

Hazrat Umar (ra) had arrived there from Medina and had not yet entered the land where there was an outbreak of the plague. Hence, he returned along with his companions. However, since Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) was the commander of the Muslim army and was already in the land where the outbreak of the plague had taken place, therefore he and the rest of the Muslim army remained in the area where there was an outbreak of the plague.

It is narrated by Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas (ra) that when Hazrat Umar (ra) left for Syria, he stopped at Saragh. Saragh is the name of an inhabited area near the valley of Tabuk, which is situated near the borders of Hijaz and Syria and was at a distance of 13 days of travel from Medina. In other words, to reach there from Medina, it would take 13 days of continuous travel by modes of transport that were used in those days.

When Hazrat Umar (ra) reached this area, he met the commander of the armies, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) bin al-Jarrah and his fellow companions. This incident took place in 18 AH, during the Khilafat of Hazrat Umar (ra) after the conquest of Syria. They informed Hazrat Umar (ra) that there was an outbreak of a plague in Syria. Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) narrates that Hazrat Umar (ra) asked for the early Muhajireen to come and take their suggestions. Hazrat Umar (ra) consulted with them, however there was a difference of opinions amongst the Muhajireen.

Some of them were of the opinion that they should continue on with their journey and not turn back, whilst the others suggested that the noble Companions of the Holy Prophet (sa) were present in the army and therefore, it was not appropriate for them to be taken into an area where there was a plague and it was better to return.

Hazrat Umar (ra) then told the Muhajireen to leave and invited the Ansar to present their suggestions. Just like the Muhajireen, the Ansar also had a difference of opinions, in other words, some suggested to return and others were of the opinion to continue going ahead.

Hazrat Umar (ra) then invited the elders of the Quraish, who had accepted Islam at the occasion of the conquest of Mecca and came to Medina. All of them unanimously expressed their opinion of taking everyone back and that there was no need to enter an area where there was an outbreak of the plague. Accepting their suggestion, Hazrat Umar (ra) announced to return.

Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) bin al-Jarrah then asked that was it possible for one to escape from what God has decreed. Were they returning out of fear of the plague because this was God’s decree and one cannot escape from that. Replying to Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, “O Abu Ubaidah (ra)! I wish it was someone else who would have uttered what you have said. Indeed, we are moving away from one decree of God to another.”

Explaining what destiny is, Hazrat Umar (ra) further stated and gave the following example: “Say you have some camels and you reach a valley which has two sides; one is a lush green area full of vegetation, while the other is a dry and barren land. Now, would it not be in accordance with the decree of God if you were to take your camels to graze in the area with lots of vegetation, and on the other hand, it will also be according to the decree of God if you decided to take them to the dry and barren land. Thus, the decree of God has presented you with two options”, i.e. a lush green area and the other a dry and barren land except for a few bushes or very little grass. “You cannot say that the vegetation has grown due to its own decree and the dry and barren land is owing to the decree of God. In fact, both are due to the decree of God and you must now decide which option you take and it is obvious that you will take the option of the land which has vegetation.”

The narrator of this tradition states that when Hazrat Umar (ra) had said all of this, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf came, who was not present before owing to some other work he was engaged in. Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf submitted, “Since you are asking for suggestions, I have the answer to this issue. I once heard the Holy Prophet (sa) say that if one learns about the outbreak of a disease in a certain area, they should not travel there. And if the disease has emerged in an area which one resides in, then they shouldn’t leave the area in order to escape from it.”

Thus, one should not travel to an area where there is an outbreak of disease and if one lives in an area where the disease has developed, then they should not leave from there, so that the disease does not spread further to other people.

We are also observing this currently as well that those countries which implemented the lockdown in time were able to contain the disease to a large degree. However, those who failed to do so and showed negligence, the disease continues to spread. In any case, the Holy Prophet (sa) taught this fundamental principle to his companions right from the beginning.

Upon hearing this [i.e. from Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf], Hazrat Umar (ra) praised Allah the Almighty and returned from there.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab Ma Yudhkaru fi al-Ta‘un, Hadith 5729)

There is a narration with regard to equality; Saeed bin Musayyib relates that a Jew and a Muslim came to Hazrat Umar (ra) with their dispute. Hazrat Umar (ra) thought that the Jew was in the right, and passed the verdict in his favour. The Jew then said, “By God, you have made the correct decision.”

(Al-Muwatta, Imam Malik, Kitab-ul-Aqziya, narration no. 1425, Dar-ul-Fikr, 2002)

Hazrat Anas (ra) narrates that a person from Egypt came to Hazrat Umar (ra) and said, “O Leader of the Faithful! I seek refuge with you from injustice.” Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “You have chosen an excellent place of refuge.” The man said, “I had a race with the son of Amr bin al-Aas in which I overtook him. Upon this, he lashed me saying, ‘I am the son of an esteemed person, how dare you overtake me?’” Upon hearing this, Hazrat Umar (ra) wrote a letter to Hazrat Amr (ra) bin al-Aas and summoned him along with his son. When Hazrat Amr (ra) bin al-Aas arrived, Hazrat Umar (ra) asked for the Egyptian man and told him to take the whip and lash the son of Hazrat Amr (ra) bin al-Aas. Thus, the Egyptian man began lashing Hazrat Amr (ra) bin al-Aas’ son, while Hazrat Umar (ra) was saying “Strike the son of the esteemed person”.

Hazrat Anas (ra) further relates, “We were all pleased to see that he was hitting him, but he continued hitting him so much, that we wished he would stop. Then, Hazrat Umar (ra) told the Egyptian man to strike Amr (ra) bin al-Aas on the head. The Egyptian man said, ‘O Leader of the Faithful! His son hit me and I have taken retribution.’ Upon this, Hazrat Umar (ra) said to Hazrat Amr bin al-Aas, ‘Since when have you started to enslave the people, whereas they were born free?’ Hazrat Amr (ra) bin al-Aas submitted, “O Leader of the Faithful! I had no knowledge of this incident, nor did this Egyptian man come to me.’”

(Kanzul Ummal, Kitab-ul-Fazail, Vol. 6, narration no. 36005, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut)

Once, Hazrat Umar (ra) came in the possession of some wealth and he began distributing it among the people. People were crowded around, and Hazrat Saad (ra) bin Abi Waqas began cutting in front of the people moving forward and reached Hazrat Umar (ra). Hazrat Umar (ra) struck him with his whip and said, “You did not fear Allah’s authority on earth, and you cleaved through the crowd of people to reach the front. Thus, I thought I should inform you that Allah’s authority does not fear you either.”

(Sirat Umar bin al-Khattab, Ali Muhammad al-Sallabi, p. 97, Dar-ul-Ma’rifah Beirut)

Hazrat Aisha (ra) relates that the Holy Prophet (sa) said whenever Ammar (ra) had to decide between two matters, he would always adopt the wiser option.

(Sunan Ibn Maaja, Kitaab Fi Fazail Ashaab-ul-Rasool – Fazl Ammar bin Yasir, Hadith 148)

Hazrat Ubayy (ra) would also provide guidance from the Holy Quran in relation to jurisprudential matters. Once, a lady came to the Hazrat Umar (ra) and stated that her husband had passed away while she was expecting and had now given birth.

At the time of his demise, she was expecting but now she had given birth but the period of her iddat had not been completed yet. Iddat is a period of four months and 10 days, which a wife must observe after the demise of her husband.

She was still observing this period when she gave birth. Therefore, she asked whether she should still complete the full period of the iddat or was that enough.

Hazrat Umar (ra) instructed that she should continue to observe the full period of the iddat that had been prescribed for a widow.

She then went to Hazrat Ubayy (ra) and enquired about the matter from him as well. She told him about the matter she had presented before Hazrat Umar (ra) and also the verdict he had given.

Hazrat Ubayy (ra) told her to go to Hazrat Umar (ra) and tell him that Ubayy states that she no longer needed to observe the remaining period of the iddat. He also told her that if Hazrat Umar (ra) enquired about him, she should tell him where he was and should come and call for him. The lady went to Hazrat Umar (ra) and so he asked her to call Hazrat Ubayy (ra). Hazrat Ubayy (ra) came and Hazrat Umar (ra) asked how he had come to this verdict. Hazrat Ubayy (ra) replied that he based it on the Holy Quran and then quoted the following verse:

وَاُولَاتُ‭ ‬الْاَحْمَالِ‭ ‬اَجَلُهُنَّ‭ ‬اَنْ‭ ‬يَّضَعْنَ‭ ‬حَمْلَهُنَّ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“And [as for those] who are with child, their period shall be until they are delivered of their burden.”

Hazrat Ubayy (ra) then stated that any lady who was expecting and was widowed would also be counted among them. Hazrat Ubayy (ra) stated that he had also heard a hadith of the Holy Prophet (sa) regarding this matter as well. Hazrat Umar (ra) then told the lady that she should act in accordance to what Hazrat Ubayy (ra) had said, in other words what he had said was correct.

During the Khilafat of Hazrat Umar (ra), on one occasion, a disagreement arose between Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Ubayy (ra) over an orchard. Hazrat Ubayy (ra) began to weep and said, “Am I to witness all this in your era?” Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “This was not my intention. You are free to obtain a verdict from any Muslim. As there is a disagreement between us, I will not pass the verdict. You are free to obtain a verdict from anyone else, as I believe that I am in the right.”

Hazrat Ubayy (ra) appointed Zaid bin Thabit as the arbitrator to which Hazrat Umar (ra) agreed. The matter was presented before Hazrat Zaid (ra). Although Hazrat Umar (ra) was the Islamic Khalifa, yet he came before Hazrat Zaid (ra) as one of the two parties.

Hazrat Umar (ra) rejected the view held by Hazrat Ubayy (ra) [in regard to the orchard]. Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “You seem to have forgotten. Think about it and try to recall.” Hazrat Ubayy (ra) thought about it for a short while and said that he could not recall anything.

Hazrat Umar (ra) then gave details about the entire incident saying that such and such took place. Hazrat Zaid (ra) asked Hazrat Ubayy (ra) what proof he had about his demand. He replied that he did not have any proof.

He said, “I do not have any proof at this point, but do not take an oath from Amir-ul-Momineen.” He said that he did not have any proof but he should not take an oath from Amir-ul-Momineen. Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, “If it is necessary for me to take an oath then I have no hesitation in taking an oath.” Nevertheless, a decision was made regarding the matter.

(Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 3 [Karachi, Pakistan: Dar al-Ishaah Urdu Bazar, 2004] 145-146)

Hazrat Ali (ra) states, “The Holy Prophet (sa) appointed me as a qazi [judge] and sent me to Yemen. I said to the Holy Prophet (sa), ‘You are sending me [to Yemen] but I am young and do not know anything about matters of arbitration.’ To this the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, ‘Allah will certainly guide your heart and bless your words. Whenever two people are sat before you who are involved in a dispute, do not issue your verdict until you listen to both of their accounts. This will make it easy for you to make your decision.’” Hazrat Ali (ra) states that after this, he never faced any difficulty in making a decision.

(Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab al-Aqdiyah, Bab Kaif al-Qada, Hadith 3582)

Amwas is a name of a valley which is six miles from Ramla in the direction of Jerusalem. According to the books of history, it was named as the Plague of Amwas because the outbreak of the plague started from here. Countless deaths occurred in Syria as a result of this plague; according to some there were around 25,000 deaths. The details of this incident are found in a narration of Bukhari.

Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas (ra) relates that when Hazrat Umar (ra) reached Saragh (Saragh is the name of a village near the valley of Tabuk, which is situated near the borders of Syria and Hijaz and was at distance of approximately 13 days of travel from Medina. In old historical sources [the distances] were given like this; however, it equates to approximately 1,000 miles), he met the commander of the armies, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) and his fellow companions. They informed Hazrat Umar (ra) that there was an outbreak of a plague in Syria. In order to seek counsel on the matter, Hazrat Umar (ra) first and foremost invited the Muhajireen to present their suggestions. However, there was a difference of opinion amongst the Muhajireen. Some of them were of the opinion that they should continue on with their journey and not turn back, whilst the others suggested that the noble Companions of the Holy Prophet (sa) were present in the army and therefore it was not appropriate for them to be taken into an area where there was a plague and it was better to return. Hazrat Umar (ra) then told the Muhajireen to leave and invited the Ansar to present their suggestions. Just like the Muhajireen, the Ansar also had a difference of opinion. Hazrat Umar (ra) then invited the elders of the Quraish, who had accepted Islam at the occasion of the conquest of Mecca and then came and settled in Medina. All of them unanimously expressed their opinion of taking everyone back and that there was no need to enter an area where there was an outbreak of the plague. Accepting their suggestion, Hazrat Umar (ra) announced to return.

Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) then asked whether it was possible for one to escape from what God had decreed. Replying to Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, “O Abu Ubaidah (ra)! I wish it was someone else who had uttered what you have just said. Indeed, we are moving away from one decree of God to another” (They were moving away from one decree towards another decree of God).

Hazrat Umar (ra) further stated, “Say you have some camels and you reach a valley which has two sides; one is a lush green area full of vegetation, while the other is a dry and barren land. Now, would it not be in accordance to the decree of God if you were to take your camels to graze in the area with lots of vegetation and on the other hand, would it not also be according to the decree of God if you decided to take them to the dry and barren land?”

The narrator of the tradition states that in the meanwhile, Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) came, who was not present earlier owing to some other work he was engaged in. Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) submitted, “I have the answer to this issue. I once heard the Holy Prophet (sa) say that if one learns about the outbreak of a disease in a certain area, they should not travel there. And if the disease has emerged in an area which one resides in, then they shouldn’t leave the area in order to escape from it.” Upon hearing this, Hazrat Umar (ra) expressed his gratitude to Allah the Almighty and returned from there.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab ma Yudhkaru fi al-Ta‘un, Hadith 5729) (Yaqut Ibn Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu‘jam al-Buldan, Vol. 4 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah] 1771-178) (Yaqut Ibn Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu‘jam al-Buldan, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah] 239)

In regard to the Plague of Amwas, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) states:

“When Hazrat Umar (ra) travelled to Syria, he was welcomed by Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) and the Muslim army. At the time, the plague there, which is known as the Plague of Amwas, became widespread and the Companions suggested that since there was an outbreak of a plague, therefore he should return. Accepting their suggestion, Hazrat Umar (ra) made the decision to return. When Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra), who would tend to accept things as they were, came to learn of this decision, he stated:

أَ تَفِرُّ مِنَ الْقَضَاءِ

“‘Are you running away from the decree of God?’

“Hazrat Umar(ra) replied:

أَ فِرُّ مِنْ قَضَاءِ اللّٰہِ اِلٰی قَدَرِ اللّٰہِ

“‘I am going from one Divine decree to another.’

“In other words, there are two types of Divine decrees; one is specific and the other is of a general nature, both decrees are divinely decreed. Thus, Hazrat Umar (ra) stated that he was not running from the decree of God; rather he was going from one divine decree to another. It is mentioned in historical accounts that when Hazrat Umar (ra) learnt of the outbreak of the plague, he gathered people in order to seek counsel from them and asked what the people of Syria did when there was an outbreak of the plague as this was a common occurrence in the area. They told him that when the plague spreads, people disperse here and there which subsequently weakens its impact.” In other words, they would move to open areas instead of staying in the city.

“In relation to this suggestion, Hazrat Umar (ra) stated that God Almighty had established a general law, i.e. one who leaves an area where there is an outbreak of plague and travels to an open area is saved. Thus, since this was also in accordance with the divine law, therefore he was not violating any law of God, rather he was moving from one decree to another. That is, he was moving from a specific law to a general law of God Almighty. Hazrat Umar (ra) stated that thus, it could not be said that he was running away from the divine decree, rather he was moving from one law of God to another.

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 5, pp. 170-171)

Although Hazrat Umar (ra) returned to Medina; however, he was extremely concerned as the plague was continuing to spread. One day, Hazrat Umar (ra) wrote a letter to Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) stating that he required some important work from him; therefore upon receiving the letter, he should return to Medina immediately. Furthermore, Hazrat Umar (ra) stated that if he received this letter at night, he should not wait for the morning, and if he received the letter in the morning, he should not wait for night to fall.

When Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) read the letter, he said, “I know the reason why the Leader of the Faithful needs me. May Allah bestow His mercy upon Hazrat Umar (ra) for he wishes to extend the life of that which is no longer going to remain.” In other words, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) understood why Hazrat Umar (ra) was concerned. In reply to the letter, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) stated, “O Leader of the Faithful! After reading the letter, I have understood what you desire, but please do not call me back and allow me to remain here. I am one of the soldiers from among the Muslim army. Whatever has been decreed will come to pass, but how can I abandon them.”

When Hazrat Umar (ra) read the letter, he began to cry. At the time, Hazrat Umar (ra) was sitting amongst the Muhajireen and they submitted, “O Leader of the Faithful! Has Abu Ubaidah (ra) passed away?” Hazrat Umar (ra) replied, “No, but there is a possibility that he may.”

(Siyar A‘lam al-Nubala li Imam al-Dhahabi, Vol. 1, pp. 18-19, Abu Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah, Mu‘assisat al-Risalah, Beirut, Lebanon, 1996)

Hazrat Umar (ra) wrote another letter to Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) and instructed him to take the Muslims out of that area to an area more conducive to their health. Whenever any Muslim soldier would pass away and attain the status of martyrdom as a result of dying from the plague, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) would cry and pray to Allah to grant him martyrdom. According to one narration, it states that at the time, he would pray as follows, “O Allah, is there no share in this for Abu Ubaidah to partake?” i.e. to attain martyrdom.

One day, a small boil developed on Hazrat Abu Ubaidah’s (ra) finger and he prayed, “I hope that Allah shall bestow His blessings through this small affliction. When something is filled with blessings, even if it is small, it becomes immense.”

Irbad bin Saariya relates, “When Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) fell ill as a result of the plague, I went to Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) and he stated to me, ‘I have heard the Messenger (sa) of Allah say that one who dies as a result of the plague is a martyr; one who dies from illness of the stomach is a martyr; one who dies as a result of drowning is a martyr; one who dies as a result of being crushed under a roof that falls through is also a martyr.’”

As I mentioned previously, an account in relation to the importance of paying off debts is narrated by Hazrat Jabir. Once, a companion passed away in a state whilst he was in debt of two Dinar and the Holy Prophet (sa) refused to personally offer his funeral prayer. Upon hearing this, another companion took the responsibility of paying off his debt, as a result of which the Holy Prophet (sa) led his funeral prayer. The following day, the Holy Prophet (sa) enquired from the companion who took this responsibility upon himself whether or not he had paid off the debt of two Dinar.

(Masnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 5, pp. 104-105).

Thus, this is the importance of paying off debts and the concern one should show in this regard.

There is another narration by Hazrat Jabir in which the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “Whatever a believer leaves in terms of wealth and property, it is inherited by his family and relatives. Moreover, if he leaves behind a debt and his property and the wealth he leaves behind are not sufficient in order to pay off the debt, or in the case that he leaves behind children without any means of support, his orphaned children and the payment of the debt will be taken care of.”

(Sahih Muslim, Kitabul Jumuah, Hadith No. 2005)

In other words, the government and those in authority will take the responsibility for this. The upbringing of orphans and making arrangements for their expenditures have greatly been emphasised in the Holy Quran. Hence, for this very reason the Holy Prophet (sa) said that this is the responsibility of the government.

It seems as if these are two separate narrations. On the one hand, the Holy Prophet (sa) refused to offer the funeral prayer of a person who was in debt of two Dinars but on the other hand, he said that it is the responsibility of the government. These are referring to two different occasions. The first incident highlights the importance of debts to those that take loans unnecessarily and also urges their relatives and those left behind to take the responsibility of paying off their debts.

In the second account, the Muslim government has been made responsible for the upbringing of orphaned children and if the property left behind by the deceased person does not suffice in order to pay off the loan, the government should take the responsibility for its payment.

This is the guidance by the Holy Prophet (sa) as to how Muslim governments, should care for its citizens. It is a great misfortune that within Muslim countries, the rights of their citizens are mostly usurped.

On the return from the expedition of Bani Mustaliq, an incident occurred which has been narrated in Sahih Muslim. Hazrat Jabir (ra) bin Abdillah narrates:

“We were with the Holy Prophet (sa) during an expedition”, i.e. the expedition of Bani Mustaliq, “when someone from among the Muhajireen struck an individual from among the Ansar on his back. The man from the Ansar called out to the Ansar and the muhajir man called out to the Muhajireen”, i.e. both called out for help from their people. “This news reached the Holy Prophet (sa) and when he heard the commotion he said, ‘What is this cry of the Jahiliyya period?’ They said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! A man from the Muhajireen struck a man from the Ansar on his back.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Leave that, for it is a senseless act’”, i.e. to quarrel over the smallest of matters is futile. “When Abdullah bin Ubayy, who was present there at the time, heard this, he said, ‘He may have done this, i.e. a muhajir may have hit a man from the Ansar, even if it was a slap, but by Allah, if we return to Medina, then certainly the most honourable (God-forbid) would throw out the most wretched.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) submitted, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Grant me permission to sever the head of this hypocrite.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Leave him. I do not wish for people to say that Muhammad kills his companions.’”

(Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Birr wa al-Silah, Bab Nasr al-Akh Zaliman aw Mazluma, Hadith 2583)

The details of this incident are mentioned in Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin [The Life and Character of the Seal of the Prophets] – I will leave this as it has already been mentioned previously.

Nonetheless, in Sirat Ibn Hisham, it is mentioned that in his final days, whenever Abdullah bin Ubayy would say such things, his people would label him to be extremely indolent. When the Holy Prophet (sa) learnt of his condition, he said to Hazrat Umar (ra), “O Umar! The day you asked me permission to kill him, had I granted you permission, people would have scorned and curled their lips. But now, if I command these very people to kill, who would have previously shown contempt, they would readily do it now. However, due to our patience and now that his matter has come to light, those very people who supported him previously, have turned against him and can even go to the extent of killing him.” Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “By Allah! I now know that the verdict of the Holy Prophet (sa) was far greater and more blessed than my suggestion.”

(Ibn Hisham, Sirat Ibn Hisham [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 672)

When the Holy Prophet (sa) was about to lead the funeral prayer of Abdullah bin Ubayy, chief of the hypocrites, Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “Allah the Almighty has forbidden to lead the funeral prayers of hypocrites.” The Holy Prophet (sa) said, “I have been given the choice whether to seek forgiveness for them or not.” Thus, the Holy Prophet (sa) led his funeral prayer. When Allah the Almighty outright prohibited leading the funeral prayers of such people, the Holy Prophet (sa) never led the funeral prayer of any hypocrite thereafter.

(Ibn Abd al-Barr, Al-Isti‘ab fi Ma‘rifat al-Ashab, Vol. 3, Abdullah bin Abdillah Ansari [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Jil, 1992], p. 941)

The additional azan [call to prayer] that is called on Fridays began in the time of Hazrat Uthman (ra). Details regarding this is as follows.

Zuhri has narrated from Saib bin Yazid who stated that during the time of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra), the first azan for Jumuah would be called when the imam sat down on the minbar [pulpit]. In the time of Hazrat Uthman (ra), when the Muslim population increased significantly, he ordered for a third azan to be called from Zaura. Abu Abdillah states that Zaura was a place in the market of Medina.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Jumuah, Bab al-Adhan Yaum al-Jumuah, Hadith 912)

This incident has also been mentioned in Fiqh-e-Ahmadiyya in relation to this hadith that in the time of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra), only one azan was called on Fridays from near the minbar – which was always placed inside the mosque. Later, in the time of Hazrat Uthman (ra), the second azan was initiated which was called from a rock named Zaura situated near to the door of the mosque.

(Fiqh-e-Ahmadiyya [Ibadat] p. 122)

In Ni‘mat-ul-Bari, a commentary of Sahih Bukhari, under this hadith, it is written: “Ibn Shihab Zuhri narrates from Saib that the mention of the third azan in this chapter is including the Iqamat [call before the prayer begins].”

(Ni‘mat al-Bari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 2, p. 837, Hadith 912, Rumi Publications Lahore, 2013)

There were two azans previously and a third one was added later. In the narration I read earlier, it was stated owing to the increase in the Muslim population, a third azan was called at Zaura. The third azan was as such that the first and second azan would be called, then the takbir [for iqamah] has also been referred to using the word azan. Thus, in this way people were called to prayer three times.

Whilst addressing the question of whether a Muslim can be punished in retribution for killing a disbeliever who is under the protection of the state, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has also made reference to the aforementioned incident. Although I have previously narrated this in one of the sermons, I shall mention it once again to shed further light on the matter. Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“In Al-Tabari, Qumazban bin Hormuzan relates the incident of his father’s death as follows:

“‘Hormuzan was a Persian leader and was a Magian by faith. He was suspected to be involved in the killing of Hazrat Umar (ra). Subsequently, without carrying out any investigation and owing to his intense emotions, Ubaidullah bin Umar killed Hormuzan.’”

Qumazban, the son of Hormuzan, further narrates, “‘The people of Persia had developed acquaintances with each other because, as is the case, when one travels to another land, their ethnicity becomes even more distinct. One day, Feroz, who perpetrated the killing of Hazrat Umar (ra) met my father and he had a dagger with him at the time which had been sharpened from both sides.’” The son of Hormuzan is narrating this. “‘My father took hold of the dagger and asked him, “What do you do with this dagger in this land? This is a land where there is peace, therefore there is no need for such a weapon.” Upon this, he stated that he used it for guiding and pulling the camels along. Whilst they were both talking to each other, someone happened to see them. Later, when Hazrat Umar (ra) was martyred, the individual [who had seen them together] claimed that he had personally witnessed Hormuzan handing over the dagger to Feroz. Upon this, Ubaidullah, who was the youngest son of Hazrat Umar (ra), killed my father.

“‘When Hazrat Uthman (ra) became the Khalifa, he called me and handed over Ubaidullah to me. Hazrat Uthman (ra) stated, “O my son! He is the one who killed your father. Thus, you have a greater right over him than me, so take him and kill him.” And so, I took him and headed out of the city. On the way, whoever would see me would come along with me. None of them challenged my decision, instead all they would do was to request me to let him go. I addressed all the Muslims there and stated, “Do I have the right to kill him?” Everyone replied in the affirmative that to kill him was indeed my right and then they began to reproach Ubaidullah for the wrong he had committed. Then, I asked, “Do you have the right to free him from me?” They all responded saying, “No! Certainly not.” And again, they began to reproach Ubaidullah for he had killed my father without any evidence. Upon this, I left him for the sake of God and those people. Out of their happiness, the Muslims raised me up on their shoulders, and by God, I reached my home on top of people’s heads and shoulders as they did not even let my feet touch the ground.

“This narration shows that it was the practice of the Companions (ra) that they would also give the death penalty to a Muslim who had killed a non-Muslim. It is also proven that no matter the method used, such a person would be killed [in retribution]. Similarly, it is also proven that a murderer could only be detained and given the death penalty by the state. This is because it is evident from this narration that Ubaidullah bin Umar was apprehended by Hazrat Uthman (ra) and it was he who turned him over to Hormuzan’s son. It was not an heir of Hormuzan’s who launched a case against him or apprehended him.”

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) further states:

“Here, it is necessary to clarify the issue whether a murderer should be handed over to the heirs of the one who has been murdered in order to be punished, as was done by Hazrat Uthman (ra), or should the state see to the punishment itself? It should be remembered that this is a subsidiary matter and Islam has left it to be determined according to the needs of the time. The country can adopt whatever it deems most effective based on its society and conditions. There is no doubt that these two methods are only beneficial under specific circumstances.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 2, pp. 359-361)

Hazrat Jabir bin Abdillah (ra) narrates that Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal would pray with the Holy Prophet (sa) and then return to his tribe and lead them in prayer.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Adhan, Bab idha Salla thumma amma Qauman, Hadith 711)

He would first come to Masjid al-Nabawi and offer prayers there, after which he would return to his home and lead his people in prayer. This is a narration from Sahih al-Bukhari.

Hazrat Jabir (ra) narrates that Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) would offer prayers with the Holy Prophet (sa) and then would return to his people and lead them in prayers. One evening, he offered the Isha prayer behind the Holy Prophet (sa). When he returned to his people, he led them in prayers and began reciting Surah al-Baqarah [chapter 2 of the Holy Quran]. Upon this, one person separated himself from the congregation, said ‘salam’ [to indicate the end of prayer] and began to pray on his own. When he saw that a lengthy chapter was being recited, he said ‘salam’ and began to offer the prayer on his own. Seeing him do this, the people called out his name and said, “Have you become a hypocrite?” They admonished him for leaving the congregational prayer and praying on his own and asked him whether he had become a hypocrite. Upon this he replied, “No, by God, I am not a hypocrite. I will certainly go to the Holy Prophet (sa) and inform him of what I have done. If I was a hypocrite, I would have secretly offered my prayers. I will certainly inform the Holy Prophet (sa) of all this.”

Subsequently, he came to see the Holy Prophet (sa) and said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! We transport water from one place to another on our camels and ensure people have water in their homes. Thus, we work all day long. Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) offered the Isha prayers with you and then came to his own neighbourhood and began reciting Surah al-Baqarah.” The Holy Prophet (sa) turned to Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) and said, “O Mu‘az! Do you wish to place the people in a trial? Why do you cause hardship for the people?” The Holy Prophet (sa) then advised what to recite and repeated it again.

According to the narration of Hazrat Jabir (ra), the Holy Prophet (sa) said: “You ought to recite Surah al-Shams, Surah al-Duha, Surah al-Lail and Surah al-A‘la.” The Holy Prophet (sa) mentioned these four chapters as an example. This is a narration of Sahih Muslim.

(Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Salah, Bab al-Qira‘ah fi al-Isha, Hadith 465)

There is a narration in Sahih al-Bukhari as follows: Hazrat Jabir (ra) bin Abdillah Ansari relates that one evening, a man was taking his camels, which would transport water and coincidentally, he saw that Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) was leading prayers in the mosque. Upon seeing him, he tied down his camels and began offering prayers behind Hazrat Mu‘az (ra). Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) began reciting Surah al-Baqarah or Surah al-Nisa. This individual stopped his prayers and left, but later found out that Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) was displeased by this act of his. Hence he came to the Holy Prophet (sa) and complained about Hazrat Mu‘az (ra). Upon hearing this, the Holy Prophet (sa) said to Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) three times, “O Mu‘az! You wish to put the people through a grave trial? Why do you put the people through difficulty by reciting long surahs [chapters of the Holy Quran]? Why did you not recite: Surah al-A‘la, Surah al-Shams, Surah al-Lail, because in the congregation behind you, there are elderly people, some of whom are weak and there are also those who have other needs.” As mentioned earlier, this is a narration of Sahih al-Bukhari.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Azan, Bab man shaka amamahu idha tawwala, Hadith 705)

From among the companions of the Holy Prophet (sa), there were six arbitrators [qazis]: Hazrat Umar (ra), Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (ra), Hazrat Zaid bin Thabit (ra), Hazrat Abu Musa Ashari (ra) and Hazrat Ubayy (ra) bin Kaab.

(Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 1 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2016] 170)

There is also a narration regarding being exempt from the Friday prayers when it falls on the same day as Eid.

Abu Ubaid, the freed slave of Ibn Azhar narrates that once on the day of Eid-ul-Adha, he offered the Eid prayers behind Hazrat Umar (ra). Hazrat Umar (ra) led the prayers before delivering the sermon to the congregation in which he stated, “O people! Verily the Holy Prophet (sa) forbade from keeping a fast on both Eid days; one Eid day commemorates the end of the fasting month, whilst the other Eid day is the day on which you eat the meat of the sacrificed animals.” Abu Ubaid states that he also offered the Eid prayer behind Hazrat Uthman (ra) and which fell on a Friday. Hazrat Uthman (ra) led the prayers prior to the sermon. He then addressed the people and said, “O people! Today is a day in which you have been blessed with two Eids. Thus, those living on the outskirts of Medina who are able to wait for the Friday prayers may do so and whosoever wishes to return, they have my permission to leave.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Adahi, Bab ma Yu‘kal min Luhum al-Adahi wa ma Yatazawadu minha, Hadith 5571-5572)

There is something mentioned in Fiqh-e-Ahmadiyya regarding which I am yet to see any evidence to support it. In Fiqh-e-Ahmadiyya it is written that if Eid falls on a Friday, then after the Eid prayers, the Friday prayers should not be offered, nor should Zuhr prayers be offered. Instead, the Asr prayers are to be offered at Asr time. There is a narration from Ata bin Rabah who states, “On one occasion, Eid fell on a Friday. Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Zubair said, ‘Since two Eids have been joined on the same day, they will be offered together.’ Thus, Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Zubair offered two rak‘aat for both prayers before the afternoon. Subsequently, no prayers were offered until the Asr prayers”, i.e. on that day, only the Asr prayers were offered.

(Fiqh-e-Ahmadiyya [Ibadat] p. 177)

More research needs to be done in this regard. Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IV (rh) also said the same thing and carried out research.

(Khutbat-e-Tahir, Vol. 6, p. 374, Khutbah Jumuah 29 May 1987)

Initially, I also thought that perhaps there was no need [to offer the Zuhr prayers], but no other narration has been found which directly indicates the practice of the Holy Prophet (sa) whereby the Zuhr prayer was not offered. There is only this narration stating what Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Zubair did. Therefore, further research is needed in this regard.

Fiqh [Ahmadiyya] is being revised again and in my view, this narration ought to be checked thoroughly again to see how accurate it is in that the Zuhr prayer does not need to be offered. It is correct that the Friday prayer does not need to be offered, but to say that even the Zuhr prayer does not need to be offered, aside from the aforementioned narration, we do not find any narration which has been quoted directly from the Holy Prophet (sa) or from the Khulafa-e-Rashidin. Also, from the research I asked to be carried out, no narration has come to light as of yet.

With regard to bathing on Fridays, there is a narration in which Hazrat Abu Hurairah (ra) states, “Hazrat Umar (ra) bin Khattab was delivering the Friday Sermon before a congregation when Hazrat Uthman (ra) bin Affan entered. Hinting towards Hazrat Uthman (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra) said, ‘What is the matter with the people that they arrive late after the azan has been called!’ Upon this, Hazrat Uthman (ra) stated, ‘O Leader of the Faithful! As soon as I heard the azan, I performed the ablution and made my way straight here.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, ‘You only performed the ablution? Have you not heard the Holy Prophet (sa) say that whosoever goes for the Friday prayers, they ought to bathe?’”

(Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Jumuah, Hadith 1956)

If there is water available and one has access to water, it is imperative to bathe.

Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud would fully adhere to the noble practise of the Holy Prophet (sa). Once, Hazrat Aisha (ra) was asked [in regards to the correct practise of breaking one’s fast] that there are two Companions; one of them breaks his fast quickly, that is, he breaks his fast as soon as the sun sets and also offers his prayers immediately, while the other Companion does both of these relatively later. Hazrat Aisha (ra) enquired as to which Companion does it immediately and she was informed that it was Abdullah bin Mas’ud. Hazrat Aisha (ra) said that this was also the practise of the Holy Prophet (sa) which the Abdullah bin Mas‘ud followed.

(Masnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 8, p. 51, Hadith no. 24716, Alim-ul-Kutub, Beirut, 1998)

On one occasion, Hazrat Umar (ra) decided to prohibit people from performing Hajj Tamattau‘.

There are three types of Hajj, some youths may not be aware of this: Hajj Tamattau‘ is where one enters into a state of ihram for Umrah before arriving in Mecca. They first perform the Umrah and then come out of the state of ihram. Then on 8 Dhul Hijjah, they will enter into a new state of ihram and perform the Hajj. This is known as Hajj Tamattau‘. The more commonly known form of Hajj is Hajj Mufrid and Hajj Qiran is when one performs the Umrah and Hajj in the same state of Ihram.

Nonetheless, Hazrat Umar (ra) decided to prohibit people from performing Hajj Tamattau‘. Hazrat Ubayy (ra) said, “You have no right to stop people from this.” He subsequently stopped Hazrat Umar (ra) from carrying this out saying that it was wrong to stop them. Thus, Hazrat Umar (ra) abandoned his idea.

Hazrat Hamza (ra) and Hazrat Abdullah bin Jahsh (ra), who was his nephew, were buried in the same grave. At this occasion the Holy Prophet (sa) first of all led the funeral prayer of Hazrat Hamza (ra).

(At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra Li Ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p.6-7, Hamza bin Abdil Muttalib, Darul-Kutub Al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1990, Beirut), (Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 7, p. 72, Hadith No. 21387, A’alamul Kutub, 1998, Beirut)

Hazrat Abdullah bin Masood (ra) narrates that the Holy Prophet (sa) led the funeral prayer of Hazrat Hamza (ra) with his body present before him. The body of an Ansari companion was placed next to his, then he led their funeral prayer. Then the body of this Ansari companion as taken away and Hazrat Hamza’s body was left there. The Holy Prophet (sa) led the funeral prayer of Hazrat Hamza (ra) seventy times that same day as every time, another companion’s body was brought before him and placed next to that of Hazrat Hamza (ra).

(At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra Li Ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p.11, Hamza bin Abdil Muttalib, Darul-Kutub Al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1990, Beirut)

Hazrat Abu Hurairah (ra) narrates that Hazrat Hamza (ra) was always at the forefront in good treatment to his relatives and carrying out good deeds. After his martyrdom, the Holy Prophet (sa) addressed his body and said:

“May the mercy of Allah be upon you. It seems that there is no other like you in reconciling and performing virtuous deeds. After today there shall be no more grief for you.”

The Companions narrate the impoverished times during the burial of Hazrat Hamza (ra), the uncle of the Holy Prophet (sa) and a brave leader of the Muslims, with great sorrow.

Later on, in the time of prosperity, Hazrat Khabab (ra) would describe those days of hardship saying that Hazrat Hamza (ra) was buried in a single cloth that was unable to fully cover him. Hence, his face was covered and grass was placed over his feet.

(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 7, pp. 71-72, Hadith No. 21387, A’alamul Kutub, 1998, Beirut)

Likewise, there is also the similar incident of Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra). Once he was fasting and at the time of the breaking of the fast he was presented extravagant food. When he saw this he recalled the days of hardship. He said:

“Hamza was martyred and he was better than I. We did not even have a full cloth to shroud his body. Then we were granted the prosperity of the world, and were endowed whatever we desired. We fear lest we have been rewarded in this life for the deeds we have carried out.” In other words, “We have received all our rewards in this life.” He then began weeping, so much so that he left his food.

(Sahih Al Bukhari, Kitabul Maghazi, Ghazwah Uhud, Hadith No. 4045)

These were the people with whom Allah Almighty was pleased and who were pleased with Him. In times of prosperity they remembered their brothers, and kept in mind their previous state. Allah Almighty has given them all glad tidings of paradise. May Allah continue to elevate their rank.

In another narration by Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (ra) it is said that when the Holy Prophet (sa) returned from Uhud he heard that the wives of the Ansar were crying and lamenting over their husbands. The Holy Prophet (sa) said:

“What is the matter that no one weeps over the martyrdom of Hamza.”

When the Ansari women became aware of this, they gathered together to mourn the martyrdom of Hazrat Hamza (ra). Then the Holy Prophet (sa) fell asleep. When he woke up he saw that the women were still weeping in the same manner. The Holy Prophet (sa) said:

“Would they continue to weep the entire day in the name of Hamza? Tell them to return to their homes.”

It was then that the Holy Prophet (sa) instructed them to go to their homes, and from this onward no one shall lament and wail over the death of a departed one.

(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 2, pp. 418-419, Hadith No. 5563, A’alamul Kutub, 1998, Beirut)

In this manner the Holy Prophet (sa) declared it unlawful to lament and wail over the deceased. The Holy Prophet (sa) used great wisdom in dealing with the sentiments of the women of the Ansar. Instead of them lamenting the loss of their husbands and brothers, the Holy Prophet (sa) drew their attention towards Hazrat Hamza (sa), which was a great loss to the entire Muslim population and, most of all, to the Holy Prophet (sa).

Then he advised them not to lament and wail over Hazrat Hamza (sa) by presenting his own example. He admonished them to display patience in a manner that left a lasting impression. As for the loss of Hazrat Hamza (sa), the Holy Prophet (sa) felt it until the very end of his life.

Ka‘b bin Malik wrote a eulogy at the martyrdom of Hazrat Hamza (ra) in which he says that his eyes shed tears irrepressibly at the loss of Hazrat Hamza (ra), and indeed it is appropriate to mourn his loss; but what good will come from shrieking, crying and wailing over his loss, for the morning on which the Lion of God was martyred, the world said, a martyr indeed is this valiant one, if there was ever a martyr.

Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) fell ill on the occasion of Hajjat-ul-Wida [the farewell pilgrimage]. Mentioning this, Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) relates:

“I fell ill in Mecca and was close to death. The Holy Prophet (sa) came to visit me. I said to him, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! I have a great abundance of wealth and only one daughter as the inheritor. Am I permitted to give two-thirds away as charity? The Holy Prophet (sa) replied in the negative. I asked may I give half as charity? The Holy Prophet (sa) answered in the negative. I asked if I may give one-third as charity? The Holy Prophet (sa) agreed to this, but said that even this was too much. Following this, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Leaving your offspring in an affluent state is better than leaving them in poverty and for them to have to beg from people. You will be rewarded for whatever you spend, so much so that you will be rewarded even for the morsel of food you give to your wife to eat.’ I said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Will I be left behind in my migration?’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Even if you are left behind, your status and rank will be elevated by the deeds you will perform to seek the pleasure of Allah. I am certain that you will remain alive after my passing.’ He further said, ‘So much so that some nations will benefit from you and some people will suffer loss.’”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Faraidh, Hadith no. 6733)

In another narration, it is mentioned that after this, the Holy Prophet (sa) prayed in the following words:

“O Allah! Enable my companions to fulfil the purpose of their migration and do not permit them to return unsuccessful.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Janaiz, Hadith no. 1295)

There is a narration in which Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) relates, “When I fell ill, the Holy Prophet (sa) came to visit me and asked, ‘Have you left a will?’ I replied, ‘Yes’. The Holy Prophet (sa) asked, ‘How much [have you left]?’ I replied, ‘All my wealth has been left in the way of Allah.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) asked, ‘What have you left for your children?’ I replied, ‘They are in a state of affluence.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Then pledge one tenth as your will.’ Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) narrates that he continued saying this and the Holy Prophet (sa) continued replying in the same manner.”

In other words, Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) wished to give a greater amount in charity, while the Holy Prophet (sa) was advising to give less, to the extent that he permitted him to give one-third and even that was a substantial amount.

(Sunan al-Nisai, Kitab-ul-Wasaiyyah, Hadith no. 3661)

In any case, those who have knowledge of this and those in the field of jurisprudence [fiqh] have deduced from this narration that no more than a third of one’s wealth can be given away as part of one’s will.

(Jami‘ al-Tirmidhi, Abwaab-ul-Wasaiyyah, Hadith no. 2116)

Regarding this matter, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) states:

“Ahadith also support that after one has taken out their expenses, giving away the remaining wealth in its entirety is not an Islamic injunction. Thus, the Holy Prophet (sa) said:

یَجِیْءُ اَحَدُکُمْ بِمَالِہٖ کُلِّہٖ یَتَصَدَّقُ بِہٖ وَیَجْلِسُ یَتَکَفَّفُ النَّاسَ اِنَّمَا الصَّدَ قَۃُ عَنْ ظَھْرِ غِنًی

“‘Some of you bring all their wealth and donate it for charity [sadaqah], but then go around begging from others. Charity ought to be given on surplus wealth.’

“Similarly, the Holy Prophet (sa) said:

إِنْ تَذَرْ وَرَثَتَکَ أَغْنِیَاءَ خَیْرٌ مِنْ أَنْ تَذَرَہُمْ عَالَۃً یَتَکَفَّفُونَ النَّاسَ

“‘It is better for you to leave your heirs in an affluent state rather than leaving them destitute so they are not left having to seek wealth from others.’

“Similarly, it is narrated in the hadith that Hazrat Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas (ra) sought permission to distribute two-thirds of his wealth but the Holy Prophet (sa) forbade him. He sought to distribute half but the Holy Prophet (sa) stopped him from that as well. Then he sought permission to distribute a third of his wealth upon which the Holy Prophet (sa) granted permission, saying, ‘You can give a third, though even a third is a large amount:

اَلثُّلُثُ وَالثُّلُثُ کَثِیرٌ

“Thus, the notion that Islam commands any wealth which exceeds one’s needs ought to be distributed [as part of their will], is completely against Islam and is contrary to the practice of the Companions (ra). This is because according to the practice, the Companions (ra) there were some who, at the time of their demise, bequeathed a wealth amounting to hundreds of thousands to their heirs as part of their inheritance.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 2, p. 494)

Abu Salama bin Abdir Rahman narrates that Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf once went to the Holy Prophet (sa) in complaint about the lice infestation, and pleaded, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah, permit me to wear silk clothing.” The traditional cotton clothing for some reason had a lot of lice at the time. Perhaps after it had spread from his hair, it was not going away and so he requested permission to wear silk clothing to protect against this. So the Holy Prophet (sa) granted him permission to wear it. After the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), when Hazrat Umar (ra) was elected Khalifa, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf came to Hazrat Umar (ra) along with his son Abu Salama. Abu Salama was wearing an upper garment made of silk, and so Hazrat Umar (ra) asked, “What is this you are wearing?” Hazrat Umar (ra) then placed his hand near the collar area of Abu Salama and tore the shirt. Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf then asked Hazrat Umar (ra), “Are you not aware that the Holy Prophet (sa) granted me permission?”, to which Hazrat Umar (ra) replied, “The Holy Prophet (sa) only granted you permission to do so because you complained to him about the lice infestation, and this permission was not extended to anyone else.”

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 96, Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Hazrat Suwaid bin Ghafalah, Zaid bin Saujan and Sulaiman bin Rabia once travelled for an expedition. When they reached Uzaib, they came across a whip on the ground. Uzaib was the Valley of Banu Tamim where water was found. It was situated between Qadsiyya and Mughithah at a distance of four miles from Qadisiyya.

Nonetheless, Suwaid picked up the whip. The others said to him to leave it as it could belong to another Muslim. Suwaid said he would certainly not leave it as if it remained there it would be eaten by wolves or consumed [by something else], therefore it was better he made use of it.

A few days later, Suwaid left with the intention of performing Hajj. As Medina was en route, he went to see Hazrat Ubayy (ra) and narrated the incident of the whip. Hazrat Ubayy (ra) said, “I was also faced with a similar incident during the life of the Holy Prophet (sa). During the time of the Holy Prophet (sa), I found 100 dinars.”

Whether it is 100 dinars or a whip, everything found in this manner has its own value as it is a trust [belonging to someone else]. Let us see what the Holy Prophet (sa) stated in this regard. Hazrat Ubayy (ra) then continued, “The Holy Prophet (sa) instructed, ‘You ought to continuously make announcements to the people regarding it for one entire year.’ When that year had passed he said, ‘You ought to remember any markings and the amount of money and wait for one more year. If someone comes to collect it and gives the correct identification for it, you ought to hand it over to them, otherwise it will become yours.’”

(Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 3 [Karachi, Pakistan: Dar al-Ishaah Urdu Bazar, 2004] 156) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-i-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003] 197)

This means that when one finds something, they ought to wait two years; they ought to continuously make announcements about it for one year and remember its markings or identifications for one more year. If someone comes to collect it giving the correct identification, it should be given to them.