Hijra (Migration)

On the other hand, according to Ibn-e-Sa‘d, Hazrat Utbah (ra) was 40 years old at the time of migration towards Medina. In any case, when he returned to Mecca from Abyssinia, the Holy Prophet (sa) was still residing in Mecca and he stayed with the Holy Prophet (sa). He migrated to Medina along with Hazrat Miqdad (ra) bin Aswad. Both of these companions were from among the early converts to Islam.

(Usdul Ghabah, Vol. 5, p. 129, Murarah bin Rabi‘ (ra), pp. 558-559, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 72, Min Hulafa-e-Bani Naufal bin Abd Manaf, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Imta‘ul Isma‘, Vol. 6, p.331, Fasl Fi Dhikr Mawali Rasulillah(sa), Beirut, 1999)

The incident of their migration to Medina is as follows:

Hazrat Utbah (ra) bin Ghazwan and Hazrat Miqdad (ra) bin Aswad departed with the army of the Quraish, and they intended to join the Muslims. The Messenger (sa) of Allah dispatched a Muslim army under the command of Hazrat Ubaidah (ra) bin Harith towards Thaniyat-ul-Marah, which is situated almost 55 kilometres northeast from the city of Raabigh and approximately 200 kilometres from Medina. The army of the Quraish was under the command of Ikrimah bin Abi Jahal. They did not engage in any battle except for one arrow which was fired by Sa‘d (ra) bin Abi Waqas and this was the first arrow shot in the way of Allah. On that day, Utbah (ra) bin Ghazwan and Hazrat Miqdad (ra) fled and joined the Muslims.

(Atlas Siratun Nabawi, Siryah Ubaidah bin Harith, p. 196, Maktabah Darul Islam) (Al-Isti‘ab, Vol. 4, pp. 1480-1481, Miqdad bin Aswad, Dar-ul-Jeel, Beirut)

In Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin [The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets (sa)], Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) has mentioned the announcement of the Quraish of Mecca and their pursuit of the Holy Prophet (sa) in the following manner,

“An open announcement was made that whoever brought Muhammad (sa) back, dead or alive, would be given a bounty of 100 camels. Therefore, longing for this reward, many people set out in all directions of Mecca. Even the chieftains of the Quraish set out behind the Holy Prophet (sa), and following clues, they precisely reached the mouth of the Cave of Thaur. Arriving here, their detectives said, ‘That is it. The footsteps go no further. Therefore, either Muhammad (sa) is hiding nearby, or he has ascended to the heavens.’

“Someone said, ‘Go and check the inside of this cave as well,’ but someone else said, ‘Alas! What logic is there in such an idea? Is it possible for an individual to hide in such a cave? This is an extremely dark and dangerous place, and we have always looked upon it as such.’

“It is also narrated that after the Holy Prophet (sa) entered the cave, a spider spun a web on the tree which was located just at the entrance of the cave, and a pigeon made a nest and laid its eggs on the branch which was exactly in front of the cave.”

According to Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra), “This narration is weak, but if something of this sort happened, it is not bewildering in the least.” Although it is a weak narration, it is not a matter of great astonishment. “In some cases, a spider weaves a web over a vast area in just minutes, and it does not take long for a pigeon to make a nest and lay its eggs. Therefore, if, by His divine power, God Almighty made this happen for the protection of His messenger, it is not unbelievable; rather, considering the situation at hand, it is completely plausible. In any case, no man from the Quraish went in, and all the people returned from here.”

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) further writes:

“It is narrated that the Quraish reached so near that their feet could be seen from inside the cave, and their voices could be heard. At this instance, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) apprehensively, but quietly, said to the Holy Prophet (sa), ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! The Quraish are so close that their feet can be seen. If they come forward even a little more, and snare in, they will be able to see us.’

“The Holy Prophet (sa) said:

لَا‭ ‬تَحۡزَنۡ‭ ‬اِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

“Meaning, ‘Worry not, Allah is with us.’ Then, the Holy Prophet (sa) said:

وَمَا‭ ‬ظَنُّكَ‭ ‬يَا‭ ‬أَبا‭ ‬بَكْرٍ‭ ‬بِإِثْنَيْنِ‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬ثَالِثُهُمَا

“Meaning, ‘O Abu Bakr! What do you infer of those two individuals, the third of Whom is God?’

“In another narration, it is related that when the Quraish reached the mouth of the Cave, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) became very worried. When the Holy Prophet (sa) noticed his anxiety, he comforted him that there is nothing to worry about. At this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said in a weeping tone:

إِنْ‭ ‬قُتِلْتُ‭ ‬فَأَنَا‭ ‬رَجُلٌ‭ ‬وَاحِدٌ‭ ‬وَإِنْ‭ ‬قُتِلْتَ‭ ‬أَنْتَ‭ ‬فَهَلَكَتِ‭ ‬الْأُمَّةُ

“Meaning, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! If I am killed, I am merely one man. But if (God-forbid) you are harmed, then it is as if the entire community has been erased.’

“Upon this, after receiving revelation from God, the Holy Prophet (sa) responded in the following words:

لَا‭ ‬تَحۡزَنۡ‭ ‬اِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

“Meaning, ‘O Abu Bakr, do not worry at all, because Allah is with us, and we are both under His Divine protection.’

“In other words, ‘You are worried for me, and in the passion of your sincerity, you feel no grief for your own life. However, at this time, not only is God the Almighty my Protector, but yours as well, and He shall protect us from the evil of our enemy.’”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 237-239)

Regarding this incident, the Promised Messiah (as) states:

“When, owing to unforeseen circumstances, the Holy Prophet (sa) had to leave his hometown and the opponents had surrounded his blessed house with the intention of killing him, a dear relative – who was imbued with love and faith in the prophet – on the orders of the Holy Prophet (sa), laid down on his bed without any fear of death; he hid his face so as not to arouse the suspicion of the enemy spies which would hint that the Holy Prophet (sa) had left. They remained content, waiting for the opportunity to kill him.

كس‭ ‬بهرِ‭ ‬كَسے‭ ‬سر‭ ‬نَدِهَد‭ ‬جان‭ ‬نَفَشَانَد‬‬‬‬‬‬ عِشق‭ ‬است‭ ‬كہ ‬اِيں‭ ‬كار‭ ‬بَصَدْ‭ ‬صِدق‭ ‬كُنَانَد‬‬‬‬‬‬

“Meaning, ‘No one willingly sacrifices their life for another. It is only on account of true sincerity that can make a man do this happily and willingly.’”

(Surma Chashm-e-Arya, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 2, pp. 64-65 [footnote])

The narration Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has mentioned is as follows:

“When the people of Mecca were gathering outside the house of the Holy Prophet (sa) in order to kill him, the Holy Prophet (sa) was leaving in the darkness of the night with the intention to migrate from there. The people of Mecca most certainly would have suspected that the news of their plan had reached the Holy Prophet (sa), but despite that, when the Holy Prophet (sa) left in front of them, they thought it was someone else. Hence, instead of attacking the Holy Prophet (sa), they began to hide, so that their plans would not be revealed to the Holy Prophet (sa). Prior to this night, Abu Bakr (ra) had also been informed about migrating with the Holy Prophet (sa), and so he met with the Holy Prophet (sa) and after a short while they departed from Mecca.”

(Dibacha Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, pp. 222-223)

During this migration, there is an incident recorded in reference to Umm Ma‘bad which is as follows:

During the migration, the caravan of the Holy Prophet (sa) stopped by a tent to acquire provisions for their journey. This was the tent of Umm Ma‘bad, whose real name was Atikah bint Khalid. She belonged to the branch of the Khuza‘ah tribe from the Banu Kaab. She was the sister of Hazrat Hubaish (ra) bin Khalid, who was a companion and had the honour of relating traditions [of the Holy Prophet (sa)]. Umm Ma‘bad’s husband was known as Abu Ma‘bad. It is said that he too had the honour of relating traditions of the Holy Prophet (sa). He passed away during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (sa). The exact name of Abu Ma‘bad is unknown. The tent of Umm Ma‘bad was located in Qudaid, which is a small village close to Mecca, located a few miles south of Rabiq. This is also where the altar of the well-known idol, Manat, was located. The people of Medina would worship this idol.

*(Ibn Hisham, Al-Raud al-Unf fi Tafsir al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Nasab Umm Ma‘bad wa Zaujiha [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2013], p. 325) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 232) *

Umm Ma‘bad was a brave and strong woman, who would sit by the front of her tent and feed those who passed by. The Holy Prophet (sa) and his companions asked to purchase meat and dates from her, but she did not have what they required. At that point in time, the people of Umm Ma‘bad were impoverished and drought-stricken. Umm Ma‘bad said, “If we had anything, we would not keep it from you.” The Holy Prophet (sa) saw a goat in one corner of the tent and enquired, “O Umm Ma‘bad, what is the condition of this goat?” She replied, “This goat has been overcome by weakness to the extent that it cannot keep up with the herd.” In other words, it is so weak that it cannot even go out to graze with the rest of the herd. The Holy Prophet (sa) asked, “Does it give milk?” She replied, “It is so weak that it would be impossible for it to produce any milk.” The Holy Prophet (sa) asked, “Would you permit me to try and draw milk from it?” She said, “If you sense that she will give milk, then by all means; I do not have any objection to it.” Thus, the Holy Prophet (sa) was brought the goat. He passed his hand over her udder, and with the name of Allah, the Mighty and Powerful, prayed for the goat of Umm Ma’bad to be blessed. The goat comfortably stood before the Holy Prophet (sa), began to produce a lot of milk and ruminate. Then, the Holy Prophet (sa) sought a vessel from them large enough to satiate an entire gathering. The goat produced so much milk to the extent that the froth overflowed from the vessel. The Holy Prophet (sa) offered the milk to Umm Ma‘bad, who became fully satiated. He then offered the milk to his companions, who also became fully satiated. After everyone else, the Holy Prophet (sa) himself drank from the milk and said, “He who serves others to drink should be the last to drink himself.” After a brief pause, the Holy Prophet (sa) milked the goat once more until the vessel was full again. He left that vessel with Umm Ma‘bad, purchased the goat from her and continued on his journey.”

(Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Vol. 3, Fi Hijrat Rasul (sa) Allah… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], pp. 244-245)

Then, in another instance, the Promised Messiah (as) says:

“In short, the truth and sincerity of Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) manifested at a time when the Holy Prophet (sa) was surrounded by his assailants. Although some of them were of the opinion that he should merely be banished from Mecca, most of them actually sought to put an end to his life. It was at that hour that Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) demonstrated his sincerity and loyalty, which will shine as an example until the end of time. In this trying hour, the very selection of the Holy Prophet (sa) is an outstanding argument in favour of the truthfulness and supreme loyalty of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) […] This is also the case with the selection of the Holy Prophet (sa). At that time, the Holy Prophet (sa) had 70 or 80 companions, and even Hazrat Ali (ra) was with him, but from all of these companions, the Holy Prophet (sa) chose none other than Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). What is the secret in this?

“The fact is that a prophet sees through the eye of God Almighty, and his insight comes from God Almighty. Therefore, Allah the Almighty had informed the Holy Prophet (sa), by means of vision and revelation that the best and most appropriate person for this task was Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra). Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) accompanied the Holy Prophet (sa) in this difficult hour. This was a time of perilous trial. When a similar time dawned upon the Messiah (as), his disciples abandoned him and fled, and one of them even stood before him and cursed him. But each and every one of the noble companions of the Holy Prophet (sa) demonstrated complete loyalty. Therefore, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) stood by the Holy Prophet (sa) and gave him full support, and when they reached a cave known as the Cave of Thaur, they both took refuge in the cave. The evil disbelievers who had conspired to harm the Holy Prophet (sa) were led to this cave in their search. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) submitted to the Holy Prophet (sa), ‘Now, these people are upon us, and if any one of them looks down even slightly, they will be able to see us, and we shall be apprehended.’ At that time, the Holy Prophet (sa) said:

لَا‭ ‬تَحۡزَنۡ‭ ‬اِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

“Meaning, ‘Do not fear in the least, for Allah the Almighty is with us.’ Reflect on these words. The Holy Prophet (sa), joins Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) with himself and states:

اِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

“[‘Verily, Allah is with us.’] The Arabic words ma‘ana [with us] refer to both of them, i.e. ‘with you and I.’ Allah the Almighty placed the Holy Prophet (sa) on one side and Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) on the other. At that time, both of them were in a state of trial. For it was at this point in time when the foundation of Islam was either going to be secured or brought to an end. The enemy stood at the mouth of the cave and various opinions were being voiced. Some said that the cave ought to be searched because the footprints ended at the cave, while others pointed out that it was impossible for a person to pass through here and enter the cave as a spider had woven a web at the mouth of the cave and a pigeon had laid its eggs. These discussions could be heard from within the cave and the Holy Prophet (sa) could also hear them clearly. In this state of affairs, the enemy had come to kill them both and had set out with immense vigour to complete their task, but just observe the remarkable courage of the Holy Prophet (sa), who says to his true friend:

لَا‭ ‬تَحۡزَنۡ‭ ‬اِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

“[‘Grieve not, for Allah is with us.’] These words evidently demonstrate that the Holy Prophet (sa) said the aforementioned phrase with his tongue because such words could only be expressed with a voice and not through sign language. The enemy stood outside consulting amongst themselves, and inside the cave, both servant and master are also engaged in discourse. The Holy Prophet (sa) had no concern that the enemy would hear his voice and this is proof of his remarkable faith and his insight into Allah the Almighty. It demonstrates that he had full trust in the promises of God Almighty. This one example alone is enough to show the bravery of the Holy Prophet (sa).”

(Malfuzat, Vol. 1, pp. 376-278)

Then, in another instance, the Promised Messiah (as) stated:

“An extraordinary manifestation that God, the Glorious, exhibited for safeguarding His immaculate Prophet (sa) was that though his enemies arrived outside the cave in which the Holy Prophet (sa) was hidden with his companion, they could not see him, for God Almighty had sent a pair of pigeons which built a nest the same night at the entrance of the cave and also laid their eggs there, and by divine command, a spider also wove its web at the place, whereby the enemies of the Prophet (sa) became baffled and returned frustrated.”

(Surma Chashma-e-Arya, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 2, p. 66, footnote)

With regard to the Holy Prophet (sa) calling over his family and the family of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to Medina, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) writes:

“A short while after arriving in Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) sent his freed slave, Zaidra, to Mecca to bring his family and relatives. The Meccans had been overwhelmed by the sudden and well-planned departure of the Holy Prophet (sa) and his followers and so, for some time they stopped their cruelty to the Muslims. Owing to this, when the Prophet’s (sa) family and the family of Abu Bakr (ra) left Mecca they raised no objections. The two families reached Medina safe and sound. In the meantime, the Holy Prophet (sa) laid the foundations of a mosque on the site he had bought. After this, he built houses for himself and for his Companions.”

(Dibachah Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, p. 230)

After migrating to Medina, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stayed in Sun‘a with Hazrat Khubaib bin Isaf. Sun‘a was the name of a place on the outskirts of Medina, which was approximately two miles from Masjid Nabawi. Hazrat Khubaib belonged to the Banu Harith bin Khazraj tribe. In one narration, it is mentioned that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stayed with Hazrat Kharijah bin Zaid.

(Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Bab Hijrat al-Rasul (sa) [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 348)

According to some narrations, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) built his house and clothes mill in Sun‘a and began trading from there.

(Maqalat Sirat, Vol. 3, p. 131, Maktabah Islamiyyah, Lahore, 2016)

At the same time, since three days had passed, Abdullah bin Urayqit brought the camels according to the agreed plan.

A narration of Sahih al-Bukhari mentions that it was settled with Abdullah bin Urayqit that after three days had passed, he would bring the camels with him the next morning.

(Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, p. 344, Hijrat al-Rasul, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah Beirut, 2008) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqib al-Ansar, Bab Hijrat al-Nabi (sa), Hadith 3905) (Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Ibn Hajr Asqalani, Vol. 7, p. 238, Dar al-Ma‘rifah, Beirut)

From this narration, it seems that the journey from Cave Thaur to Medina began in the morning; however, from another narration of Bukhari, it is clarified that the journey, in fact, started in the evening. Whilst mentioning Abdullah bin Urayqit, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“The Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had entrusted their camels to him, and explained that after three nights, on the morning of the third day, to reach the Cave of Thaur with their camels. Therefore, as per the agreement, he reached there. This is a famous narration of Bukhari, but historians write that the Holy Prophet (sa) left during the night time, and this itself is supported by another narration of Bukhari. Moreover, the idea that the Holy Prophet (sa) departed at night seems to be the most believable notion as well.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 239-240)

The Holy Prophet (sa) left the cave on the night of Monday, 1 Rabi‘ al-Awal and continued the journey. According to Ibn Saad, the Holy Prophet (sa) left the cave on the night of Monday 4 Rabi‘ al-Awal.

(Tarikh al-Khamis, Vol. 2, p. 15, Dhikr Khurujihsa ma‘a Abi Bakr (ra) min Makkah, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2009)

The first date was narrated by Khamis and the commentator of Sahih al-Bukhari, Allamah Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani writes that Imam Hakim states that there are numerous narrations which state that the Holy Prophet (sa) left Mecca on Monday and arrived in Medina on Monday as well, except for Muhammad bin Musa Khwarizmi. He stated that the Holy Prophet (sa) left Mecca on Thursday.

In order to reconcile these different narrations, Allama Ibn Hajar writes that the Holy Prophet (sa) left Mecca on Thursday and after spending three nights in the cave, i.e. Friday, Saturday and Sunday, he left for Medina on the night of Monday.

(Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Ibn Hajr Asqalani,Vol. 7, p. 299, Qadimi Kutub Khana Maqabil, Arambagh, Karachi)

The camel which the Holy Prophet (sa) mounted himself upon is said to be Al-Qaswa. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) mounted a camel along with Aamir bin Fuhairah, while Urayqit mounted on a camel of his own. The total wealth that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had at the time in his home was five to six thousand dirhams and he brought this with him. According to some narrations, Aamir bin Fuhairah and Hazrat Asma (ra) came with the food which consisted of roasted goat meat. Upon reaching there they realised that they had no cloth to tie the food and water vessel with. Hazrat Asma (ra) loosened her girdle and ripped it into two pieces. With one of the pieces, she tied the food and with the other piece, she tied the water vessel. Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) gave Hazrat Asma (ra) the glad tidings of two girdles in Paradise. He then told everyone to leave and started his journey with the following prayer:

اللّٰهُمَّ‭ ‬اصْحَبْنِيْ‭ ‬فِيْ‭ ‬سَفَرِيْ‭ ‬وَاخْلُفْنِيْ‭ ‬فِيْ‭ ‬أَهْلِيْ

“O Allah! Become my Companion in this journey of mine and become the Guardian of my family.”

(Abdul Hameed Jaudah al-Sahhar, Muhammad (sa) Rasulullah walladhina ma‘ahu, Vol. 3 [Egypt: Maktabah Misr], p. 61)(Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, p. 345, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

Abdullah bin Sa‘d relates from his father that when the Holy Prophet (sa) was migrating to Medina, he reached Kharraz (this is the name of a valley situated near Hijaz, and it is also said that it is one of the valleys of Medina). When he was leaving Kharraz, he met Hazrat Talha (ra) bin Ubaidullah in the morning, who was part of the caravan returning from Syria. They gave the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) Syrian clothes to wear and informed the Holy Prophet (sa) that the people of Medina had been eagerly awaiting his arrival for a long time. The Holy Prophet (sa) then went forth with a greater pace, whilst Hazrat Talha (ra) made his way to Mecca. When he completed his work there, he later migrated with the family of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and reached Medina.

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 161, Talha bin Ubaidillah, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Mu’jamul Buldan, Vol. 2, p. 400, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut)

Hazrat Saeed (ra) bin Zaid was amongst the very early Muhajireen and upon reaching Medina stayed at the house of Hazrat Rifa‘ah (ra) bin Abdul Munzir, who was the brother of Hazrat Abu Lubabah (ra).

In relation to the aforementioned incident which took place during the time of migration, it is written in Sirat Khatam-ul-Nabiyyin:

“In the darkness of the night, the cruel Quraish from various tribes had besieged the home of the Holy Prophet (sa) with their bloodthirsty intentions. They were waiting for dawn, or for the Holy Prophet (sa) to come out of his home, so as to launch a sudden assault and assassinate him.

“Various trusts belonging to the disbelievers were still with the Holy Prophet (sa), for despite their extreme enmity, many people would often entrust their belongings to the Holy Prophet (sa) on account of his truthfulness and trustworthiness. Therefore, the Holy Prophet (sa) explained the accounts of these trusts to Hazrat Ali (ra), and instructed him not to leave Mecca until these trusts were returned. Then he instructed, ‘You lie on my bed,’and assured him that no harm would come to him. He lay down and the Holy Prophet (sa) covered him with his red-coloured mantle. After this, the Holy Prophet (sa) invoked the name of Allah, and left his home.

“At that time, the besiegers were present in front of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) door. However, since they did not anticipate that the Holy Prophet (sa) would leave his home so early in the night, at that time, they were in such a state of unawareness that the Holy Prophet (sa) left right through their midst, leaving them in their ignorance, and they had not a clue.

“Now, the Holy Prophet (sa) was silently, but quickly, passing through the streets of Mecca, and it was not long before he reached the outskirts of the town and started towards the Cave of Thaur. The entire matter had been pre-settled with Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), who also met the Holy Prophet (sa) en-route.

“The Cave of Thaur, which is remembered as a sacred memorial, due to this very occurrence, is situated to the south of Mecca. In other words, to the other side of Medina, at a distance of about three miles atop a wild and abandoned mountain, the Cave of Thaur is situated at a substantial height. Its trail is also very difficult to cross.” It is not in the direction of Medina, but is in the opposite direction. “Arriving there, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) squeezed in first and cleaned the area, and then the Holy Prophet (sa) also entered.

“On the other hand, the Quraish, who had besieged the home of the Holy Prophet (sa), would peer through after short intervals and upon seeing Hazrat Ali (ra), who was in fact lying in the place of the Holy Prophet (sa), they would find comfort.

“But the next morning, they found out that their prey had slipped their hands. Upon this, they franticly ran here and there, searched the streets of Mecca, looked in the homes of Companions, but nothing was to be found. In their rage, they took hold of Hazrat Ali (ra) and beat him somewhat.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), pp. 236-237)

During the journey, the Holy Prophet (sa) was continuously reciting the following verse:

وَقُلْ‭ ‬رَّبِّ‭ ‬اَدْخِلْنِيْ‭ ‬مُدْخَلَ‭ ‬صِدْقٍ‭ ‬وَّ‭ ‬اَخْرِجْنِيْ‭ ‬مُخْرَجَ‭ ‬صِدْقٍ‭ ‬وَّ‭ ‬اجْعَلْ‭ ‬لِّيْ‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬لَّدُنْكَ‭ ‬سُلْطٰنًا‭ ‬نَّصِيْرًا ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ “And say, ‘O my Lord, make my entry a good entry and make me go forth a good going forth. And grant me from Thyself a helping power.’ [Surah Bani Isra‘Il, Ch.17: V.81]”

(Al-Khalifat-ul-Awal Abu Bakr Siddiq, al-Sallabi, p. 47, Dar-ul-Ma‘rifah, Beirut, 2006)

Similarly, the following prayer is also mentioned:

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ الَّذِيْ خَلَقَنِيْ وَلَمْ أَكُ شَيْئًا، اَللّٰهُمَّ أَعِنِّيْ عَلٰي هَوْلِ الدُّنْيَا، وَبَوَائِقِ الدَّهْرِ، وَمَصَائِبِ اللَّيَالِي وَالْأَييَّامِ۔ اَللّٰهُمَّ اصْحَبْنِيْ فِيْ سَفَرِيْ، وَاخْلُفْنِيْ فِيْ أَهْلِيْ، وَبَارِكْ لِيْ فِيْمَا رَزَقْتَنِيْ، وَلَكَ فَذَلِّلْنِيْ، وَعَلٰى صَالِحِ خَلْقِيْ فَقَوِّمْنِيْ، وَإِلٰي رَبِّيْ فَحَبِّبْنِيْ، ووَإِلَى النَّاسِ فَلَا تَكِلْنِيْ۔ أَنْتَ رَبُّ الْمُسْتَضْعَفِيْنَ وَأَنْتَ رَبِّيْ، أَعُوْذُ بِوَجْهِكَ الْكَرِيْمِ الَّذِيْ أَشْرَقَتْ لَهُ السَّمَوَاتُ وَالْأَرْضُ، وَكُشِفَتْ بِهِ الظُّلُمَاتُ، وَصَلُحَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرُالاَوَّلِيْن وَالآخَرِيْنَ، أَنْ يَّحِلَّ بِيْ غَضَبُكَ، أَوْ يَنْزِلَ عَلَيَّ سُخْطُكَ، أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنْ زَوَالِ نِعْمَتِكَ، وَفُجَاءَةِ نِقْمَتِكَ، وَتَحَوُّلِ عَاقِبَتِكَ وَجَمِيْعِ سُخْطِكَ۔ لَكَ الْعُتْبٰى خَيْرَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُ، وَلَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِكَ

“All praise is due to Allah, Who created me when I was nothing. O Allah! Grant me help from the fears of this world and the afflictions of this era and the trials of the day and night. O Allah! Become my Companion in this journey and the guardian of my family. Bestow blessings in that which You have granted me and enable me to show servitude to You. Enable me to remain steadfast in this excellent state of creation and to become the beloved of my Lord and do not let the people get to me. You are the Lord of the weak ones and You are also my Lord. I seek refuge in Your Noble Countenance through which the heavens and the earth have become illumined and the darkness has vanished and thorough which the affairs of those who came before and after have rectified, [I seek refuge] from incurring Your wrath and displeasure. I seek refuge in You from Your rewards diminishing, from Your sudden retribution and from any change in Your final decree about me.”

In Sharh Zarqani, instead of:

تَحَوُّلِ‭ ‬عَاقِبَتِكَ‬

[“I seek refuge from any change in Your final decree about me”], the following words have appeared:

تَحَوُّلِ‭ ‬عَافِيَتِكَ‬

“[I seek refuge] from Your protection to be taken away from me and from Your displeasure. And I seek your pleasure in every good that I do. There is no means to escape sin and nor is there any might except through You.”

(Subul al-Huda wa al-Rishad, Vol. 3, p. 243, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993) (Sharh al-Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Diniyyah, Vol. 2, p. 110, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996)

It is written, “On the one hand, the Holy Prophet (sa) and his exceptionally devoted companion who was with him on the journey, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), were journeying with divine help and in the shade of protective angels, while on the other hand, the Meccans had not given up in their search. They continued in their pursuit of the Holy Prophet (sa). It so happened that the pursuit of a search party from the Quraish led them to the tent of Umm Ma‘bad. As soon as they disembarked from their horses, they began to enquire about the Holy Prophet (sa). Umm Ma‘bad realised what was happening and said, ‘You are saying things that I have never heard of, nor do I understand what you people are after.’ As soon as the search party became more aggressive in their questioning, this brave and astute woman said, ‘If you do not leave from here at once, I will call upon the people of my tribe.’ They recognised the status of this woman and thus realised that it would be better for them to leave.”

(Abdul Hameed Jaudah al-Sahhar, Muhammad (sa) Rasul Allah wa alladhina ma‘ahu, Vol. 3, al-Hijrah [Egypt: Maktabat Misr], p. 67)

At the occasion of the Holy Prophet's (sa) migration to Medina when he was entering the city on his camel, every tribe desired that he would stay at their home. When the Holy Prophet's (sa) camel reached the house of Banu ‘Adi, and they were his maternal uncles because Salma bint ‘Amr, mother of ‘Abdul Muttalib, was from this tribe, at that time Hazrat Suleet bin Qais and Aseerah bin Abu Khuwarjah tried to stop the Holy Prophet (sa) but he stated ,“Leave my camel as it is moving under divine guidance.” That is, it will stop wherever God desires.

Along with other Muslims, Hazrat Hamza (ra) also migrated to Medina and stayed at the home of Hazrat Kulthum (ra) bin Al-Hidm. In accordance with another narration, he stayed at the home of Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) bin Khaithimah.

Hazrat Zubair (ra) participated in both migrations to Abyssinia. When Hazrat Zubair (ra) migrated to Medina, he stayed with Hazrat Mundhir bin Muhammad (ra).

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 75, Zubair (ra) bin al-Awwam, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) narrates, “Prior to the advent of the Holy Prophet (sa), the Jews used to pray for victory against the tribes of Aus and Khazraj by supplicating in their prayers for the prophet [whose advent was foretold in the earlier scriptures].” They used to fight with one another and prayed for victory to be granted to them in the name of the prophet, whose advent had been prophesied, and would supplicate to God Almighty for this. However, when God Almighty raised the Holy Prophet (sa) from among the Arabs, they rejected his message. This has been the practice of those who reject [prophets] from time immemorial.

Once, Hazrat Mu‘az bin Jabal (ra), Hazrat Bishr bin Bara (ra) and Hazrat Daud bin Salama (ra) said to them, “O Jews! Fear God and accept Islam. Prior to this you would pray for victory through the advent of a prophet by the name of Muhammad, and would say that this prophet would appear, whose name would be Muhammad. You would pray for victory through him. Prior to this we were idolaters.” Hazrat Bishr bin Bara (ra) then said, “We were among those who associated partners with God and regarding us you would say that a prophet would appear, and the time has come for his advent. You would narrate to us about the signs of his coming. But now that he has appeared, why do you not accept him?”

Salam bin Mishkam – the leader and treasurer of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nazir, and also the husband of Zainab bint Harith, the woman who offered poisoned meat to the Holy Prophet (sa) during the battle of Khaybar – replied, “This prophet has not brought to us anything that we recognise and he is not that prophet whom we described to you.” Despite the fact that all the signs that they used to mention themselves were fulfilled, their answer was that the Holy Prophet (sa) did not bring what they could recognise and so all the signs had not been fulfilled. Hence they did not accept him. Subsequently God Almighty revealed the following verse:

وَ لَمَّا جَآءَہُمۡ کِتٰبٌ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰہِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَہُمۡ ۙ وَ کَانُوۡا مِنۡ قَبۡلُ یَسۡتَفۡتِحُوۡنَ عَلَی الَّذِیۡنَ کَفَرُوۡا ۚۖ فَلَمَّا جَآءَہُمۡ مَّا عَرَفُوۡا کَفَرُوۡا بِہٖ ۫ فَلَعۡنَۃُ اللّٰہِ عَلَی الۡکٰفِرِیۡنَ

‘And when there came to them a Book from Allah, fulfilling that which is with them – and before that they had prayed for victory over the disbelievers – yet when there came to them that which they knew, they rejected it. The curse of Allah be on the disbelievers.’ [Surah al-Baqarah, Ch.2: V.90]

(al-Siratun Nabawiyyah Li Ibn Kathir, p. 381, Ma Nazala min al-Baqarah fi al-Munafiqin wal yahud, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001) (al-Siratun Nabawiyyah Li Ibn Kathir, p. 512, Ghazwah Suwaiq, p. 698, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001) (al-Raud al-Anf Fi Sharh al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah Li ibn Hisham, Vol. 2, p. 325, bab Kahinah Quraish, Maktabah ibn Taimiyyah, 1990)

Regarding the Holy Prophet (sa) entering Medina, Hazrat Anasra bin Malik has narrated an account in Sahih al-Bukhari as follows:

“The Messenger (sa) of Allah came to Medina and stayed in the upper part of Medina for 14 nights with a tribe called Banu Amr bin Auf. He then sent for the chiefs of Banu al-Najjar, who came armed with their swords. I remember this incident as if I can see the Holy Prophet (sa) riding his camel before my very eyes and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was riding behind him and the chiefs of Banu al-Najjar were around him till he dismounted in the courtyard of Abu Ayyub.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Salah, Bab hal Tunbashu Qubur Mushriki al-Jahiliyyah, Hadith 428)

Talking about this incident, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“After a stay of more than 10 days in Quba, on Friday, the Holy Prophet (sa) set out for the heart of the city. A large party from among the Ansar and Muhajirin accompanied the Holy Prophet (sa). The Holy Prophet (sa) was riding a camel, and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was behind him. Slowly but surely, this caravan began to advance towards the city. The time for Friday prayers arrived en route. The Holy Prophet (sa) stopped in the neighbourhood of the Banu Salim bin Auf. He delivered a sermon to his Companions, and led the Friday Prayer. Historians write that, although the Friday Prayer had already begun, this was the first Friday prayer which the Holy Prophet (sa) led himself and thereafter the formal practise of the Friday Prayer began.” From this narration it also suggests that the mosque was built later.

“After completing the Friday Prayers, the caravan of the Holy Prophet (sa) continued to slowly proceed further. When the Holy Prophet (sa) would pass by the homes of Muslims, in the fervour of their love they would move forward and say, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! This is our home. Our wealth and lives are at your behest. We also possess means of protection. Please stay with us.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) would supplicate for their prosperity and slowly moved towards the city. In the fervour of their happiness, the Muslim ladies and girls climbed the roofs of their homes and began singing:

طَلَعَ‭ ‬الْبَدَرُ‭ ‬عَلَيْنَا‬‬ مِنْ‭ ‬ثَنِيَّاتِ‭ ‬الْوَدَاعِ‬‬ وَجَبَ‭ ‬الشُّكْرُ‭ ‬عَلَيْنَا‬‬ مَا‭ ‬دَعَى‭ ‬لِلہ ‬دَاعِ‬‬

“‘Today, the full moon has risen upon us from the valleys of Mount Wada‘; For this reason, gratitude to Allah has become forever obligatory upon us.’

“The Muslim children ran about in the streets and alleys of Medina singing, ‘Muhammad (sa) has arrived. The Messenger (sa) of Allah has arrived.’ To express their happiness upon the arrival of the Holy Prophet (sa), the Abyssinian slaves of Medina would move about demonstrating their feats of swordsmanship.

“When the Holy Prophet (sa) entered the city, every individual desired that the Holy Prophet (sa) stay with them. Each and every person would advance to offer their services. The Holy Prophet (sa) would respond lovingly to everyone, and move forward until his she-camel reached the neighbourhood of the Banu Najjar. At this place, the people of Banu Najjar stood in rows, decorated with arms to welcome the Holy Prophet (sa). The girls of this tribe were reciting the following couplet whilst beating their drums:

نَحْنُ‭ ‬جَوَارٍ‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬بَنِيْ‭ ‬نَجَّارِ‬‬‬‬ يَا‭ ‬حَبَّذَا‭ ‬مُحَمَّدٌ‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬جَارِ‬‬‬‬

“‘We are girls of the Banu Najjar; How fortunate are we that Muhammad (sa), the Messenger of Allah, has come to stay in our neighbourhood.’”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 266-267)

This incident of tying the food was previously mentioned that it took place when they were departing from the house of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). However, in this narration, it is reported to have taken place at this particular occasion. Thus, there are two different occasions reported in history as to when this particular incident took place. Some are of the opinion that this incident took place when the Holy Prophet (sa) was migrating from Mecca and was leaving from the house of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and was going towards the cave of Thaur. However, another opinion is that this incident took place when the Holy Prophet (sa) was leaving the cave of Thaur and migrating towards Medina. In any case, there are two narrations; however, based on the details of the migration which have been mentioned by Hazrat Aisha (ra) and recorded in Bukhari, it seems that this incident took place when they were leaving from the house of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). Thus, it is deemed more appropriate to give preference to the narration of Bukhari. This is because firstly, due to the confidentiality of their stay in the Cave of Thaur, it seems unlikely that Hazrat Asma (ra) would go there to take food. Hazrat Abdullah bin Abi Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Aamir bin Fuhairahra were already going there secretly every day, therefore for a woman to go there [in such circumstances] would go against the measures adopted for security and precaution. Nevertheless, the incident of tying the food with her girdle in the home also demonstrates Hazrat Asma’sra devotion and extreme love [for the Holy Prophet (sa)] as she did not want to waste any time by looking for something else to tie the food with. Of course, it can be said that this took place in the cave because there was nothing available there to tie the food with, but this incident could have taken place in the home as well whereby she did not find something immediately and so to save time she took her girdle and tied the food with it and thus helped to see Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and the Holy Prophet (sa) off on their journey. Hence, according to the narration of Bukhari, it seems more accurate that the incident of tying the food took place when they were about to leave from the house of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) as opposed to leaving from the cave of Thaur for Medina. In any case, Allah knows best.

Upon receiving permission to migrate, the Holy Prophet (sa), taking all the necessary precautions, went to Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) house at midday, when most of the residents of Mecca would remain in their homes and not go to meet one another. The Holy Prophet (sa) took further precaution by keeping his face, head etc. covered owing to the intense heat. When the Holy Prophet (sa) reached near Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) house, someone informed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) – according to the narration of Al-Tabrani and Fath al-Bari, it was Hazrat Asma (ra) who informed him – that it appeared as if the Holy Prophet (sa) was approaching.

Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “May my mother and father be scarified for his sake! By God, there must be a particular reason as to why the Holy Prophet (sa) is coming at this hour of the day.” Thereafter, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), in a state of anxiousness, hurried outside in a manner of utmost devotion. When the Holy Prophet (sa) entered inside the house, Hazrat Aisha (ra) and Hazrat Asma (ra) were present inside the room. The Holy Prophet (sa) stated to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) that he should send out whoever was with him. Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Only my two daughters are here at this time and no one else.” And according to another narration, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Only the members of your household are present in the house and no one else.”

Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “Abu Bakr! I have been granted permission for migration.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) immediately submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Will I be able to accompany you?” The Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “Yes.”

This is a narration from Bukhari.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Buyu, Narration 2138) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqib al-Ansar, Narration 3905) (Fath al-Bari bi-Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 7, p. 277, Dar al-Riyan li al-Turath al-Qahirah, 1986)

Upon hearing this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) began to cry out of happiness. Hazrat Aisha (ra) relates that this was the first time she realised that someone could cry out of happiness as well.

(Al-Sirat Al-Nabawiyyah, ibn Hisham, p. 343, Dikr Hijrat-e-Rasool, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

Subsequently, the entire plan and arrangements for the migration were formulated. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, “O Messenger of Allah! I had purchased two camels for this very purpose. Take one of them.” The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, “I will purchase it for a price.”

Upon the Holy Prophet (sa) insistence of paying for the camel, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was left with no option but to accept. He had bought the two camels for 800 dirhams, and so the Holy Prophet (sa) bought one of them for 400 dirhams. According to one narration, the Holy Prophet (sa) bought the camel for 800 dirhams.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqb al-Ansar, Narration 3905) (Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra li-ibn Saad, Vol. 1, p. 382, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2012) (Sharh Zurqani Ala al-Mawahib al-Diniyyah, Vol. 2, pp. 105-106, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996)

It was then settled that the first stop would be Cave Thaur, where they would spend three days. It was also decided that a person would accompany them who was an expert in all the known and unknown routes of the desert around Mecca. For this, they spoke to Abdullah bin Uraykit, who although was an idolater, was a noble and trustworthy person whom they could rely on. Biographers [of the Holy Prophet (sa)] state that he did not accept Islam, but according to one narration, he accepted Islam later on. Nevertheless, three camels were given to him and he was told to come to Cave Thaur in the morning after exactly three days. Hazrat Abdullah bin Abi Bakr (ra), who was an intelligent young man, was assigned the duty that he would go around the various gatherings in Mecca each day and assess the situation. He would then go to Cave Thaur in the evening and give the reports. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had a wise and responsible slave named Amir bin Fuhayrah, who was assigned the task that he would graze his goats around Cave Thaur and in the evening, he would milk the goats and provide them with milk. Then, after designating the time for leaving Mecca, the Holy Prophet (sa) quickly left Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) house and returned home.

(Tarikh al-Khamees, Vol. 2, p. 7, Dikr Khuroojahusa ma‘a Abi Bakr Min Mecca, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2009) (Al-Raheeq al-Makhtum, Safi-ul-Rahman, p. 165, Dar-ul-Ghada al-Jadid, 2018) (Sharh al-Zurqani, Vol. 2, p. 129, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996)

After returning home, he informed Hazrat Ali (ra) of his plan to migrate and assigned him a precarious task in that he was to sleep in the Holy Prophet (sa) bed, with his green – or, according to another narration, red hadrami mantle – which the Holy Prophet (sa) used whilst sleeping. He assured this devoted servant the glad tidings of support from Allah by saying, “Do not worry. Sleep in my bed with complete contentment. The enemy will not be able to harm you in the slightest.” The Holy Prophet (sa), who was the most truthful and trustworthy, was worried about the possessions he had been entrusted with by the people of Mecca, and owing to this responsibility, he said to join him after he had returned the possessions, i.e. he told Hazrat Ali (ra) to come to Medina once he had returned the possessions. Hazrat Ali (ra) remained in Mecca for three days and gave the possessions that had been entrusted to the Holy Prophet (sa) back to their owners. When he completed this task, he joined the Holy Prophet (sa) when he was in Quba. After this, the Holy Prophet (sa) stepped out of his house, where the elect brave individuals had gathered with their bloodthirsty intentions. With their swords in their hands, they kept watch over the Holy Prophet (sa) house, waiting for nightfall when they would launch a sudden attack and finish him off with one strike. Abu Jahl, who was their ringleader, was saying in an arrogant and mocking way, “Muhammad (sa) says that if you follow him, you will become the kings of the Arabs and non-Arabs alike, and that you will be raised up after your death, and that you will receive gardens like that of Jordan. If you do not do this, then there will be bloodshed amongst you.” The Holy Prophet (sa) came outside and said, “Indeed, this is what I say, and recited the following verses of Surah Ya Sin:

يٰس۔‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬الْقُرْاٰنِ‭ ‬الْحَكِيْمِ۔‭ ‬اِنَّكَ‭ ‬لَمِنَ‭ ‬الْمُرْسَلِيْنَ۔‭ ‬عَلٰي‭ ‬صِرَاطٍ‭ ‬مُّسْتَقِيْمٍ۔‭ ‬تَنْزِيْلَ‭ ‬الْعَزِيْزِ‭ ‬الرَّحِيْمِ۔‭ ‬لِتُنْذِرَ‭ ‬قَوْمًا‭ ‬مَّآ‭ ‬اُنْذِرَ‭ ‬اٰبَاؤُهُمْ‭ ‬فَهُمْ‭ ‬غٰفِلُوْنَ۔‭ ‬لَقَدْ‭ ‬حَقَّ‭ ‬الْقَوْلُ‭ ‬عَلٰٓي‭ ‬اَكْثَرِهِمْ‭ ‬فَهُمْ‭ ‬لَا‭ ‬يُؤْمِنُوْنَ۔‭ ‬اِنَّا‭ ‬جَعَلْنَا‭ ‬فِيْٓ‭ ‬اَعْنَاقِهِمْ‭ ‬اَغْلٰلًا‭ ‬فَهِيَ‭ ‬اِلَي‭ ‬الْاَذْقَانِ‭ ‬فَهُمْ‭ ‬مُّقْمَحُوْنَ۔‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬جَعَلْنَا‭ ‬مِنْۢ‭ ‬بَيْنِ‭ ‬اَيْدِيْهِمْ‭ ‬سَدًّا‭ ‬وَّ‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬خَلْفِهِمْ‭ ‬سَدًّا‭ ‬فَاَغْشَيْنٰهُمْ‭ ‬فَهُمْ‭ ‬لَا‭ ‬يُبْصِرُوْنَ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

The translation is: “Ya Sin [O Leader]. By the Quran, full of wisdom, thou art indeed [one] of the Messengers, on a right path. [This is] a revelation of the Mighty, the Merciful, that thou mayest warn a people whose fathers were not warned, and so they are heedless. Surely, the word has proved true against most of them, for they believe not. We have put round their necks collars reaching to the chins, so that their heads are forced up. And We have set a barrier before them and a barrier behind them, and have covered them over, so that they cannot see.” [Surah Ya Sin, Ch.36: V.2-10]

The Holy Prophet (sa) then left in the midst of them and they were utterly helpless. It was the power of Allah the Almighty that not a single person saw him leave. In fact, they would constantly peer inside and become content that Muhammad (sa) was sleeping on his bed.

(Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Ibn Hisham, p. 342, 348 Dikr Hijrat-e-Rasul, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001) (Muhammad (sa) Rasulullahi Walladhina Ma‘ahu, Vol. 3, p. 74, Baab Al-Hijrat, Egypt) (Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra li-ibn Saad, Vol. 1, p. 176, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2012)

Whilst mentioning this incident, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“The Meccans announced a reward of 100 camels for whoever caught Muhammad (sa) or Abu Bakr (ra), dead or alive. The announcement was made among the tribes around Mecca. Tempted by the reward, Suraqah bin Malik, a Bedouin chief, started in pursuit of the party and ultimately sighted them on the road to Medina. Upon seeing the two mounted camels, he realised that it was the Holy Prophet (sa) and Abu Bakr (ra), he spurred on his horse after them.”

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) then mentioned the entire incident of Suraqah’s horse stumbling and falling and also him seeking an omen [by throwing arrows]. Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) continues:

“Suraqah says: ‘The Holy Prophet (sa) rode with dignity, and did not look back. Abu Bakr (ra), however, looked back again and again evidently, out of fear for the safety of the Holy Prophet (sa).’”

After mentioning the details of the incident whereby Suraqah pursued after them, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) writes:

“Just as Suraqah was about to leave, the Holy Prophet (sa) received a revelation from Allah the Almighty about the future events and said, ‘Suraqah, how wilt thou feel with the gold bangles of the Chosroes on thy wrists?’ In utter astonishment, Suraqah asked, ‘Which Chosroes? Chosroes bin Hormizd, the Emperor of Iran?’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Yes’.

“Sixteen or seventeen years later, the prophecy was literally fulfilled. Suraqah accepted Islam and went to Medina. After the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), first Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), and then Hazrat Umar (ra) became the Khalifas of Islam. The growing influence of Islam led the Iranians to attack the Muslims but, instead of defeating the Muslims, they themselves were defeated. The capital of Iran fell to the Muslims who captured its treasures, including the gold bangles which the Chosroes wore when he would sit on the royal throne.

“After becoming a Muslim, Suraqah used to relate the incident of the migration with great pride. Thus, the Muslims were well aware that the Holy Prophet (sa) had stated to him, ‘Suraqah, how wilt thou feel with the gold bangles of the Chosroes on thy wrists?’

“When the spoils of the war were placed before Hazrat Umar (ra), he saw the gold bangles of Chosroes and recalled that very incident. It was a time of weakness in which the Messenger (sa) of Allah was forced to leave his city and migrate to Medina, and the reason why Suraqah and other men raced their horses in pursuit of him was so that they could somehow bring him back to the Meccans alive and acquire the reward of 100 camels. It was in such a time that the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, ‘Suraqah, how wilt thou feel with the gold bangles of the Chosroes on thy wrists?’ How grand a prophecy this was and how manifestly clear was this news of the unseen. When Hazrat Umar (ra) saw the bangles of Chosroes before him, the power of God was visible before his eyes.

“He, therefore, sent for Suraqah. When Suraqah came, Hazrat Umar (ra) ordered him to put on the gold bangles. Suraqah stated, ‘O Khalifa of the Messenger (sa) of Allah! It is forbidden for Muslims to wear gold.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, ‘This is true, but not for occasions such as this one. Allah the Almighty had shown the Holy Prophet (sa) that Chosroes’ gold bangles were on your wrists; therefore either you wear them now or I will punish you.’ Suraqah was only objecting out of deference to the Shariah; otherwise, he was as eager as anyone else to provide visible proof of the fulfilment of the great prophecy. Suraqah put on the bangles and Muslims witnessed with their very eyes the fulfilment of this grand prophecy.”

(Dibachah Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, pp. 224-226)

It is further mentioned that on his way back, Suraqah encountered an envoy that was sent to seek out the Holy Prophet (sa). They asked Suraqah for any information about the Holy Prophet (sa), but Suraqah not only refrained from telling them anything, he also spoke to them in a manner that caused them to halt their search.

(Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Vol. 3, Jama Abwab al-Hijrah ila al-Medina [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 249)

When Abu Marsad, may Allah be pleased with him, and his son, Marsad migrated to Medina, both of them stayed with Hazrat Kulthum bin Al-Hadam. According to some, both of them stayed with Hazrat Sa‘d bin Haitham. Hazrat Abu Marsad was with the Holy Prophet (sa) in all the battles.

(At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 35, Abu Marsad, Da-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, 1990, Beirut)

Masjid Nabwi, Medina

With regard to Hazrat Umar’s (ra) migration to Medina, Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Abbas narrates that Ali (ra) bin Abi Talib said to him:

“From among the Muhajireen, I do not know anyone who did not migrate discreetly, except for Hazrat Umar bin Khattab (ra). When he decided to migrate, he took his sword, hung his bow across his shoulder, held arrows in his hand and went towards the Ka‘bah.

“The leaders of the Quraish were present in the vicinity of the Ka‘bah. Hazrat Umar (ra) calmly performed seven circuits of the Ka‘bah, and then went to Maqam-e-Ibrahim and offered his prayers with ease. He then went to each tribe individually and said to them, ‘May the faces become disfigured and their noses be rubbed in the dust! Whoever wishes for their mother to be separated from him, for their children to become orphaned and for their wives to become widowed, should meet me beyond this valley.’”

Hazrat Ali (ra) then stated, “Aside from a few weak and helpless Muslims, nobody went after Hazrat Umar (ra). Hazrat Umar (ra) imparted information to them and having guided them, he set off on his journey.”

(Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 3, Umar bin al-Khattab (ra) Hijratuh [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2003], pp. 648-649)

Hazrat Umar (ra) openly declaring that he was about to migrate has only been mentioned in this narration by Hazrat Ali (ra), whereas the majority of biographers hold a different view to this.

Muhammad Husayn Haykal has written a book about the life and character of Hazrat Umar (ra). In his book, he has argued that with regard to the migration, the Holy Prophet (sa) had instructed to migrate from Mecca quietly and discreetly, lest the opponents became aware of it and tried to stop them or hinder them. Therefore, in light of this clear instruction, how could it be that Hazrat Umar (ra) would disobey this instruction, especially given that in Al-Tabaqat by Ibn Saad and Ibn Hisham, it is written that Hazrat Umar (ra) migrated secretly along with the rest of the Muslims?

Nonetheless, if one deems the narration of Hazrat Ali (ra) to be correct, then it could be the case that Hazrat Umar (ra) made this announcement, but did not migrate at that time; i.e. he announced before the leaders of the Quraish in the vicinity of the Ka‘bah that he would migrate and so whoever wished to stop him could try, but then he did not migrate at the time.

Then later, when it was time to migrate, he migrated quietly. Nevertheless, what Haykal has mentioned is also significant and as mentioned earlier, Ibn Saad in Al-Tabaqat and Ibn Hisham have also stated this. It seems that in accordance with the command of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Umar (ra) also migrated quietly along with the other Muslims, because given the situation of Mecca at the time, it was not possible to migrate by announcing their intentions. In fact, we find that until the Conquest of Mecca, anyone who migrated had to do so in secret.

Nonetheless, if the narration of Hazrat Ali (ra) is to be deemed correct, then it could be an action from his own part, but the apparent evidence suggests that this [narration] is not correct.

(Muhammad Husain Haikal, Al-Faruq Umar, Vol. 1, Bab fi Suhbat al-Nabi (sa), [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2007], pp. 53-54)

Hazrat Bara bin Aazib (ra) narrates:

“The first from among the Muhajireen to reach us was Hazrat Mus‘ab (ra) bin Umair, who belonged to the Banu Abd al-Dar tribe, followed by Hazrat Ibn Umm Maktum, who was blind and belonged to the Banu Fihr tribe. After them, it was Hazrat Umar (ra) bin Khattab, along with 20 people on horseback. We enquired from them about the Holy Prophet (sa), to which they said that he was behind them”, i.e. that he would come after a while. “Then after some time, the Holy Prophet (sa) came and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was with him.”

(Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 4 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2003], p. 145)

If this narration is correct, then it is very possible that Hazrat Umar (ra) would have mentioned his migration before a gathering and vehemently announced that if anyone wished, they could try to stop him, but then he migrated quietly because in this narration, it is stated that 20 people migrated with him. Nevertheless, Allah knows best. Upon arrival in Medina, Hazrat Umar (ra) stayed in Quba with Rifa‘a bin Abdil Munzir.

(Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 1 [Karachi, Pakistan: Dar al-Isha‘ah, 2004], p. 93)

Quba is an elevated area situated three miles from Medina and at the time, some families of the Ansar had settled there. The most eminent from among those families was that of Amr bin Auf. The leader of this family was Kulthum bin Hidam, with whom the Holy Prophet (sa) stayed when he arrived in Quba.

(Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-i-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 230)

Hazrat Abdullah bin Jahsh (ra), prior to his migration to Medina, came to Mecca and he took along all the members of the Dudan family from among his tribe of Banu Ghanam to Medina (who had all accepted Islam). These families left Mecca in such vast numbers that entire neighbourhoods were left deserted and many houses were sealed shut.

(At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra Li Ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p.49, Abdullah (ra) bin Jahsh, Dar Ihya At-turath Al-Arabi, 1996, Beirut).

On this occasion, the two loyal and courageous daughters of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) – Hazrat Aisha (ra) and Hazrat Asma (ra) – quickly prepared some food for the journey, which included a roasted goat. Owing to the sensitivity of the situation and shortage of time, they could not find anything to tie the food vessel made from leather, and so Hazrat Asma (ra) took her girdle and cut it into two pieces and tied the food. She tied one piece to the food vessel and other to the water vessel.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Jihad wa al-Sair, Narration 2979) (Sharh al-Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Diniyyah, Vol. 2, p. 107, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996)

The Holy Prophet (sa) was carefully observing her love and devotion and stated, “O Asma! In exchange of this girdle, may Allah grant you two girdles in Paradise”, that is, the girdle she had tied over her garment on her back. Owing to this saying of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Asma (ra) was later known as “Dhat al-Nitaqain” [possessor of two girdles].

(Subul al-Huda wa al-Rishad, Vol. 3, p. 239, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993)

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“After he left the cave, the Holy Prophet (sa) mounted himself upon a camel which in light of various narrations, was named Al-Qaswa, while Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and his servant, Aamir bin Fuhairah mounted upon the other. Upon his departure, the Holy Prophet (sa) cast a final glance towards Mecca and said in intense grief, ‘O city of Mecca! You are more beloved to me than all the places of the world, but your people have not allowed me to live here.’ At that time, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, ‘These people have exiled their prophet. Indeed, they shall be destroyed.’”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 240)

Hazrat Asma (ra) relates, “When the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) left for the migration, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) took all his wealth with him which amounted to five or six thousand dirhams.”

She further relates, “Our grandfather, Abu Quhafah came to us and by that time, he had lost his eyesight. He said, ‘By Allah, he’”, i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), “‘has left you in a trial not only on account of himself but also through his wealth.’ Upon this, I stated, ‘O my grandfather! Certainly not, for he has left us with an abundance of wealth.’ I then took some stones and placed them in the ledge of the window where my father would put his money and then placed a cloth over them. I then took hold of my grandfather’s hand and said, ‘Here, place your hand on the wealth.’ He placed his hand on it and then said, ‘if he has left so much wealth behind then he has done well and there is no harm done.’”

Hazrat Asma (ra) further relates, “I swear by Allah, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) did not leave anything behind, but I just wanted to reassure this elderly man through this.”

(Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, p. 345, Hijrat al-Rasul (sa), Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

The Promised Messiah (as) states:

“When the disbelievers of Mecca intended to murder the Holy Prophet (sa), Allah the Almighty informed His virtuous prophet of their evil plot and instructed him to migrate from Mecca to Medina, at the same time He also gave him the glad tiding of his return following his future victory with divine help. It was in the afternoon on a Wednesday, during days of severe heat, when this trial was uncovered and revealed by Allah.”

(Surma Chashm-e-Arya, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 2, p. 64 [footnote])

It is mentioned in another narration that when the Holy Prophet (sa) migrated to Medina, every person desired for him to stay at their home and there are many narrations in this regard, but the Holy Prophet (sa) stated “Wherever my she-camel kneels I shall stay at that house”.

As the she-camel passed through the streets, everyone was pleading with the Holy Prophet (sa) to remain with them, but he replied by instructing them to clear the way for the she-camel, i.e. it will sit itself wherever God Almighty pleases. Hence, it carried on walking till it reached the area where there is now the door to Masjid Nabwi and knelt. When the she-camel sat down the Holy Prophet (sa) received a revelation. He was still mounted on the she-camel when it stood up and walked ahead slightly. The Holy Prophet (sa) had let go of the reins and the she-camel then returned to the original spot it was at previously and lowered its neck to the ground.

It was then that Hazrat Jabbar (ra) bin Sakkhar tried to raise its neck in hope that it would kneel in the quarters of Banu Salma, but it did not get up and the Holy Prophet (sa) descended saying “God willing, I shall remain here” and then recited the verse:

وَقُلْ رَّبِّ اَنْزِلْنِیْ مُنْزَلًا مُّبٰرَکًا وَّاَنْتَ خَیْرُ الْمُنْزِلِیْنَ

“ ‘And say, “My Lord, cause me to land a blessed landing, for Thou art the Best of those who bring men to land.”’” (Al-Mominun: V.30).

The Holy Prophet (sa) then asked, “Whose house is the closest?” Abu Ayub Ansari (ra) replied “This is my house, and this is the door and we have placed the saddle of your camel inside”. The Holy Prophet (sa) said “Let us go ahead and prepare the place of rest”. Hence, he went and prepared his place to rest.

(Subul-ul-Huda Wa Al-Rashaad Fi Seerat Khair Al-Abaad, Vol. 3, pp. 272-273, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993

Meanwhile, the Quraish in Mecca had been waiting outside of the Holy Prophet (sa) home. A person passed by and asked why they were standing there. When they told him, the man informed them that he had seen Muhammad (sa) walking through the streets. They mocked the man and said that they had been keeping watch, and that he was inside, sleeping in his bed. As the night passed, they stormed in according to their plan, but when they pulled the blanket off, they realised that the person sleeping was actually Hazrat Ali (ra). They asked him where Muhammad (sa) was, to which he replied that he did not know. When they heard this, the disbelievers scolded and beat Hazrat Ali (ra) and after holding him captive for some time, they let him go.

According to this narration, after scolding and beating Hazrat Ali (ra), they left in a state of great anger and began searching the streets and homes of Mecca for the Holy Prophet (sa).

(Tarikh al-Khamees, Vol. 2, p. 10, Dhikr Khurujahusa ma‘a Abi Bakr min Makkah, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2009)

They also went to Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) home, where they met Hazrat Asma (ra). Abu Jahl stepped forward and asked where her father Abu Bakr (ra) was. She replied that she did not know where he was. Upon this, the evil natured Abu Jahl raised his hand and slapped her across the face so hard that her earring broke and fell, and in their state of rage, they all left.

(Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Ibn Hisham, p. 344, Dikr Hijrat-e-Rasul, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

Hazrat Ubaidah bin Harith migrated to Medina along with his two brothers, Hazrat Tufail bin Harith and Hazrat Hussain bin Harith. Hazrat Mistah bin Usasah was also with them. Prior to the journey, they had decided to meet in the valley of Najeh. However, Hazrat Mistah bin Usasah remained behind as he was bitten by a snake. The following day, when they were informed of him being bitten by a snake, they returned and travelled with him to Medina. They stayed with Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Salamah in Medina.

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 37, Ubaidah bin Harith, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has written about this sacrifice by Hazrat Ali (ra) in the following manner:

“When the Holy Prophet (sa) was leaving, he instructed Hazrat Ali (ra) to lay down on his charpoy. In those days there was no custom of using charpoy [traditional woven bedstead used in the subcontinent]; in fact even today, it is not commonly used in Mecca. In some narrations, it has been incorrectly mentioned that the Holy Prophet (sa) asked him to lie down on his charpoy. This referred to the place where they would usually sleep as there were no proper beds as such.

“At night, when the Holy Prophet (sa) passed by those people, some of them even saw him but thought that it was someone else who had come to meet Muhammad (sa) and was returning home. The reason for this was that the Holy Prophet (sa) left his home in the most courageous manner whereby he was not fearful in the slightest. The enemies thought Muhammad (sa) would never dare to leave his home in such a brave and bold manner. Indeed, it could only be someone else who came to visit him. Then to reassure themselves that he was still there, they peaked through the gap of the door and upon seeing a person sleeping they thought that it was Muhammad (sa). Thus, they stood watch over the house the entire night.

“When they thought the time was right, they entered the house. Perhaps noticing the person laying down they became suspicious that it did not seem like Muhammad (sa). When they removed the cloak from his face, or perhaps the face was uncovered, they realised that the one sleeping was Ali (ra) and not Muhammad (sa). They then discovered that Muhammad (sa) had safely departed and for them there was nothing left but to live with this defeat.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 8, p. 510)

In another place, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Allah the Almighty enabled Hazrat Ali (ra) to make a great sacrifice. On the night of the migration, when the Holy Prophet (sa) was departing his home, he instructed Hazrat Ali (ra) to lay down where he would sleep, so that if the disbelievers peered inside, they would see that someone was sleeping there and to prevent them leaving to search for him. At that time, Hazrat Ali (ra) did not say, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! The house is surrounded by carefully chosen youths of the Quraish with swords in hand. If in the morning they discover that you have left, they may kill me’; instead Hazrat Ali (ra) calmly laid down in the place of the Holy Prophet (sa) without any hesitation. The Holy Prophet (sa) placed his sheet over him.

“In the morning, when the Quraish realised that Hazrat Ali (ra) was the one sleeping [in the house] instead of the Holy Prophet (sa), they became enraged. They even hit and beat Hazrat Ali (ra), but what more could they have achieved by doing this? Divine decree had come to pass and the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa) had safely left Mecca. At that time, little did Hazrat Ali (ra) know as to what he was going to receive in return for his level of faith. Indeed, Allah the Almighty knew that in return for this sacrifice, He was not only going to honour Hazrat Ali (ra), but in fact Hazrat Ali’s (ra) progeny would also be granted honour.

“Thus, the first grace Allah the Almighty bestowed upon Hazrat Ali (ra) was that he had the honour of becoming the son-in-law of the Holy Prophet (sa). The second blessing Allah the Almighty bestowed upon him was that He instilled so much love in the heart of the Holy Prophet (sa) for Hazrat Ali (ra) that the Holy Prophet (sa) praised him on countless occasions.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 7, p. 25)

Ibn Ishaq states that when Banu Jahsh bin Rayab emigrated from Mecca, Abu Sufyan bin Harb sold his house to Amr bin Alqamah. When this news reached Hazrat Abdullah(ra) bin Jahsh at Medina, he related it to the Holy Prophet(sa). Upon hearing that, the Holy Prophet(sa) said:

“O Abdullah! Are you not content with the fact that God will grant you a palace in Paradise in its place?”

Hazrat Abdullah bin Jahsh(ra) replied:

“Yes indeed, O Messenger Of Allah (sa)! I am content.”

Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) said,

“Then, those palaces will be granted to you.”

(Sirat Ibn-e-Hisham, p. 352, Bab Hijratul Rasool, Darul Kutb-ul-Ilmiyah, 2001, Beirut)

By this the Holy Prophet (sa) meant that in place of the houses which he had left behind, he will be granted a station in the Heavens where palaces will be prepared for him.

According to the Promised Messiah (as), the Holy Prophet (sa) left his home in the morning. The Promised Messiah (as) states:

“None of the opponents saw the Holy Prophet (sa) when he left, even though it was morning and all of the opponents were stood surrounding the house of the Holy Prophet (sa). It was just as God Almighty stated in Surah Ya Sin that a covering was placed over the eyes of those unfortunate people and the Holy Prophet (sa) left them in a state that they were utter humiliated.”

(Surma Chashm-e-Arya, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 2, p. 66 [footnote])

In any case, there are various narrations, but they all state that the disbelievers had no knowledge.

According to one narration, as the Holy Prophet (sa) walked upon the mountainous terrain towards Cave Thaur, his feet became injured.

( Muhammad (sa) Rasulullahi Walladhina Ma‘ahu, Abdul Hameed, Vol. 3, p. 59, Baab Al-Hijrat, Egypt)

According to another narration, his foot hit a rock along the way, causing injury.

(Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 1, p. 568, Tarikh Qabal al-Hijrat, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1987)

When they reached Cave Thaur, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) requested the Holy Prophet (sa) to wait outside, while he went inside and cleaned the cave thoroughly, and if there was anything dangerous inside, he would be the one to encounter it. Thus, he went inside and cleaned the cave, and he blocked any holes and crevices with his own clothes. Then he invited the Holy Prophet (sa) inside. It is stated that the Holy Prophet (sa) lay down and placed his head on Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) thigh. There was one hole which Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) either did not have enough cloth to block or had not seen, and so he covered it with his foot. It is recorded that either a scorpion or snake kept biting him through this hole, but out of fear of disturbing the Holy Prophet (sa) by moving, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) remained still. When the Holy Prophet (sa) awoke, he noticed that the colour of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) face had changed, and asked what was wrong. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) explained what had happened, upon which the Holy Prophet (sa) applied his blessed saliva [to the wound] on his foot, and it healed as if nothing had even happened.

(Sharh al-Zurqani, Vol. 2, p. 121, Bab Hijrat al-Mustafa wa Sahabahu Ila al-Medina, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996)

The Meccans Deploy Expert Trackers and Reach the Cave of Thaur

And after scouring Mecca to no avail, they deployed expert trackers to every corner of Mecca. One of the chiefs of Mecca, Umayya bin Khalaf took an expert tracker with him and set out along with his counterparts. There is no doubt that this tracker was exceptionally skilled. In fact, he cannot be complimented enough, for he was the only tracker who was able to trace the Holy Prophet (sa) footprints to Cave Thaur, and once there, he said that Muhammad’s (sa) footprints stopped there and did not go any further.”

Allama Baladhuri has stated that the tracker’s name was Alqama bin Kurz, and writes that he accepted Islam during the Conquest of Mecca. They were standing and talking by the mouth of the cave, and not only were the two migrants [the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)] hidden inside the very same cave, they could hear what the people outside were saying. In fact, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) states, “I could see their feet, and by God, if even one of them were to look inside, we would have been caught.” However, in this time of danger and hardship, those two were not alone; rather, God was the Third among them, Who has control over the earth and the heavens and power over all things.

(Subul al-Huda wa al-Rishad, Vol. 3, p. 241, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fazail Ashaab al-Nabi, Baab Manaqib-ul-Muhajireen wa Fazlehim, Narration 3653)

Before those people arrived, He caused a tree to grow through His miraculous power, He sent a spider which spun a web at the mouth of the cave, and He sent a pair of birds who made a nest and laid eggs. This is all recorded in the narration.

(Al-Muwahib al-Ladunniyyah, Allama Qastallani, Vol. 1, pp. 292-292, Al-Maktab Al-Islami, Beirut, 2004)

His Anxiety about the Holy Prophet (sa) being Captured at the Cave of Thaur

اِلَّا تَنۡصُرُوۡهُ فَقَدۡ نَصَرَهُ اللّٰهُ اِذۡ اَخۡرَجَهُ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡا ثَانِيَ اثۡنَيۡنِ اِذۡ هُمَا فِي الۡغَارِ اِذۡ يَقُوۡلُ لِصَاحِبِهٖ لَا تَحۡزَننۡ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ مَعَنَاۚ فَاَنۡزَلَ اللّٰهُ سَكِيۡنَتَهٗ عَلَيۡهِ وَ اَيَّدَهٗ بِجُنُوۡدٍ لَّمۡ تَرَوۡهَا وَ جَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوا السُّفۡلٰي ؕ وَ كَلِمَةُ اللّٰهِ هِيَ الۡعُلۡيَا ؕ وَ اللّٰهُ عَزِيۡزٌ حَكِيۡمٌ

In the previous sermon, the incident of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) with regard to Cave Thaur was being mentioned. In the aforementioned verse of the Holy Quran, which relates to this incident whereby the enemies had reached Cave Thaur, Allah the Almighty says, the translation of which is:

“If you help him not, then [know that] Allah helped him [even] when the disbelievers drove him forth while he was one of the two when they were both in the cave, when he said to his companion, ‘Grieve not, for Allah is with us.’ Then Allah sent down His peace on him, and strengthened him with hosts which you did not see, and humbled the word of those who disbelieved, and it is the word of Allah alone which is supreme. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.” (Ch.9: V.40)

This has been mentioned in the Holy Quran in relation to the incident that took place in Cave Thaur. The disbelievers of Mecca were speaking to one another at the entrance of the cave. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) heard them and became anxious as to what would happen if they were to capture the Holy Prophet (sa) at this place because the entire religion of Islam was due to the blessed life of the Holy Prophet (sa). When the Holy Prophet (sa) noticed that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was becoming anxious, he said:

لَا‭ ‬تَحۡزَنۡ‭ ‬اِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

“Grieve not, for Allah is with us (O Abu Bakr).”

(Sharh al-Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1996], pp. 122-123)

The Enemy turns back from the Cave of Thaur

The enemy followed the Holy Prophet (sa) and when they reached the mountain where the Cave Thaur was located, the person who was searching their tracks said, “I cannot tell where these two individuals went from here.” When they reached near the cave, he said, “By God! The person you are pursuing did not go beyond this point.”

(Tarikh al-Khamis, Vol. 2, p. 15, fi Waqai‘ al-Sanah al-Ula min al-Hijrah, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2009)

When the person searching the tracks uttered these words at the entrance of the cave, and at this point someone even wanted to take a look inside the cave, Umayya bin Khalaf said in a rather harsh and careless manner, “I have seen this web and tree here even before Muhammad (sa) was born. You must have lost your mind. How could he be here? Let us leave this place and look for him elsewhere.”

Having said this, the people returned.

(Allama Qastallani, Al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 1, pp. 292-293, Al-Maktabah al-Islami, Beirut, 2004)

The Meccans Deploy Expert Trackers and Reach the Cave of Thaur (Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib’s (ra) Narration)

In Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin [The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets (sa)], Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) has mentioned the announcement of the Quraish of Mecca and their pursuit of the Holy Prophet (sa) in the following manner,

“An open announcement was made that whoever brought Muhammad (sa) back, dead or alive, would be given a bounty of 100 camels. Therefore, longing for this reward, many people set out in all directions of Mecca. Even the chieftains of the Quraish set out behind the Holy Prophet (sa), and following clues, they precisely reached the mouth of the Cave of Thaur. Arriving here, their detectives said, ‘That is it. The footsteps go no further. Therefore, either Muhammad (sa) is hiding nearby, or he has ascended to the heavens.’

“Someone said, ‘Go and check the inside of this cave as well,’ but someone else said, ‘Alas! What logic is there in such an idea? Is it possible for an individual to hide in such a cave? This is an extremely dark and dangerous place, and we have always looked upon it as such.’

“It is also narrated that after the Holy Prophet (sa) entered the cave, a spider spun a web on the tree which was located just at the entrance of the cave, and a pigeon made a nest and laid its eggs on the branch which was exactly in front of the cave.”

According to Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra), “This narration is weak, but if something of this sort happened, it is not bewildering in the least.” Although it is a weak narration, it is not a matter of great astonishment. “In some cases, a spider weaves a web over a vast area in just minutes, and it does not take long for a pigeon to make a nest and lay its eggs. Therefore, if, by His divine power, God Almighty made this happen for the protection of His messenger, it is not unbelievable; rather, considering the situation at hand, it is completely plausible. In any case, no man from the Quraish went in, and all the people returned from here.”

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) further writes:

“It is narrated that the Quraish reached so near that their feet could be seen from inside the cave, and their voices could be heard. At this instance, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) apprehensively, but quietly, said to the Holy Prophet (sa), ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! The Quraish are so close that their feet can be seen. If they come forward even a little more, and snare in, they will be able to see us.’

“The Holy Prophet (sa) said:

لَا‭ ‬تَحۡزَنۡ‭ ‬اِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

“Meaning, ‘Worry not, Allah is with us.’ Then, the Holy Prophet (sa) said:

وَمَا‭ ‬ظَنُّكَ‭ ‬يَا‭ ‬أَبا‭ ‬بَكْرٍ‭ ‬بِإِثْنَيْنِ‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬ثَالِثُهُمَا

“Meaning, ‘O Abu Bakr! What do you infer of those two individuals, the third of Whom is God?’

“In another narration, it is related that when the Quraish reached the mouth of the Cave, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) became very worried. When the Holy Prophet (sa) noticed his anxiety, he comforted him that there is nothing to worry about. At this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said in a weeping tone:

إِنْ‭ ‬قُتِلْتُ‭ ‬فَأَنَا‭ ‬رَجُلٌ‭ ‬وَاحِدٌ‭ ‬وَإِنْ‭ ‬قُتِلْتَ‭ ‬أَنْتَ‭ ‬فَهَلَكَتِ‭ ‬الْأُمَّةُ

“Meaning, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! If I am killed, I am merely one man. But if (God-forbid) you are harmed, then it is as if the entire community has been erased.’

“Upon this, after receiving revelation from God, the Holy Prophet (sa) responded in the following words:

لَا‭ ‬تَحۡزَنۡ‭ ‬اِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

“Meaning, ‘O Abu Bakr, do not worry at all, because Allah is with us, and we are both under His Divine protection.’

“In other words, ‘You are worried for me, and in the passion of your sincerity, you feel no grief for your own life. However, at this time, not only is God the Almighty my Protector, but yours as well, and He shall protect us from the evil of our enemy.’”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 237-239)

Departure from the Cave of Thaur

At the same time, since three days had passed, Abdullah bin Urayqit brought the camels according to the agreed plan.

A narration of Sahih al-Bukhari mentions that it was settled with Abdullah bin Urayqit that after three days had passed, he would bring the camels with him the next morning.

(Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, p. 344, Hijrat al-Rasul, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah Beirut, 2008) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqib al-Ansar, Bab Hijrat al-Nabi (sa), Hadith 3905) (Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Ibn Hajr Asqalani, Vol. 7, p. 238, Dar al-Ma‘rifah, Beirut)

From this narration, it seems that the journey from Cave Thaur to Medina began in the morning; however, from another narration of Bukhari, it is clarified that the journey, in fact, started in the evening. Whilst mentioning Abdullah bin Urayqit, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“The Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had entrusted their camels to him, and explained that after three nights, on the morning of the third day, to reach the Cave of Thaur with their camels. Therefore, as per the agreement, he reached there. This is a famous narration of Bukhari, but historians write that the Holy Prophet (sa) left during the night time, and this itself is supported by another narration of Bukhari. Moreover, the idea that the Holy Prophet (sa) departed at night seems to be the most believable notion as well.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 239-240)

The Holy Prophet (sa) left the cave on the night of Monday, 1 Rabi‘ al-Awal and continued the journey. According to Ibn Saad, the Holy Prophet (sa) left the cave on the night of Monday 4 Rabi‘ al-Awal.

(Tarikh al-Khamis, Vol. 2, p. 15, Dhikr Khurujihsa ma‘a Abi Bakr (ra) min Makkah, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2009)

The first date was narrated by Khamis and the commentator of Sahih al-Bukhari, Allamah Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani writes that Imam Hakim states that there are numerous narrations which state that the Holy Prophet (sa) left Mecca on Monday and arrived in Medina on Monday as well, except for Muhammad bin Musa Khwarizmi. He stated that the Holy Prophet (sa) left Mecca on Thursday.

In order to reconcile these different narrations, Allama Ibn Hajar writes that the Holy Prophet (sa) left Mecca on Thursday and after spending three nights in the cave, i.e. Friday, Saturday and Sunday, he left for Medina on the night of Monday.

(Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Ibn Hajr Asqalani,Vol. 7, p. 299, Qadimi Kutub Khana Maqabil, Arambagh, Karachi)

The camel which the Holy Prophet (sa) mounted himself upon is said to be Al-Qaswa. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) mounted a camel along with Aamir bin Fuhairah, while Urayqit mounted on a camel of his own. The total wealth that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had at the time in his home was five to six thousand dirhams and he brought this with him. According to some narrations, Aamir bin Fuhairah and Hazrat Asma (ra) came with the food which consisted of roasted goat meat. Upon reaching there they realised that they had no cloth to tie the food and water vessel with. Hazrat Asma (ra) loosened her girdle and ripped it into two pieces. With one of the pieces, she tied the food and with the other piece, she tied the water vessel. Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) gave Hazrat Asma (ra) the glad tidings of two girdles in Paradise. He then told everyone to leave and started his journey with the following prayer:

اللّٰهُمَّ‭ ‬اصْحَبْنِيْ‭ ‬فِيْ‭ ‬سَفَرِيْ‭ ‬وَاخْلُفْنِيْ‭ ‬فِيْ‭ ‬أَهْلِيْ

“O Allah! Become my Companion in this journey of mine and become the Guardian of my family.”

(Abdul Hameed Jaudah al-Sahhar, Muhammad (sa) Rasulullah walladhina ma‘ahu, Vol. 3 [Egypt: Maktabah Misr], p. 61)(Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, p. 345, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

Departure from the Cave of Thaur (Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib’s (ra) Narration)

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“After he left the cave, the Holy Prophet (sa) mounted himself upon a camel which in light of various narrations, was named Al-Qaswa, while Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and his servant, Aamir bin Fuhairah mounted upon the other. Upon his departure, the Holy Prophet (sa) cast a final glance towards Mecca and said in intense grief, ‘O city of Mecca! You are more beloved to me than all the places of the world, but your people have not allowed me to live here.’ At that time, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, ‘These people have exiled their prophet. Indeed, they shall be destroyed.’”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 240)

Departure from the Cave of Thaur (Hazrat Musleh Mau’d’s (ra) Narration)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“After waiting two days in the cave, according to the agreed plan, the mounts were brought near the cave in the night and the Holy Prophet (sa) and his companions set out on fleet camels. The Holy Prophet (sa) and the guide were mounted on one of the camels.”

It is also mentioned in the narrations that both were mounted on one camel and according to other narrations there were three camels. In any case, “Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and his servant, Aamir bin Fuhairah were mounted on the other camel. Just before departing for Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) turned towards the direction of Mecca – the holy city which was his birthplace, where his advent took place and the place where his ancestors from the time of Hazrat Ishmaelas had been living. The Holy Prophet (sa) cast a final glance and addressed the city with great anguish, ‘O city of Mecca, you are more beloved to me than all the places of the world, but your people have not allowed me to live here.’ At that time, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said with great regret, ‘These people have exiled their prophet. Indeed they shall be destroyed.’”

(Dibachah Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, pp. 223-224) (Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, p. 344, Hijrat al-Rasul (sa), Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

In the narrations, it is stated that according to the agreed arrangements, Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) astute son, Hazrat Abdullah bin Abi Bakr (ra) would come to Cave Thaur in the evenings and inform them about the daily activities of Mecca. He would receive instructions and then at dawn he would return to Mecca discreetly as if he spent the entire night in Mecca. Furthermore, the wisdom of Aamir bin Fuhairah was such that after he gave them goats’ milk, he would bring back the flock of goats in a way that it would conceal the footprints of Hazrat Abdullah bin Abi Bakr (ra).

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqib al-Ansar, Bab Hijrat al-Nabi (sa), Hadith 3905) (Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Vol. 1-2, p. 289, Dhikr Hijrat al-Rasul, Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi, Beirut, 2008)

Some biographers have written that Hazrat Asma (ra) would bring food each night.

(Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, Bab Ard al-Rasul (sa) Nafsih [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 54)

However, this seems highly unlikely. Given the dangerous circumstances at the time, some biographers state that for a woman to visit there [Cave Thaur] each night would be akin to exposing the entire plan, and this indeed is a correct viewpoint. Furthermore, since Hazrat Abdullah bin Abi Bakr (ra) was visiting each day, there was no need for Hazrat Asma (ra) to bring food. Nonetheless, Allah knows best.

Three days passed by in this manner. When the people of Mecca searched all the surrounding places and returned unsuccessful, they consulted with one another and announced a large reward; they sent town criers to each nearby settlement to make the announcement that whosoever brought back Muhammad (sa), dead or alive, would receive a reward of 100 camels. The greed of such a large reward reinvigorated many people to set out in search of the Holy Prophet (sa).

(Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, Bab Ard al-Rasul (sa) Nafsih [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 54)

When Allah the Almighty commanded the Muslims to migrate, Hazrat Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas (ra) also migrated to Medina and stayed with his brother Utbah bin Abi Waqas, who was an idolater. Utbah had killed someone in Mecca and thus he fled to Medina and settled there.

(Roshan Sitarey az Ghulam Bari Saif Sahib, Vol. 2, pp. 66-67)

Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) was amongst the first people to migrate.

(Umdatul Qari, Vol. 1, p. 305, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

Whilst mentioning these details, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“The companions of the Holy Prophet (sa) had begun preparations to migrate. One family after another would begin to disappear from Mecca. Now, even those who were awaiting the sovereignty of God Almighty became even more bold [that God’s help was near], and at times, the houses of an entire street of Mecca would be locked at night, and come the morning, when the people of the city would find it to be very quiet, upon enquiry, they would learn that all the residents on the street had migrated to Medina. This deep impact of Islam which had been growing from within Mecca, had left the Meccans astonished. Eventually, Mecca had been vacated by the Muslims, and aside from a few slaves, only the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra) had remained in Mecca.”

(Dibacha Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, p. 222)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) further says:

“The idolaters of Mecca naturally harboured greater malice and enmity for the Holy Prophet (sa) than for anyone else because they witnessed with their own eyes that as a result of his teachings, opposition to idol-worship was continuing to spread. They believed that if they assassinated him, the rest of his community would automatically fall apart. For this reason, they would persecute the Holy Prophet (sa) more than anyone else and hoped that one way or another, he would desist from his claims. In spite of all these difficulties, the Holy Prophet (sa) instructed his companions to migrate, but continued to suffer these trials and difficulties himself, and did not migrate from Mecca, as he had not yet received permission from Allah Almighty to do so. Hence, when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) asked if he should undertake the migration, the Holy Prophet (sa) replied:

عَلٰي‭ ‬رِسْلِكَ‭ ‬فَاِنِّيْ‭ ‬اَرْجُو‭ ‬اَنْ‭ ‬يُّؤْذَنَ‭ ‬لِيْ‬‬‬‬‬‬

“‘Wait, for I hope that I too shall be granted permission.’”

(Sirat-ul-Nabi, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 1, p. 489)

The disbelievers [of Mecca] convened in Dar al-Nadwah to secretly plot against the Holy Prophet (sa). Regarding this, it is recorded that the chieftains of Mecca were enraged and agitated that the Muslims were slipping out of their hands to safety. For this reason, they gathered in Dar al-Nadwah.

Allama Ibn Ishaq writes:

“When the Quraish observed that a group of supporters had joined the Holy Prophet (sa) who were neither from the Muslims of Mecca, nor did they belong to their region, and that other companions of the Holy Prophet (sa) were migrating towards those people, the Quraish realised that the Muslims had found safety with him, and that they, i.e. the people of Medina had given them refuge. They became concerned that the Holy Prophet (sa) would migrate to them, and that they would then gather against them for war. Therefore, they convened in Dar al-Nadwah to deliberate upon the matter. This was the house of Qusay bin Kilab that was reserved for when the Quraish needed to deliberate upon a decision. Whenever they felt danger from the Holy Prophet (sa), they would gather in this place for consultation.”

In another narration, it is related by Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas (ra), “When the Quraish decided to gather, they pledged that they would convene in Dar al-Nadwah and consult with each other about the Holy Prophet (sa). The day which they had pledged to convene is known as Yaum al-Zahmah. Iblis [i.e. the devil] manifested before them in the appearance of an old man” – what is meant by this is that a man came before them who possessed the attributes of Iblis. “He was wrapped in a cloak and was standing at the door of Dar al-Nadwah. The people did not recognise him. When they saw this old man standing at the door, they asked, ‘Who is this old man?’ He replied, ‘I am an old man from among the people of Najd, and I have heard what you people have pledged to do. I have come to hear what you have to say. Perhaps you will find a useful suggestion or something of benefit.’” This is what he said regarding himself.

“The people agreed and allowed him to enter. He entered along with all the others. The gathering consisted of a large party of chieftains of the Quraish, including prominent names like Utbah bin Rabiah, Shayba bin Rabiah, Abu Sufyan bin Harb, Tuaima bin Adi, and others like Abu Jahl [Amr] bin Hisham, the two sons of Hajjaj and many others. There were also some chieftains who were not from among the Quraish.

“When everyone had gathered and it came time to present suggestions, one person suggested that he (Muhammad (sa)) should be imprisoned and locked up behind iron bars. Then, they would wait for his death, just as they did with two poets; the likes of Zuhair and Nabigha and other poets that had passed.” In other words, wait for his demise, just as they did with two poets, Zuhair and Nabigha, before him. This was planned for the Holy Prophet (sa) as well, i.e. to wait for his demise as was done before to others.

“Upon hearing this suggestion, the old man from Najd said, ‘No. I swear by Allah, according to me, this suggestion is not appropriate. By Allah, if you people imprison him, this news will reach his companions even from behind closed doors. Then, it is likely that they will launch a sudden assault on you and free him from your custody. Following that, they will increase their numbers with his help and defeat you. Thus, you must think of another strategy.’ Upon this, another person suggested, ‘We should exile him from our city, after which we will not associate with him and will not be concerned about where he goes. When he leaves us and we rid ourselves of him, then our circumstances will improve and we will be able to live in the same condition as we once did.’

“To this, the old man from Najd remarked, ‘No. I swear by Allah that this suggestion is not appropriate. Do you not see how great his message and how pleasant his speech is? He is able to win the hearts of the people with what he has brought. I swear by Allah that if you adopt this strategy, you will not live in peace, because he will go unto another Arab tribe and win their hearts with his words. They will become his followers and join forces with him against you. They will then advance toward you, disgrace you in your own city, seize control of your matters from your own hands and treat you however they like. Thus, you must think of another strategy.’

“In response, Abu Jahl said, ‘My suggestion is that a young and strong individual of status and lineage from each tribe should be chosen. Each of them should be handed a sharp sword. They all should go to him and attack him as one force and kill him. Thereby, we will finally be free from him. By killing him in this manner, his blood would be on all the tribes, and the tribe of Banu Abd Manaf would not be able to combat against all the tribes for retribution. Accordingly, they will settle for blood money, and we will pay them the amount due.’

“The old man from Najd replied, ‘If there is a viable suggestion, then it is the suggestion of this man. All the other suggestions are futile. Thus, everyone agreed with this suggestion and left.’”

(Al-Sirat Al-Nabawiyyah, ibn Hisham, pp. 340-342, Dikr Hijrat-e-Rasool, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

On the other hand, Allah the Almighty informed the Holy Prophet (sa) about all of this, as Allah states:

وَاِذْ‭ ‬يَمْكُرُ‭ ‬بِكَ‭ ‬الَّذِيْنَ‭ ‬كَفَرُوْا‭ ‬لِيُثْبِتُوْكَ‭ ‬اَوْ‭ ‬يَقْتُلُوْكَ‭ ‬اَوْ‭ ‬يُخْرِجُوْكَ‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬يَمْكُرُوْنَ‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬يَمْكُرُ‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬خَيْرُ‭ ‬الْمٰكِرِيْنَ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“And [remember the time] when the disbelievers plotted against thee that they might imprison thee or kill thee or expel thee. And they planned and Allah [also] planned, and Allah is the best of planners.” (Surah al-Anfal, Ch.8: V.31)

Along with this, Angel Gabriel informed the Holy Prophet (sa) of his permission to migrate.

(Subul al-Huda wa al-Rishad, Vol. 3, p. 232, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993)

And after scouring Mecca to no avail, they deployed expert trackers to every corner of Mecca. One of the chiefs of Mecca, Umayya bin Khalaf took an expert tracker with him and set out along with his counterparts. There is no doubt that this tracker was exceptionally skilled. In fact, he cannot be complimented enough, for he was the only tracker who was able to trace the Holy Prophet (sa) footprints to Cave Thaur, and once there, he said that Muhammad’s (sa) footprints stopped there and did not go any further.”

Allama Baladhuri has stated that the tracker’s name was Alqama bin Kurz, and writes that he accepted Islam during the Conquest of Mecca. They were standing and talking by the mouth of the cave, and not only were the two migrants [the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)] hidden inside the very same cave, they could hear what the people outside were saying. In fact, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) states, “I could see their feet, and by God, if even one of them were to look inside, we would have been caught.” However, in this time of danger and hardship, those two were not alone; rather, God was the Third among them, Who has control over the earth and the heavens and power over all things.

(Subul al-Huda wa al-Rishad, Vol. 3, p. 241, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fazail Ashaab al-Nabi, Baab Manaqib-ul-Muhajireen wa Fazlehim, Narration 3653)

Before those people arrived, He caused a tree to grow through His miraculous power, He sent a spider which spun a web at the mouth of the cave, and He sent a pair of birds who made a nest and laid eggs. This is all recorded in the narration.

(Al-Muwahib al-Ladunniyyah, Allama Qastallani, Vol. 1, pp. 292-292, Al-Maktab Al-Islami, Beirut, 2004)

In any case, there are different narrations about what time the Holy Prophet (sa) left and they vary; some narrations state that the Holy Prophet (sa) left in the early part of the night, whereas others state that he left in the middle of the night, and some state that he left in the last part of the night. Nonetheless, I will present the different narrations about what time the Holy Prophet (sa) left the house.

According to one narration, the Holy Prophet (sa) left his house in the last third of the night. Regarding this, Muhammad Husain Haykal writes:

“Owing to the heedlessness of the idolaters, Prophet Muhammad (sa) left in the last third of the night and made his way towards the house of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). From there, both of them left from the back door of his house, and travelled south towards Cave Thaur.”

(Hayat-e-Muhammad, Muhammad Husayn Haykal, pp. 223-224, Vol. 10, Hijrat-e-Rasul, Dar-ul-Ma‘arif)

In another narration, it is mentioned that he left in the middle of the night. In Dalail al-Nubuwwah, it is written that the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) left for Cave Thaur in the middle of the night.

(Dalail al-Nabuwwah, Bayhaqi, pp. 465-466, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2002)

In Madarij al-Nubuwwah, it is mentioned, “When the Holy Prophet (sa) decided that he would migrate the next morning, that evening he said to Hazrat Ali Murtaza, may Allah honour him, ‘Sleep in my bed tonight, so the idolaters do not get suspicious and learn about the plan.’”

(Madarij al-Nubuwwah, Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlvi, Urdu translation by Ghulam Muin-ul-Din Naimi, Vol. 2, p. 83, Shabir Brothers, Urdu Bazar, Lahore)

Location

Similarly, when the Holy Prophet (sa) migrated to Medina, it is stated that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) accompanied him. It is written that the oppression of the disbelievers of Mecca upon the Muslims living there was intensifying. During those days, the Holy Prophet (sa) saw a dream in which two Muslims were shown the place where he was to migrate. That place was a barren land surrounded by date palms; however, its name was neither shown, nor mentioned. Nevertheless, seeing its geographic location, the Holy Prophet (sa) personally drew an inference and said, “It will be [towards] Hajar, or Yamama.” This is mentioned in a narration from Sahih Bukhari in which the Holy Prophet (sa) said:

فَذَهَبَ وَهَلِيْ اِلٰي أَنَّهَا الْيَمَامَةُ اَوِ الهَجَرُ، فَاِذَا هِيَ الْمَدِيْنَةُ يَثْرِبُ

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Manaqib, Bab Alamaat al-Nabuwah fi al-Islam, Narration 3622)

“I thought this place to be either Hajar, or Yamama. However, it turned out to be the city of Yathrib, i.e. Medina.”

Yamama is a well-known city in Yemen.

(Farhang-e-Sirat, p. 321, Zawar Academy Publications, Urdu Bazaar Karachi, 2003)

And also, various townships by the name of Hajar can be found in Arabia. A city as well as an area of Bahrain is called Hajar.

(Mu‘jamul Buldan, Vol. 5, p. 452, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut)

Nevertheless, only a short while later, the circumstances changed for the better and fortunate people from the Ansar of Medina started accepting Islam. Subsequently, the Holy Prophet (sa) was informed by way of divine revelation that this was the land of Yathrib, which later became known as Medina.

In relation to this inference of the Holy Prophet (sa), the Promised Messiah (as) said:

“The words of this hadith, which are:

فَذَهَبَ وَهَلِيْ اِلٰي أَنَّهَا الْيَمَامَةُ اَوِ الهَجَرُ، فَاِذَا هِيَ الْمَدِيْنَةُ يَثْرِبُ

“[‘I thought this place to be either Hajar, or Yamama However, it turned out to be the city of Medina, Yathrib’] clearly demonstrate that the inference the Holy Prophet (sa) made regarding the location and place of this prophecy was incorrect.”

(Izala-e-Auham, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 3, p. 472)

The Holy Prophet (sa) permitted and guided the oppressed companions and Muslims living in Mecca to migrate towards Medina. Hence, the Muslims of Mecca started migrating to Medina. On the other hand, the migration increased following the second pledge at Aqabah and entire households and areas were left empty.

These circumstances enraged the barbaric chiefs of Mecca even further and they started boiling with anger. Upon this, they took another step and prevented these oppressed individuals from migrating and new methods of oppression were adopted. At times, they let the husband migrate, but would take away his wife and children from him. At times, they would demand the belongings and wealth of the person be given to them, on the basis that they earned it in their city and so if they wished to leave, they must hand over all their wealth. At times, they would stop them by urging them to go visit their mother before they depart, but then along the route they would tie them up with ropes and lock them up in a room.

(Subul al-Huda wa al-Rishad, Vol. 3, pp. 224-227, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993)

However, the devoted party of believers, who were saturated with the wealth of faith, and were intoxicated in their love for Islam, continued to undertake the migration towards Medina. Nearly all those who were able to make the migration from Mecca had done so. Only those Muslims who were very weak and powerless remained behind, regarding whom it is mentioned in the Holy Quran:

اِلَّا‭ ‬الْمُسْتَضْعَفِيْنَ‭ ‬مِنَ‭ ‬الرِّجَالِ‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬النِّسَآءِ‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬الْوِلْدَانِ‭ ‬لَا‭ ‬يَسْتَطِيْعُوْنَ‭ ‬حِيْلَةً‭ ‬وَّ‭ ‬لَا‭ ‬يَهْتَدُوْنَ‭ ‬سَبِيْلًا‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“Except such weak ones among men, women and children, as are incapable of adopting any plan or of finding any way.” (Surah al-Nisa, Ch.4: V.99)

Aside from them, the Holy Prophet (sa) himself was still in Mecca awaiting divine permission, and Hazrat Ali (ra) was also in Mecca. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) went to seek permission to migrate, but he was told, “Wait, for I am hopeful that I too shall be granted permission.” Or, according to another narration the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “Do not rush, for Allah the Almighty may well arrange for someone to accompany you.”

Thereupon, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah, may my parents be sacrificed for your sake, will you also be granted permission to migrate?” It was as though the sorrow of separation from the Holy Prophet (sa) due to the migration had been alleviated.

Hearing this glad tiding, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) returned joyfully and abandoned the idea of migrating. Nevertheless, he very wisely purchased two camels which were fed a special diet in order to prepare them for the unpredictable journey of the migration.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Kifalah, Bab Jawar Abi Bakr fi Ahd al-Nabawi wa Uqdahu, Hadith 2297) (Al-Khalifat-ul-Awwal Abu Bakr Siddiq, al-Sallabi, p. 45, Dar-ul-Ma‘rifah, Beirut, 2006)

Direction

Narration 1

There are also various narrations with regard to which direction the Holy Prophet (sa) went when he left his home. From one of the narrations, it seems that the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) left their homes respectively and met at one place and then headed towards the Cave Thaur.

(Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 1, p. 568, Tarikh Qabal Al-Hijrat, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1987)

Narration 2

In another narration, it states that the Holy Prophet (sa) left his house and headed towards the Cave Thaur. After a short while, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) came to the Holy Prophet (sa) house and Hazrat Ali (ra) informed him that the Holy Prophet (sa) had already left and that he should go behind him. And so, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) followed after him.

(Al-Sirat al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, p. 47, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2008)

This narration seems very weak. It seems from this that the Holy Prophet (sa) waited for Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and he got late. Furthermore, [it seems from this] that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had no knowledge of where the Holy Prophet (sa) went and it was Hazrat Ali (ra) who had to tell him. It is not possible at all that such an important and confidential event as the migration took place and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), who was extremely wise and responsible would show such carelessness.

Thus, in comparison to this, the other narration which is more commonly found in the [Islamic] literature seems to be more correct and accurate. According to the other narration, the Holy Prophet (sa) left his house and went straight to the house of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). From there the Holy Prophet (sa) along with Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) went to Cave Thaur.

(Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Ibn Hisham, p. 343, Dikr Hijrat-e-Rasool, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

Under the Cover of Night

In any case, there are different narrations about what time the Holy Prophet (sa) left and they vary; some narrations state that the Holy Prophet (sa) left in the early part of the night, whereas others state that he left in the middle of the night, and some state that he left in the last part of the night. Nonetheless, I will present the different narrations about what time the Holy Prophet (sa) left the house.

According to one narration, the Holy Prophet (sa) left his house in the last third of the night. Regarding this, Muhammad Husain Haykal writes:

“Owing to the heedlessness of the idolaters, Prophet Muhammad (sa) left in the last third of the night and made his way towards the house of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). From there, both of them left from the back door of his house, and travelled south towards Cave Thaur.”

(Hayat-e-Muhammad, Muhammad Husayn Haykal, pp. 223-224, Vol. 10, Hijrat-e-Rasul, Dar-ul-Ma‘arif)

In another narration, it is mentioned that he left in the middle of the night. In Dalail al-Nubuwwah, it is written that the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) left for Cave Thaur in the middle of the night.

(Dalail al-Nabuwwah, Bayhaqi, pp. 465-466, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2002)

In Madarij al-Nubuwwah, it is mentioned, “When the Holy Prophet (sa) decided that he would migrate the next morning, that evening he said to Hazrat Ali Murtaza, may Allah honour him, ‘Sleep in my bed tonight, so the idolaters do not get suspicious and learn about the plan.’”

(Madarij al-Nubuwwah, Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlvi, Urdu translation by Ghulam Muin-ul-Din Naimi, Vol. 2, p. 83, Shabir Brothers, Urdu Bazar, Lahore)

Under the Cover of Night (The Promised Messiah’s (as) Narration)

According to the Promised Messiah (as), the Holy Prophet (sa) left his home in the morning. The Promised Messiah (as) states:

“None of the opponents saw the Holy Prophet (sa) when he left, even though it was morning and all of the opponents were stood surrounding the house of the Holy Prophet (sa). It was just as God Almighty stated in Surah Ya Sin that a covering was placed over the eyes of those unfortunate people and the Holy Prophet (sa) left them in a state that they were utter humiliated.”

(Surma Chashm-e-Arya, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 2, p. 66 [footnote])

In any case, there are various narrations, but they all state that the disbelievers had no knowledge.

Under the Cover of Night (Hazrat Musleh Mau’d’s (ra) Narration)

The narration Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has mentioned is as follows:

“When the people of Mecca were gathering outside the house of the Holy Prophet (sa) in order to kill him, the Holy Prophet (sa) was leaving in the darkness of the night with the intention to migrate from there. The people of Mecca most certainly would have suspected that the news of their plan had reached the Holy Prophet (sa), but despite that, when the Holy Prophet (sa) left in front of them, they thought it was someone else. Hence, instead of attacking the Holy Prophet (sa), they began to hide, so that their plans would not be revealed to the Holy Prophet (sa). Prior to this night, Abu Bakr (ra) had also been informed about migrating with the Holy Prophet (sa), and so he met with the Holy Prophet (sa) and after a short while they departed from Mecca.”

(Dibacha Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, pp. 222-223)

Under the Cover of Night (Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib’s (ra) Narration)

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) has written that the Holy Prophet (sa) left in the early part of the night. Regarding this, he states:

“At that time, the besiegers were present in front of the Holy Prophet (sa) door. However, since they did not anticipate that the Holy Prophet (sa) would leave his home so early in the night, at that time, they were in such a state of unawareness that the Holy Prophet (sa) left right through their midst, leaving them in their ignorance, and they had not a clue. Now, the Holy Prophet (sa) was silently, but quickly, passing through the streets of Mecca and it was not long before he reached the outskirts of the town and started towards the Cave of Thaur. The entire matter had been pre-settled with Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), who also met the Holy Prophet (sa) en-route.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 237)

The Promised Messiah’s (as) Narration

Regarding this incident, the Promised Messiah (as) states:

“When, owing to unforeseen circumstances, the Holy Prophet (sa) had to leave his hometown and the opponents had surrounded his blessed house with the intention of killing him, a dear relative – who was imbued with love and faith in the prophet – on the orders of the Holy Prophet (sa), laid down on his bed without any fear of death; he hid his face so as not to arouse the suspicion of the enemy spies which would hint that the Holy Prophet (sa) had left. They remained content, waiting for the opportunity to kill him.

كس‭ ‬بهرِ‭ ‬كَسے‭ ‬سر‭ ‬نَدِهَد‭ ‬جان‭ ‬نَفَشَانَد‬‬‬‬‬‬ عِشق‭ ‬است‭ ‬كہ ‬اِيں‭ ‬كار‭ ‬بَصَدْ‭ ‬صِدق‭ ‬كُنَانَد‬‬‬‬‬‬

“Meaning, ‘No one willingly sacrifices their life for another. It is only on account of true sincerity that can make a man do this happily and willingly.’” (Surma Chashm-e-Arya, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 2, pp. 64-65 footnote)

The Promised Messiah (as) states:

“When the disbelievers of Mecca intended to murder the Holy Prophet (sa), Allah the Almighty informed His virtuous prophet of their evil plot and instructed him to migrate from Mecca to Medina, at the same time He also gave him the glad tiding of his return following his future victory with divine help. It was in the afternoon on a Wednesday, during days of severe heat, when this trial was uncovered and revealed by Allah.”

(Surma Chashm-e-Arya, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 2, p. 64 footnote)

Hazrat Musleh Mau’d’s (ra) Narration

Whilst mentioning these details, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“The companions of the Holy Prophet (sa) had begun preparations to migrate. One family after another would begin to disappear from Mecca. Now, even those who were awaiting the sovereignty of God Almighty became even more bold [that God’s help was near], and at times, the houses of an entire street of Mecca would be locked at night, and come the morning, when the people of the city would find it to be very quiet, upon enquiry, they would learn that all the residents on the street had migrated to Medina. This deep impact of Islam which had been growing from within Mecca, had left the Meccans astonished. Eventually, Mecca had been vacated by the Muslims, and aside from a few slaves, only the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra) had remained in Mecca.”

(Dibacha Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, p. 222)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) further says:

“The idolaters of Mecca naturally harboured greater malice and enmity for the Holy Prophet (sa) than for anyone else because they witnessed with their own eyes that as a result of his teachings, opposition to idol-worship was continuing to spread. They believed that if they assassinated him, the rest of his community would automatically fall apart. For this reason, they would persecute the Holy Prophet (sa) more than anyone else and hoped that one way or another, he would desist from his claims. In spite of all these difficulties, the Holy Prophet (sa) instructed his companions to migrate, but continued to suffer these trials and difficulties himself, and did not migrate from Mecca, as he had not yet received permission from Allah Almighty to do so. Hence, when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) asked if he should undertake the migration, the Holy Prophet (sa) replied:

عَلٰي‭ ‬رِسْلِكَ‭ ‬فَاِنِّيْ‭ ‬اَرْجُو‭ ‬اَنْ‭ ‬يُّؤْذَنَ‭ ‬لِيْ‬‬‬‬‬‬

“‘Wait, for I hope that I too shall be granted permission.’”

(Sirat-ul-Nabi, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 1, p. 489)

The disbelievers [of Mecca] convened in Dar al-Nadwah to secretly plot against the Holy Prophet (sa). Regarding this, it is recorded that the chieftains of Mecca were enraged and agitated that the Muslims were slipping out of their hands to safety. For this reason, they gathered in Dar al-Nadwah.

Allama Ibn Ishaq writes:

“When the Quraish observed that a group of supporters had joined the Holy Prophet (sa) who were neither from the Muslims of Mecca, nor did they belong to their region, and that other companions of the Holy Prophet (sa) were migrating towards those people, the Quraish realised that the Muslims had found safety with him, and that they, i.e. the people of Medina had given them refuge. They became concerned that the Holy Prophet (sa) would migrate to them, and that they would then gather against them for war. Therefore, they convened in Dar al-Nadwah to deliberate upon the matter. This was the house of Qusay bin Kilab that was reserved for when the Quraish needed to deliberate upon a decision. Whenever they felt danger from the Holy Prophet (sa), they would gather in this place for consultation.”

In another narration, it is related by Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas (ra), “When the Quraish decided to gather, they pledged that they would convene in Dar al-Nadwah and consult with each other about the Holy Prophet (sa). The day which they had pledged to convene is known as Yaum al-Zahmah. Iblis [i.e. the devil] manifested before them in the appearance of an old man” – what is meant by this is that a man came before them who possessed the attributes of Iblis. “He was wrapped in a cloak and was standing at the door of Dar al-Nadwah. The people did not recognise him. When they saw this old man standing at the door, they asked, ‘Who is this old man?’ He replied, ‘I am an old man from among the people of Najd, and I have heard what you people have pledged to do. I have come to hear what you have to say. Perhaps you will find a useful suggestion or something of benefit.’” This is what he said regarding himself.

“The people agreed and allowed him to enter. He entered along with all the others. The gathering consisted of a large party of chieftains of the Quraish, including prominent names like Utbah bin Rabiah, Shayba bin Rabiah, Abu Sufyan bin Harb, Tuaima bin Adi, and others like Abu Jahl [Amr] bin Hisham, the two sons of Hajjaj and many others. There were also some chieftains who were not from among the Quraish.

“When everyone had gathered and it came time to present suggestions, one person suggested that he (Muhammad (sa)) should be imprisoned and locked up behind iron bars. Then, they would wait for his death, just as they did with two poets; the likes of Zuhair and Nabigha and other poets that had passed.” In other words, wait for his demise, just as they did with two poets, Zuhair and Nabigha, before him. This was planned for the Holy Prophet (sa) as well, i.e. to wait for his demise as was done before to others.

“Upon hearing this suggestion, the old man from Najd said, ‘No. I swear by Allah, according to me, this suggestion is not appropriate. By Allah, if you people imprison him, this news will reach his companions even from behind closed doors. Then, it is likely that they will launch a sudden assault on you and free him from your custody. Following that, they will increase their numbers with his help and defeat you. Thus, you must think of another strategy.’ Upon this, another person suggested, ‘We should exile him from our city, after which we will not associate with him and will not be concerned about where he goes. When he leaves us and we rid ourselves of him, then our circumstances will improve and we will be able to live in the same condition as we once did.’

“To this, the old man from Najd remarked, ‘No. I swear by Allah that this suggestion is not appropriate. Do you not see how great his message and how pleasant his speech is? He is able to win the hearts of the people with what he has brought. I swear by Allah that if you adopt this strategy, you will not live in peace, because he will go unto another Arab tribe and win their hearts with his words. They will become his followers and join forces with him against you. They will then advance toward you, disgrace you in your own city, seize control of your matters from your own hands and treat you however they like. Thus, you must think of another strategy.’

“In response, Abu Jahl said, ‘My suggestion is that a young and strong individual of status and lineage from each tribe should be chosen. Each of them should be handed a sharp sword. They all should go to him and attack him as one force and kill him. Thereby, we will finally be free from him. By killing him in this manner, his blood would be on all the tribes, and the tribe of Banu Abd Manaf would not be able to combat against all the tribes for retribution. Accordingly, they will settle for blood money, and we will pay them the amount due.’

“The old man from Najd replied, ‘If there is a viable suggestion, then it is the suggestion of this man. All the other suggestions are futile. Thus, everyone agreed with this suggestion and left.’”

(Al-Sirat Al-Nabawiyyah, ibn Hisham, pp. 340-342, Dikr Hijrat-e-Rasool, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

On the other hand, Allah the Almighty informed the Holy Prophet (sa) about all of this, as Allah states:

وَاِذْ‭ ‬يَمْكُرُ‭ ‬بِكَ‭ ‬الَّذِيْنَ‭ ‬كَفَرُوْا‭ ‬لِيُثْبِتُوْكَ‭ ‬اَوْ‭ ‬يَقْتُلُوْكَ‭ ‬اَوْ‭ ‬يُخْرِجُوْكَ‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬يَمْكُرُوْنَ‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬يَمْكُرُ‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬خَيْرُ‭ ‬الْمٰكِرِيْنَ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“And [remember the time] when the disbelievers plotted against thee that they might imprison thee or kill thee or expel thee. And they planned and Allah [also] planned, and Allah is the best of planners.” (Surah al-Anfal, Ch.8: V.31)

Along with this, Angel Gabriel informed the Holy Prophet (sa) of his permission to migrate.

(Subul al-Huda wa al-Rishad, Vol. 3, p. 232, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993)

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib’s (ra) Narration

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) has mentioned this incident in Sirat Khataman Nabiyyin as follows:

“In the darkness of the night, the cruel Quraish from various tribes had besieged the home of the Holy Prophet (sa) with their bloodthirsty intentions. They were waiting for dawn, or for the Holy Prophet (sa) to come out of his home, so as to launch a sudden assault and assassinate him. Various trusts belonging to the disbelievers were still with the Holy Prophet (sa), for despite their extreme enmity, many people would often entrust their belongings to the Holy Prophet (sa) on account of his truthfulness and trustworthiness. Therefore, the Holy Prophet (sa) explained the accounts of these trusts to Hazrat Ali (ra), and instructed him not to leave Mecca until these trusts were returned. Then he instructed, ‘You lie on my bed,’ and assured him that no harm would come to him. He lay down and the Holy Prophet (sa) covered him with his red-coloured mantle. After this, the Holy Prophet (sa) invoked the name of Allah, and left his home. At that time, the besiegers were present in front of the Holy Prophet (sa) door. However, since they did not anticipate that the Holy Prophet (sa) would leave his home so early in the night, at that time, they were in such a state of unawareness that the Holy Prophet (sa) left right through their midst, leaving them in their ignorance, and they had not a clue […] On the other hand, the Quraish who had besieged the home of the Holy Prophet (sa), would peer through after short intervals, and upon seeing Hazrat Ali (ra) who was in fact lying in the place of the Holy Prophet (sa), they would find comfort. But the next morning, they found out that their prey had slipped their hands. Upon this, they franticly ran here and there, searched the streets of Mecca, looked in the homes of companions, but nothing was to be found. In their rage, they took hold of Hazrat Ali (ra) and beat him somewhat.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), pp. 236-237)

Migration To Medina (ii)

Upon receiving permission to migrate, the Holy Prophet (sa), taking all the necessary precautions, went to Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) house at midday, when most of the residents of Mecca would remain in their homes and not go to meet one another. The Holy Prophet (sa) took further precaution by keeping his face, head etc. covered owing to the intense heat. When the Holy Prophet (sa) reached near Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) house, someone informed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) – according to the narration of Al-Tabrani and Fath al-Bari, it was Hazrat Asma (ra) who informed him – that it appeared as if the Holy Prophet (sa) was approaching.

Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “May my mother and father be scarified for his sake! By God, there must be a particular reason as to why the Holy Prophet (sa) is coming at this hour of the day.” Thereafter, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), in a state of anxiousness, hurried outside in a manner of utmost devotion. When the Holy Prophet (sa) entered inside the house, Hazrat Aisha (ra) and Hazrat Asma (ra) were present inside the room. The Holy Prophet (sa) stated to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) that he should send out whoever was with him. Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Only my two daughters are here at this time and no one else.” And according to another narration, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Only the members of your household are present in the house and no one else.”

Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “Abu Bakr! I have been granted permission for migration.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) immediately submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Will I be able to accompany you?” The Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “Yes.”

This is a narration from Bukhari.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Buyu, Narration 2138) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqib al-Ansar, Narration 3905) (Fath al-Bari bi-Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 7, p. 277, Dar al-Riyan li al-Turath al-Qahirah, 1986)

Upon hearing this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) began to cry out of happiness. Hazrat Aisha (ra) relates that this was the first time she realised that someone could cry out of happiness as well.

(Al-Sirat Al-Nabawiyyah, ibn Hisham, p. 343, Dikr Hijrat-e-Rasool, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

Subsequently, the entire plan and arrangements for the migration were formulated. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, “O Messenger of Allah! I had purchased two camels for this very purpose. Take one of them.” The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, “I will purchase it for a price.”

Upon the Holy Prophet (sa) insistence of paying for the camel, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was left with no option but to accept. He had bought the two camels for 800 dirhams, and so the Holy Prophet (sa) bought one of them for 400 dirhams. According to one narration, the Holy Prophet (sa) bought the camel for 800 dirhams.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqb al-Ansar, Narration 3905) (Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra li-ibn Saad, Vol. 1, p. 382, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2012) (Sharh Zurqani Ala al-Mawahib al-Diniyyah, Vol. 2, pp. 105-106, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996)

It was then settled that the first stop would be Cave Thaur, where they would spend three days. It was also decided that a person would accompany them who was an expert in all the known and unknown routes of the desert around Mecca. For this, they spoke to Abdullah bin Uraykit, who although was an idolater, was a noble and trustworthy person whom they could rely on. Biographers [of the Holy Prophet (sa)] state that he did not accept Islam, but according to one narration, he accepted Islam later on. Nevertheless, three camels were given to him and he was told to come to Cave Thaur in the morning after exactly three days. Hazrat Abdullah bin Abi Bakr (ra), who was an intelligent young man, was assigned the duty that he would go around the various gatherings in Mecca each day and assess the situation. He would then go to Cave Thaur in the evening and give the reports. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had a wise and responsible slave named Amir bin Fuhayrah, who was assigned the task that he would graze his goats around Cave Thaur and in the evening, he would milk the goats and provide them with milk. Then, after designating the time for leaving Mecca, the Holy Prophet (sa) quickly left Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) house and returned home.

(Tarikh al-Khamees, Vol. 2, p. 7, Dikr Khuroojahusa ma‘a Abi Bakr Min Mecca, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2009) (Al-Raheeq al-Makhtum, Safi-ul-Rahman, p. 165, Dar-ul-Ghada al-Jadid, 2018) (Sharh al-Zurqani, Vol. 2, p. 129, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996)

After returning home, he informed Hazrat Ali (ra) of his plan to migrate and assigned him a precarious task in that he was to sleep in the Holy Prophet (sa) bed, with his green – or, according to another narration, red hadrami mantle – which the Holy Prophet (sa) used whilst sleeping. He assured this devoted servant the glad tidings of support from Allah by saying, “Do not worry. Sleep in my bed with complete contentment. The enemy will not be able to harm you in the slightest.” The Holy Prophet (sa), who was the most truthful and trustworthy, was worried about the possessions he had been entrusted with by the people of Mecca, and owing to this responsibility, he said to join him after he had returned the possessions, i.e. he told Hazrat Ali (ra) to come to Medina once he had returned the possessions. Hazrat Ali (ra) remained in Mecca for three days and gave the possessions that had been entrusted to the Holy Prophet (sa) back to their owners. When he completed this task, he joined the Holy Prophet (sa) when he was in Quba. After this, the Holy Prophet (sa) stepped out of his house, where the elect brave individuals had gathered with their bloodthirsty intentions. With their swords in their hands, they kept watch over the Holy Prophet (sa) house, waiting for nightfall when they would launch a sudden attack and finish him off with one strike. Abu Jahl, who was their ringleader, was saying in an arrogant and mocking way, “Muhammad (sa) says that if you follow him, you will become the kings of the Arabs and non-Arabs alike, and that you will be raised up after your death, and that you will receive gardens like that of Jordan. If you do not do this, then there will be bloodshed amongst you.” The Holy Prophet (sa) came outside and said, “Indeed, this is what I say, and recited the following verses of Surah Ya Sin:

يٰس۔‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬الْقُرْاٰنِ‭ ‬الْحَكِيْمِ۔‭ ‬اِنَّكَ‭ ‬لَمِنَ‭ ‬الْمُرْسَلِيْنَ۔‭ ‬عَلٰي‭ ‬صِرَاطٍ‭ ‬مُّسْتَقِيْمٍ۔‭ ‬تَنْزِيْلَ‭ ‬الْعَزِيْزِ‭ ‬الرَّحِيْمِ۔‭ ‬لِتُنْذِرَ‭ ‬قَوْمًا‭ ‬مَّآ‭ ‬اُنْذِرَ‭ ‬اٰبَاؤُهُمْ‭ ‬فَهُمْ‭ ‬غٰفِلُوْنَ۔‭ ‬لَقَدْ‭ ‬حَقَّ‭ ‬الْقَوْلُ‭ ‬عَلٰٓي‭ ‬اَكْثَرِهِمْ‭ ‬فَهُمْ‭ ‬لَا‭ ‬يُؤْمِنُوْنَ۔‭ ‬اِنَّا‭ ‬جَعَلْنَا‭ ‬فِيْٓ‭ ‬اَعْنَاقِهِمْ‭ ‬اَغْلٰلًا‭ ‬فَهِيَ‭ ‬اِلَي‭ ‬الْاَذْقَانِ‭ ‬فَهُمْ‭ ‬مُّقْمَحُوْنَ۔‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬جَعَلْنَا‭ ‬مِنْۢ‭ ‬بَيْنِ‭ ‬اَيْدِيْهِمْ‭ ‬سَدًّا‭ ‬وَّ‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬خَلْفِهِمْ‭ ‬سَدًّا‭ ‬فَاَغْشَيْنٰهُمْ‭ ‬فَهُمْ‭ ‬لَا‭ ‬يُبْصِرُوْنَ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

The translation is: “Ya Sin [O Leader]. By the Quran, full of wisdom, thou art indeed [one] of the Messengers, on a right path. [This is] a revelation of the Mighty, the Merciful, that thou mayest warn a people whose fathers were not warned, and so they are heedless. Surely, the word has proved true against most of them, for they believe not. We have put round their necks collars reaching to the chins, so that their heads are forced up. And We have set a barrier before them and a barrier behind them, and have covered them over, so that they cannot see.” [Surah Ya Sin, Ch.36: V.2-10]

The Holy Prophet (sa) then left in the midst of them and they were utterly helpless. It was the power of Allah the Almighty that not a single person saw him leave. In fact, they would constantly peer inside and become content that Muhammad (sa) was sleeping on his bed.

(Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Ibn Hisham, p. 342, 348 Dikr Hijrat-e-Rasul, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001) (Muhammad (sa) Rasulullahi Walladhina Ma‘ahu, Vol. 3, p. 74, Baab Al-Hijrat, Egypt) (Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra li-ibn Saad, Vol. 1, p. 176, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2012)

The Guide of the Holy Prophet (sa) during the Migration to Medina

There is a narration in Bukhari which states that on the way, many of the caravans that would pass by would recognise Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) as he would often embark on trade journeys using those routes. They would enquire who he was with and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would reply, “He shows me the way.”

هَذَا‭ ‬الْرَّجُلُ‭ ‬يَهْدِيْنِيْ‭ ‬الْسَّبِيْلَ‬‬‬

In other words, “This person guides me to the right path.” People would assume that the Holy Prophet (sa) was his guide whereas Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) meant in terms of spiritual guidance.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqib al-Ansar, Bab Hijrat al-Nabisa wa Ashabih ila al-Medina, Hadith 3911)

With regard to this, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“Since the profession of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was that of a businessman, he would travel this route to and fro continuously. Most people recognised him, but were not familiar with the Holy Prophet (sa). As such, they would enquire of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), ‘Who is the man ahead of you?” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would respond:

هَذَا‭ ‬يَهْدِيْنِيْ‭ ‬الْسَّبِيْلَ‬‬

‘This is my guide.’ They would think that he is a guide hired by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to direct his route, but the actual intent of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was something else.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 242)

The Final Destination of the Migration to Medina

With regard to reaching their final destination, it is written that on the Monday, after travelling for eight days, with the help of God, they finally reached Quba which was en route to Medina. It is mentioned in hadith that the Holy Prophet (sa) was born on a Monday, he left Mecca on a Monday, he arrived in Medina on a Monday and passed away on a Monday.

(Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Vol. 3, Jama‘ Abwab al-Hijrah ila al-Medina [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 253) (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 243)

Quba was the name of a well and the village thus became commonly known as Quba where the Ansar tribe of Banu Amr bin Auf lived. This village was situated at a distance of two miles from Medina.

(Shihab al-Din Yaqut Ibn Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu‘jam al-Buldan, Vol. 4, Zair Lafz ‘Quba’ [Beirut, Lebanon: Maktabah al-Misriyyah, 2014], p. 77)

According to other opinions, Quba was situated at a distance of three miles from Medina and was also known as Aliya.

(Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 230)

There is a narration in Bukhari which states that on the way, many of the caravans that would pass by would recognise Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) as he would often embark on trade journeys using those routes. They would enquire who he was with and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would reply, “He shows me the way.”

هَذَا‭ ‬الْرَّجُلُ‭ ‬يَهْدِيْنِيْ‭ ‬الْسَّبِيْلَ‬‬‬

In other words, “This person guides me to the right path.” People would assume that the Holy Prophet (sa) was his guide whereas Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) meant in terms of spiritual guidance.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqib al-Ansar, Bab Hijrat al-Nabisa wa Ashabih ila al-Medina, Hadith 3911)

With regard to this, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“Since the profession of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was that of a businessman, he would travel this route to and fro continuously. Most people recognised him, but were not familiar with the Holy Prophet (sa). As such, they would enquire of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), ‘Who is the man ahead of you?” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would respond:

هَذَا‭ ‬يَهْدِيْنِيْ‭ ‬الْسَّبِيْلَ‬‬

‘This is my guide.’ They would think that he is a guide hired by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to direct his route, but the actual intent of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was something else.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 242)

The incident in relation to the pursuit of Suraqah bin Malik is as follows:

Urayqit, who was an exceptionally skilful guide, started the journey towards Medina from the coastal towns, which was a different route from the traditional route to Medina. The news of 100 camels as a reward had spread in Mecca and its neighbouring areas and everyone was desirous of attaining this huge reward. Suraqah bin Malik, who later became a Muslim, related this incident after having embraced Islam:

“The disbelievers amongst the Quraish sent a messenger who announced a bounty for whosoever brought back the Holy Prophet (sa) or Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), dead or alive.”

Suraqah further relates:

“I was sitting in a gathering of my people, the Banu Mudlij, when someone came to us. He was standing there whilst we were all sat and he said, ‘O Suraqah! I have just seen some shadows from the coast of the sea’, or he said, ‘I have seen a caravan consisting of three people and I believe that it is Muhammad (sa).’”

Suraqah says:

“I immediately figured that this must be them, but I wanted to acquire all the reward for myself and so I quickly took control of the delicate situation and signalled with my eye to the person who brought this news to remain quiet and I said, ‘No, it cannot be the caravan of Muhammad (sa), in fact the people you are referring to have just passed in front of us and belong to such and such tribe who are searching for their lost camels.’”

Suraqah says:

“Having remained sat there for a short while so as not to raise any suspicion, I left the gathering and came to my lady servant and said, ‘Saddle my fast-paced horse and take it to the rear of the home and wait there for me.’”

Suraqah later arrived there and states:

“I then took an omen, which turned out to be against my journey; however, I showed no concern and kicked the horse with my foot and raced off in pursuit of the caravan which I believed to be the caravan of Muhammad (sa).”

Suraqah says:

“Quickly covering the distances, I reached close to the caravan. I was still a little distance away when something unusual happened and my horse struck something and I fell off it. I stood up and again took an omen, which yet again turned out against my wish, but I wanted to take back Muhammad (sa) with me and receive the award of 100 camels. I stood up and mounted my horse again and now I was so close that not only was I able to recognise that this was Muhammad (sa) and Abu Bakr, but I could also hear Muhammad (sa) recite something. Once again, my horse badly struck something and its feet were driven into the ground and I fell off it. I regained myself and scolded the horse; however, the horse was unable to hoist them out of the ground. Finally, when it was able to stand upright, the dust from its two feet spread into the air like a cloud of smoke.” In other words, the feet of the horse had been so firmly driven into the ground that when it took them out, there was a cloud of dust.

Suraqah states:

“I again took an omen by a throw of arrows and again the outcome was that which I did not desire. And so, whilst stood in that very place, I gave a call to settle the matter and said, ‘you will not receive any harm from me.’”

Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) turned towards Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and said, “Ask him what is it that he wants”, to which Suraqah replied, “I am Suraqah and I wish to speak to you all.” And so, they stopped and Suraqah then told them that the people of Mecca had announced a reward of 100 camels for whoever captured them dead or alive. He stated, “In order to attain this reward, I came in pursuit of you; however, after seeing what has happened to me, I am convinced that this plan of mine is not right.”

After this, he also offered some provisions to the Holy Prophet (sa), but the Holy Prophet (sa) did not accept them and only stated that their whereabouts should be kept secret. Suraqah gave his promise and along with this he also stated, “I am sure that someday you will become a king. Please give me a written declaration of peace so that when I come in your presence, I am treated respectfully.”

According to a narration, Suraqah requested for a written declaration of peace, and upon the instruction of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) wrote this for him and according to another narration, it was Aamir bin Fuhairah who wrote it. Following this, Suraqah took the written declaration and returned.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Manaqib, Bab Hijrat al-Nabi (sa) wa Ashabih ila al-Madinah, Hadith 3906) (Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Vol. 3, Qissat Suraqah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 248) (Abdul Hameed Jaudah al-Sahhar, Muhammad (sa) Rasulullah walladhina ma‘ahu, Vol. 3 [Egypt: Maktabah Misr], pp. 64-65)

Once, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) also intended to migrate to Abyssinia. In this regard, it is mentioned that when the Muslim population had grown and the religion of Islam became manifest, the disbelievers amongst the Quraish began to torment and inflict pain to those who had accepted Islam from among their tribes. Their objective was to cause them to deviate from their faith. Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) instructed the believers, “You all should spread across the land. Surely, Allah will bring you back together.” The companions submitted, “Where shall we go?” The Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “This way” and pointed toward the land of Abyssinia. This took place in 5 Nabawi, in the month of Rajab. In accordance with the Holy Prophet (sa) instruction, 11 men and four women migrated toward Abyssinia.

(Sharh al-Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 1, al-Hijrah al-Ula ila al-Habashah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1996], pp. 53-54)

After the Muslims had migrated to Abyssinia, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was also persecuted, due to which he, too, intended to migrate to Abyssinia. In this regard, there is a narration of Bukhari. Hazrat Aisha (ra) relates:

“When the Muslims were afflicted with hardships, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) set out to migrate to Abyssinia. When he reached a place called Bark al-Ghimad – a city in Yemen, situated near the coast and is a five-nights’ journey from Mecca – he met Ibn Daghna, who was the chief of the tribe of Qarah. He asked, ‘O Abu Bakr, where are you travelling to?’ Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) answered, ‘My people have exiled me. Thus, I wish to travel the land and worship my Lord.’ Ibn Daghna replied, ‘A man like you does not leave his land on his own accord, nor should he be forced to leave. You embody such virtues that have been long lost; you honour your family ties, carry the burden of the tired and weary, host guests and help those in difficulties.’”

In another place, this is translated as follows: “You earn and provide for the poor, treat your close relatives kindly, care for the vulnerable, host guests and help those afflicted because they speak the truth.”

[Hazrat Aisha (ra) says:]

“Ibn Daghna then said, ‘I will grant you protection under my authority. Return to your land and continue to worship your Lord there.’ Ibn Daghna accompanied Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) back to Mecca and met the chieftains of the Quraish. He said to them, ‘Abu Bakr is such an individual who should neither leave his homeland, nor should he be exiled. Are you people exiling such an individual who embodies virtues that have been forgotten? He honours his family ties, carries the burden of the tired and weary, hosts guests excellently and helps those facing difficulties.’ Upon this, the Quraish honoured the protection granted by Ibn Daghna and allowed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to live in peace. They then told Ibn Daghna, ‘Tell Abu Bakr to worship his Lord within the confines of his home. He should offer his prayers there and anything else that he desires, but he should not cause any hindrance to us through his prayers and his recitation of the Quran. He should not recite aloud because we fear that he will lead our children and women astray.’

“Ibn Daghna conveyed this to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), and consequently, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) started worshipping his Lord only in his home and ceased to pray or recite the Quran openly other than within his home. After some time, a thought occurred to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), due to which he made a mosque – or a place of prayer – in an open area in his courtyard. There, he would offer his prayers and recite the Holy Quran, while the women and children of the idolaters would crowd around him. They would be astonished”, i.e. they were astonished to see Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) while he worshipped.

“They would observe that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would weep a lot. He could not hold back his tears whilst reciting the Holy Quran. This state of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was of great concern to the chieftains of the Quraish. They sent for Ibn Daghna, and when he arrived, they said to him, ‘We offered Abu Bakr protection on the condition that he would worship his Lord in the confines of his home; however, he did not respect this condition and has established a mosque in his courtyard where he prays and recites the Quran aloud. We fear that he will place our sons and our women in a trial. Go to him and tell him that if he wishes, he can worship while remaining inside his home. On the contrary, if he is insistent on offering his worship openly, then inform him that he should renounce the protection he was given under your authority because we would not like to breach your authority. However, we will never permit Abu Bakr to worship openly.’”

Hazrat Aisha (ra) continues, “Ibn Daghna came to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and said, ‘You are aware of the condition upon which I made this covenant with you. Accordingly, you must either abide by these conditions or renounce the protection you have under my authority because I would not like that the Arab people come to know that I have been disloyal to the covenant I made with someone.’ Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) replied, ‘I renounce the protection I have under your authority, and I am content under the protection of Allah.’”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Kafalah, Bab Jiwar Abi Bakr (ra) fi Ahd al-Nabisa wa Aqdih, Hadith 2297) (Sahih al-Bukhari mutarjam, Vol. 4, p. 276, Nazarat Ishaat Rabwah) (Farhang-e-Sirat, p. 57)

When the Holy Prophet (sa) migrated to Medina, he stayed with Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (ra) until the construction of Masjid-e-Nabawi and his house.

(Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 6, Hazrat Abu Ayub al-Ansari [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2003], 23)

In Sirat Khatam-un-Nabiyyin [The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets (sa)], Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) has mentioned the following in relation to the Holy Prophet’s stay in the house of Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (ra):

“When the Holy Prophet(sa) reached the Banu Najjar, the question once again posed itself as to which person the Holy Prophet(sa) would stay with. Every individual of the tribe was desirous that he be the one to receive this honour. As a matter of fact, in the fervour of their love, some would even take hold of the reins of the camel belonging to the Holy Prophet (sa). Upon seeing this, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Leave my camel, for at this time, it has been divinely inspired.’

“In other words, wherever Allah so desired it would sit down itself; and upon saying this, the Holy Prophet (sa) also released its reins. The camel gracefully advanced and sat down when it reached the place where, later, the Masjid-e-Nabawi, and the living quarters of the Holy Prophet (sa), were built. At the time, this was an uncultivated plot of land, which was the property of two children from Medina. Immediately, however, it stood up and began to move forward; but after a few steps, it once again returned to its initial place of resting, and sat down. The Holy Prophet (sa) stated:

ھٰذَا اِنْ شَاءَ اللّٰہُ الْمَنْزِلُ

“‘It seems as if the Will of Allah desires that this be our place of residence.’

“After this, the Holy Prophet (sa) supplicated to Allah and dismounted from his camel. Then the Holy Prophet (sa) enquired as to whose home was closest from that place. Abu Ayub Ansari (ra) rushed forward and said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! It is mine, and this is the entrance to my home. You are most welcome.’

“The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Alright, then go and prepare a place for me to stay.’

“Abu Ayub Ansari (ra) immediately prepared his home and returned. The Holy Prophet (sa) proceeded inside along with him. This was a two-story home. Abu Ayub (ra) desired that the Holy Prophet (sa) stay on the top floor. However, taking into consideration the ease of those people who would come to visit, the Holy Prophet (sa) preferred the ground-floor and resided there.

“At nightfall, Abu Ayub (ra) and his wife could not sleep all night in the thought that the Holy Prophet (sa) was beneath them, and they were above him. In addition to this, it so happened that during the night a pale of water broke on the roof. In his fear, Abu Ayub (ra) quickly placed his quilt over the water to dry it, in order to prevent even a single droplet of water from seeping through to the ground floor.

“In the morning, he presented himself before the Holy Prophet (sa), and implored the Holy Prophet (sa) to stay on the top floor. At first, the Holy Prophet (sa) hesitated, but upon witnessing the insistence of Abu Ayub (ra), he agreed. The Holy Prophet (sa) stayed in this home for seven months, or according to Ibn Ishaq, he remained here until the month of Safar 2 AH. In other words, the Holy Prophet (sa) remained here until the construction of Masjid-e-Nabawi, and the adjacent living-quarters of the Holy Prophet (sa). Abu Ayub (ra) would present food to the Holy Prophet (sa), and then, whatever would remain of it, he would eat himself. Due to his love and sincerity, he would eat from where the Holy Prophet (sa) had taken his food. Other Companions would also present food to the Holy Prophet (sa).”

(Life & Character of the Seal of the Prophets, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), pp. 267, 268)

اِلَّا تَنۡصُرُوۡهُ فَقَدۡ نَصَرَهُ اللّٰهُ اِذۡ اَخۡرَجَهُ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡا ثَانِيَ اثۡنَيۡنِ اِذۡ هُمَا فِي الۡغَارِ اِذۡ يَقُوۡلُ لِصَاحِبِهٖ لَا تَحۡزَننۡ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ مَعَنَاۚ فَاَنۡزَلَ اللّٰهُ سَكِيۡنَتَهٗ عَلَيۡهِ وَ اَيَّدَهٗ بِجُنُوۡدٍ لَّمۡ تَرَوۡهَا وَ جَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوا السُّفۡلٰي ؕ وَ كَلِمَةُ اللّٰهِ هِيَ الۡعُلۡيَا ؕ وَ اللّٰهُ عَزِيۡزٌ حَكِيۡمٌ

In the previous sermon, the incident of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) with regard to Cave Thaur was being mentioned. In the aforementioned verse of the Holy Quran, which relates to this incident whereby the enemies had reached Cave Thaur, Allah the Almighty says, the translation of which is:

“If you help him not, then [know that] Allah helped him [even] when the disbelievers drove him forth while he was one of the two when they were both in the cave, when he said to his companion, ‘Grieve not, for Allah is with us.’ Then Allah sent down His peace on him, and strengthened him with hosts which you did not see, and humbled the word of those who disbelieved, and it is the word of Allah alone which is supreme. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.” (Ch.9: V.40)

This has been mentioned in the Holy Quran in relation to the incident that took place in Cave Thaur. The disbelievers of Mecca were speaking to one another at the entrance of the cave. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) heard them and became anxious as to what would happen if they were to capture the Holy Prophet (sa) at this place because the entire religion of Islam was due to the blessed life of the Holy Prophet (sa). When the Holy Prophet (sa) noticed that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was becoming anxious, he said:

لَا‭ ‬تَحۡزَنۡ‭ ‬اِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

“Grieve not, for Allah is with us (O Abu Bakr).”

(Sharh al-Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1996], pp. 122-123)

Hazrat Mus‘ab (ra) bin Umair had the honour of migrating twice; he first migrated to Abyssinia and then also to Medina.

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 86, Mus‘ab (ra) bin Umair, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Usdul Ghabah, Vol. 5, p. 175, Mus‘ab (ra) bin Umair, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

When Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud migrated to Medina he stayed at the house of Hazrat Mu‘az bin Jabal. According to some, he stayed with Hazrat Sa‘d bin Khaisma. In Mecca, a bond of brotherhood was established between him and Hazrat Zubair bin Al-Awam, whilst in Medina the Holy Prophet (sa) appointed Mu‘az bin Jabal as his brother in faith. In the early days of Medina, his financial state was quite poor. When the Holy Prophet (sa) made some arrangements for the accommodation of the Muhajireen near the Prophet’s Mosque, certain people belonging to the Banu Zuhra tribe displayed some hesitation in keeping Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud with them, saying that he was a layman, a poor person, whilst they were of higher status. When the Holy Prophet (sa) came to know about this, standing up for his poor and weak servant, he said, “Has God sent me so that you can have these indifferences? Remember that God Almighty never blesses such a community in which a weak person is not given his due rights.” Then the Holy Prophet (sa) accommodated Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud near the mosque whilst Banu Zahra were placed far in a corner.

(Al-Tabqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, pp. 112-113, Dar-ul-Kutb al-ilimiyya, Beirut, 1990).

With regard to reaching their final destination, it is written that on the Monday, after travelling for eight days, with the help of God, they finally reached Quba which was en route to Medina. It is mentioned in hadith that the Holy Prophet (sa) was born on a Monday, he left Mecca on a Monday, he arrived in Medina on a Monday and passed away on a Monday.

(Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Vol. 3, Jama‘ Abwab al-Hijrah ila al-Medina [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 253) (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 243)

Quba was the name of a well and the village thus became commonly known as Quba where the Ansar tribe of Banu Amr bin Auf lived. This village was situated at a distance of two miles from Medina.

(Shihab al-Din Yaqut Ibn Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu‘jam al-Buldan, Vol. 4, Zair Lafz ‘Quba’ [Beirut, Lebanon: Maktabah al-Misriyyah, 2014], p. 77)

According to other opinions, Quba was situated at a distance of three miles from Medina and was also known as Aliya.

(Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 230)

When Hazrat Bilal (ra) migrated to Medina, he stayed at the home of Hazrat Sa‘d bin Khaithamah (ra). The Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Bilal (ra) and Hazrat Ubaidah bin Harith (ra); according to another narration, the Holy Prophet (sa) established the bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Bilal (ra) and Hazrat Abu Ruwaiha Khathami (ra).

(Ibn Sa‘d, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Bilal bin Rabah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2017] 176)

When the Holy Prophet (sa) arrived in Medina, some Companions were beginning to fall ill. Among them were Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Bilal (ra) and Hazrat Aamir bin Fuhaira (ra). Hazrat Aisha (ra) narrates that when the Holy Prophet (sa) arrived in Medina, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Bilal (ra) developed a fever. When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had a fever, he would recite an Arabic couplet, the translation of which is, “Whenever a person wakes up in their home, he is given the greeting of ‘good morning’, though he is in a state where death is nearer to him than the laces of his shoes.” When Hazrat Bilal’s (ra) fever would subside, he would cry loudly and read the following couplet; the translation of which is, “If only I could know, if I will ever spend a night in Mecca, where I will be surrounded by idhkir and jalil [fragrant grass] or if I will ever go to Majannah and drink its water.”

Majannah is located a few miles away from Mecca, near Marruz Zahran. During the time of jahiliyyah [time of ignorance before the advent of Islam] there was a famous festival held by the Arabs in Marruz Zuhran after the festival of Ukaz. After the festival of Ukaz, the Arabs would move to Majannah and stay there for 20 days. In any case, Hazrat Bilal(ra) wondered whether he would ever drink the water there and said, “Will my eyes ever behold the mountains of Shaamah and Tafil again?” He was saying this in the form of a poetic couplet. Tafil is a mountain located approximately 10 miles away from Mecca and there is another mountain near it which was known as Shaamah. Then Hazrat Bilal (ra) would say, “O Allah! Cursed be Shi‘bah bin Rabi‘ah, Utbah bin Rabi‘ah and Umayyah bin Khalf, for they have driven us away from our land towards a land inflicted by disease.” Upon hearing these words of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Bilal (ra), the Holy Prophet (sa) prayed, “O Allah! Make Medina just as beloved to us as Mecca, or even more than that. O Allah! Bestow Your blessings in our sa‘ and our mudd.” Sa‘ and mudd were the names of common units of measurement. “… and make Medina a place which affords us health and send its illness towards Juhfa.” Juhfa is another city in the direction of Mecca.

Hazrat Aisha (ra) relates, “We arrived in Medina, and it was a place most afflicted with disease in Allah’s earth.” She said, “Some water flowed in the Buthan stream, but even that water had a foul smell.” Buthan is the name of a valley in Medina.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fada‘il al-Madinah, Bab Karahiyyat al-Nabi (sa) an Ta‘ra al-Madinah, Hadith 1889) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-i-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003] 58, 180, 259) (Shama‘il al-Nabi (sa), p. 76, footnote) (Sharh Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 2, p. 172, [Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut])

During the migration from Qadian, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) particularly gave the Ahmadis advice with reference to the migration to Medina, saying, “We should not be made to worry due to this migration”. At the time, whilst referring to the incident of Hazrat Bilal (ra) and mentioning the instruction of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) said to his community, “I do not know about others and I cannot say anything to them,” i.e., the non-Ahmadi Muslims who have migrated, “but to the Ahmadis I say that you should abandon the thought that you have suffered loss,” i.e., you have migrated here and have lost everything. “The Holy Prophet (sa) would pity those muhajireen [companions migrating] who lamented the loss of their home and possessions.

“When the Holy Prophet (sa) migrated to Medina, it was known as Yathrib, and malaria was widespread there. Malaria began to spread and the muhajireen caught a fever. On one hand, the Muslims were hurting due to the separation from their homeland and some of them began wailing and weeping whilst remembering Mecca. One day, Hazrat Bilal (ra) also caught the fever, so he started to cry out some couplets he had formed. When the Holy Prophet (sa) looked at him, he expressed his disappointment and said, ‘Is this all you have come here to do?’ In other words, they had migrated and thus there was no need to express grief.”

At the time, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) advised the Ahmadis who had migrated from India to Pakistan, “I also say to you, remain happy. Do not focus upon what you have lost. Focus on Who you have lost it for. If whatever you have lost is solely for the sake of God Almighty and for the success of Islam, then let this be a source of happiness and do not become despondent. Your faces should not show signs of sorrow, rather the signs of joy should be visible upon them.”

(Qadian se Hamari Hijrat, Anwar al-Ulum, Vol. 21, p. 379)

Thus, Ahmadis had this mind-set [upon migrating] and this was the advice of the Khalifa of the time, that our migration was for the sake of Allah and for the service of Islam. Today, the very people who were against the establishment of Pakistan claim to be those who have laid the foundation for Pakistan. And through lies and deception, they are depriving Ahmadis of their basic rights in that same country for which Ahmadis rendered the greatest sacrifices.

Accounts from the life of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) were being related two sermons ago and it was mentioned that Suraqah, in greed of the reward, also set out in pursuit of the Holy Prophet (sa). However, when the decree of Allah the Almighty created hurdles before him, he requested the Holy Prophet (sa) to grant him protection when he would come into rule and he also requested the Holy Prophet (sa) for this to be put into writing.

There are various narrations in this regard. According to one narration, the Holy Prophet (sa) addressed him whilst he was returning and said, “O Suraqah! What shall be your state when the bangles of the Chosroes shall be on your wrists?” Suraqah turned around in astonishment and said, “Chosroes, the son of Hormizd?” The Holy Prophet (sa) said, “Yes, Chosroes, son of Hormizd.” Hence, during the era of Hazrat Umar’s (ra) Khilafat, when the bangles, crown and girdle of the Chosroes were brought before him, he called for Suraqah and said, “Raise your hands.” He then placed the bangles around his wrists and said, “Proclaim that all praise belongs to Allah the Almighty, Who seized both of these from the Chosroes, son of Hormizd and granted them to you.”

(Abdul Hameed Jaudah al-Sahhar, Muhammadur-Rasulullahi walladhina ma‘ahu, Vol. 3, al-Hijrah [Egypt: Maktabat Misr], p. 65)

It is also mentioned that Suraqah did not accept Islam during this migration, but did so when the Holy Prophet (sa) was returning from Hunain and Ta‘if at a place called Ji‘ranah. Ji‘ranah is the name of a well located close to Mecca and on the way towards Ta‘if. [On that occasion] the Holy Prophet (sa) said to Suraqah, “What shall be your state when you shall wear the bangles of the Chosroes?”

(Bukhari Sharh al-Karmani, Vol. 14, p. 178, Bad‘ al-Khalq, Bab Alamat al-Nubuwwahfi al-Islam, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 88)

In Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin [The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets (sa)], Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) has related this in the following manner:

“The Holy Prophet (sa) started off, but only a short time had passed when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) noticed that a man was racing his horse in pursuit of them. Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) worriedly said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! A man pursues us.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Do not worry, Allah is with us.’ This pursuant was Suraqah bin Malik, who describes the tale of his pursuance in the following words, ‘When the Holy Prophet (sa) left Mecca, the infidels of the Quraish announced that whosoever brings back the Holy Prophet (sa) or Abu Bakr (ra) dead or alive, shall be given such and such a bounty, and this announcement was given to us through their messengers as well.’” Suraqah said this. “‘After this, one day, I was sitting in a gathering of my people, the Banu Mudlij, when one man from the Quraish came to us and addressed me saying, “I have just seen two personages to the coast of the sea. I perceive that perhaps they are Muhammad (sa) and his companions.” Suraqah says, ‘I immediately figured that this must be them.’”

Following this, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) has mentioned the details of this incident including Suraqah’s pursuit, the omen not showing in his favour and also his horse sinking into the sand, all of which have already been mentioned. Nevertheless, Suraqah says:

“This entire ordeal led me to believe that this man’s star is prosperous and that in the end, the Holy Prophet (sa) would be victorious. Therefore, in a gesture of peace, I said, ‘Your people have set such and such a bounty for your assassination or capture, and people have planned such and such [conspiracy] against you. I also came with the same intention, but now I shall return.’”

Then, with regard to further details regarding Suraqah and the prophecy of the bangles of Chosroes, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“When Suraqah was about to return, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘What shall be your state when the bangles of the Chosroes shall be on your wrists?’ Flabbergasted, Suraqah enquired, ‘Chosroes, son of Hormizd, the Emperor of Iran?’ ‘Yes’, responded the Holy Prophet (sa). Suraqah’s eyes were left wide open in amazement. A Bedouin of the Arabian Desert and the bangles of the Chosroes, Emperor of Iran! But look at the display of the power of truth. When Iran was conquered in the reign of Hazrat Umar (ra), the treasure of the Chosroes came to the Muslims as spoils of war. The bangles of the Chosroes also came to Medina in these spoils. Hazrat Umar (ra) summoned Suraqah, who had become Muslim after the Fall of Mecca, and put the bangles of the Chosroes on his wrists, which were laden with precious jewels.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), pp. 240-242)

This was a reference from Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin. Whilst mentioning these details, in one instance Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“When the Holy Prophet (sa) was commanded by Allah the Almighty to migrate, he departed with Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to Cave Thaur, situated 6-7 miles from Mecca. At the peak of this mountain was a cave in which they sat and hid. When the disbelievers saw in the morning that he was not present in his home, and that he had successfully escaped in spite of all the security measures in place, they immediately set off in search of him. They hired the best trackers of Mecca who had expertise in recognising footprints, who led them to the Cave Thaur. They said that Muhammad (sa) had to be here. There are no further footprints beyond here. At the time, the enemies were right at the mouth of the cave and the entrance was not narrow. It was not difficult to glance inside, in fact it was such an open and spacious entrance to the cave that it was easy to look inside and see if there was anyone sitting there or not. Yet despite this being the case, the Holy Prophet (sa) was never overcome with fear; in fact, due to the spiritual strength he possessed, the heart of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) also remained firm, and he did not say, like the companions of Moses (as), that they were going to be captured; rather, if he ever uttered something, it was this: ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah, the enemies are so close that if they even lower their heads a little they would see us.’ However, the Holy Prophet (sa) stated:

أُسْكُتْ‭ ‬يَا‭ ‬أَبا‭ ‬بَكْرٍ‭ ‬إِثْنَانِ‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬ثَالِثُهُمَا

“‘Remain quiet Abu Bakr, we are not just two in this moment, the third with us is Allah, so how will they be able to spot us?’

“Hence, this is what came to pass. Despite the enemy reaching the entrance of the cave, they were not able to move forward and look inside, and from there they wandered back.

“One aspect from this incident is that whereas the companions of Moses (as) panicked saying, ‘O Moses we have been captured,’ with the thought that even Moses (as) would be seized and they would all be captured by Pharaoh, the trust of Muhammad (sa) was such that the impact it had on his companion was such that his tongue would not even utter the words, ‘We have been caught.’ All he said was that the enemy was so close now that if they wished to they could spot us. Yet Muhammad (sa), Messenger of Allah, would not even tolerate this fear, and said, ‘Do not think that we are only two at this moment in time, for another Being is with us, Who is our God.’”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 7, pp. 146,147)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states in another instance:

“When the people of Mecca had intensified their injustices against the Holy Prophet (sa) to the extent that it was hindering their efforts to propagate their faith, Allah the Almighty commanded that they leave Mecca. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was prepared to depart from Mecca alongside him. He was told prior to this on a number of occasions to make his way, but he was not prepared to leave without the Holy Prophet (sa). When the Holy Prophet (sa) was about to depart, he had Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) accompany him.”

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“When they left in the night, there is a place in the mountains in which they remained – which I also saw during Hajj – where there is a small cave, the mouth of which is two to three yards wide. When the Meccans realised that the Holy Prophet (sa) had left [Mecca] they went in pursuit of him. There used to be very skilled trackers among the Arabs, and with their help, they managed to reach the exact spot where the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) were sat. By divine decree, some bushes had grown in front of the mouth of the cave, the branches of which had intertwined. If the people had moved these branches aside, they would have easily seen the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sitting there. When the trackers reached this spot, they said that either they had ascended to heaven, or they are sat in there. They have not gone any further than here. Imagine at the time how delicate the situation was. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) became concerned, but not for himself; rather, for the sake of the Holy Prophet (sa). The Holy Prophet (sa) then said:

لَا‭ ‬تَحۡزَنۡ‭ ‬اِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

“‘Do not grieve, for Allah is with us.’

“Had the Holy Prophet (sa) not witnessed God Almighty with him, it would have been impossible to not worry in such a delicate situation. Even the most courageous of people would have panicked if the enemy had reached even close to their exact spot. Yet, when the enemies of the Holy Prophet (sa) – who had been after his life for the last 13 years – had reached the exact spot, and to whom the trackers were saying that he had either ascended to heaven or is sat in there, and has not gone any further, at that moment, the Holy Prophet (sa) uttered:

لَا‭ ‬تَحۡزَنۡ‭ ‬اِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

“‘Allah is with us so you have no reason to worry.’ It was due to his deep knowledge of God that the Holy Prophet (sa) stated this. The Holy Prophet (sa) felt the presence of Allah within himself and understood that with his own perishing, would perish the very cognisance of the Divine, which is why no one could cause him to perish.”

(Irfan-e-Ilahi aur Mahabbat Billah ka Aali Martabah, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 11, pp. 223-224)

Narration 1

There are also various narrations with regard to which direction the Holy Prophet (sa) went when he left his home. From one of the narrations, it seems that the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) left their homes respectively and met at one place and then headed towards the Cave Thaur.

(Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 1, p. 568, Tarikh Qabal Al-Hijrat, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1987)

Narration 2

In another narration, it states that the Holy Prophet (sa) left his house and headed towards the Cave Thaur. After a short while, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) came to the Holy Prophet (sa) house and Hazrat Ali (ra) informed him that the Holy Prophet (sa) had already left and that he should go behind him. And so, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) followed after him.

(Al-Sirat al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, p. 47, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2008)

This narration seems very weak. It seems from this that the Holy Prophet (sa) waited for Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and he got late. Furthermore, [it seems from this] that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had no knowledge of where the Holy Prophet (sa) went and it was Hazrat Ali (ra) who had to tell him. It is not possible at all that such an important and confidential event as the migration took place and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), who was extremely wise and responsible would show such carelessness.

Thus, in comparison to this, the other narration which is more commonly found in the [Islamic] literature seems to be more correct and accurate. According to the other narration, the Holy Prophet (sa) left his house and went straight to the house of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). From there the Holy Prophet (sa) along with Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) went to Cave Thaur.

(Al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Ibn Hisham, p. 343, Dikr Hijrat-e-Rasool, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

Whilst departing from behind the Ka‘bah, the Holy Prophet (sa) turned his blessed countenance towards Mecca and addressed the city with the following words:

“O Mecca, by God, from all of Allah’s lands you indeed are the dearest to me and most beloved to Allah as well and if your people did not force me out, I would never have left.”

(Muhammad (sa) Rasulullahi Walladhina Ma‘ahu, Abdul Hameed, Vol. 3, p. 59, Baab Al-Hijrat, Egypt)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“After waiting two days in the cave, according to the agreed plan, the mounts were brought near the cave in the night and the Holy Prophet (sa) and his companions set out on fleet camels. The Holy Prophet (sa) and the guide were mounted on one of the camels.”

It is also mentioned in the narrations that both were mounted on one camel and according to other narrations there were three camels. In any case, “Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and his servant, Aamir bin Fuhairah were mounted on the other camel. Just before departing for Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) turned towards the direction of Mecca – the holy city which was his birthplace, where his advent took place and the place where his ancestors from the time of Hazrat Ishmaelas had been living. The Holy Prophet (sa) cast a final glance and addressed the city with great anguish, ‘O city of Mecca, you are more beloved to me than all the places of the world, but your people have not allowed me to live here.’ At that time, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said with great regret, ‘These people have exiled their prophet. Indeed they shall be destroyed.’”

(Dibachah Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, pp. 223-224) (Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, p. 344, Hijrat al-Rasul (sa), Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

On one occasion, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and some of the Companions (ra) fell ill in Medina. There is a narration regarding this from Hazrat Aisha (ra) in which she states:

“When the Holy Prophet (sa) arrived in Medina, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Bilal (ra) developed a fever. I visited both of them and asked, ‘Father, how do you feel? And Bilal, how do you feel?’”

Hazrat Aisha (ra) further relates:

“Whenever Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had a fever, he would recite the following couplet:

كُلُّ‭ ‬امْرِئٍ‭ ‬مُصَبَّحٌ‭ ‬فِيْ‭ ‬أَهْلِهِ‬‬‬‬ وَالْمَوْتُ‭ ‬أَدْنَى‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬شِرَاكِ‭ ‬نَعْلِهِ‬‬‬‬

“‘Whenever a person wakes up in their home, he receives the greeting of peace, though he is in a state where death is nearer to him than the laces of his shoes.’

When Hazrat Bilal’s (ra) fever would subside, he would cry loudly and read some couplets in which he would mention the neighbourhoods of Mecca and remember it.”

Hazrat Aisha (ra) narrates:

“I went to the Holy Prophet (sa) and related everything to him, i.e. what Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Bilal (ra) had said. Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) prayed, ‘O Allah! Make Medina just as beloved to us as Mecca, or even more than that and make it a place which is conducive to our health. O Allah! Bestow Your blessings in our saa‘ and our mudd.” Mudd and saa‘ are units of measurement, “and send its illness towards Juhfa.’” Juhfa is a place situated 82 miles from Mecca in the direction of Medina.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqib al-Ansar, Bab Maqdam al-Nabi (sa) wa Ashabih al-Medina, Hadith 3926) (Sharh al-Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1996], p. 172)

We find in narrations how Hazrat Ali (ra) offered sacrifice during the Holy Prophet’s (sa) migration. It is stated that when the Meccans had unanimously agreed to kill or capture the Holy Prophet (sa), they gathered around his house. The Holy Prophet (sa) was informed about this plot of the enemy through divine revelation. Allah the Almighty permitted the Holy Prophet (sa) to migrate to Medina and thus he made the necessary preparations. He instructed Hazrat Ali (ra) to sleep in his bed for that night. Hazrat Ali (ra) slept in the same red hadrami sheet that the Holy Prophet (sa) would use to sleep in.

*(Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 1, Dhikr Rasul-Allah (sa) … [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1990], 176) * In the morning, when the group of idolaters that were waiting in ambush entered the home of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Ali (ra) was getting of bed. When they moved nearer to him, they realised who he was and asked where his friend was – i.e. they asked the whereabouts of the Holy Prophet (sa). Hazrat Ali (ra) replied, “I do not know where he is; am I his guardian? You ordered him to leave Mecca and he did as you ordered him.” The idolaters rebuked Hazrat Ali (ra) and beat him. They took him to the vicinity of the Ka‘bah and detained him for a while, but then released him.

(Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2, Dhikr al-Khabar amma kana min Amr Nabi Allahsa … [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2002], 256)

In another biography of the Holy Prophet (sa), it is stated that Hazrat Ali (ra) remained in Mecca for three days in order to return the possessions and belongings the Meccans had left with the Holy Prophet (sa) for safe keeping. He then migrated and met the Holy Prophet (sa) when he was staying with Kulthum bin Hidam in Quba.

(Ibn Kathir, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Bab Hijrah al-Rasulsa [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001], 348)

The Muslims in Medina heard about the Holy Prophet’s (sa) departure from Mecca and every morning they would go up to Harrah and wait for him. Medina is situated between two Harrahs. A Harrah is a dark stony terrain. Harrah Waqim is situated to the east of Medina and is also known as Harrah Banu Quraizah and the other one is called Harratul Waburah, which is situated to the west of Medina at a distance of three miles. They would wait until the intense heat of the afternoon would compel them to leave. They would go in the morning and wait and then return in the afternoon. One day, the people of Medina waited for quite a while before returning. As they reached their homes, a Jew climbed onto one of their forts in order to do some work and saw the Holy Prophet (sa) and his companions who were wearing white clothes. The mirage was moving away from them. Upon seeing this, the Jew could not hold back and loudly cried, “O Arabs! Here comes your leader who you were waiting for!” The Muslims rushed for their weapons and then met the Holy Prophet (sa) in the plains of Harrah. The Holy Prophet (sa) along with the rest of the companions turned to his right and reached the village of the Banu Amr bin Auf. This took place on a Monday in the month of Rabi-ul-Awal. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stood up for the people whilst the Holy Prophet (sa) quietly remained seated. Those Ansar who had not previously met the Holy Prophet (sa) came and offered their greetings of peace to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). When the sun began to shine upon the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stepped forward and created a shade for him with his mantle. It was then that people realised who the Holy Prophet (sa) was. The Holy Prophet (sa) spent more than 10 nights in the village of Banu Amr bin Auf and, according to a narration of Bukhari, he spent 14 nights and laid the foundation for the mosque regarding which it is stated that its foundation have been established upon taqwa [righteousness] and the Holy Prophet (sa) prayed inside it.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Manaqib al-Ansar, Bab Hijrat al-Nabisa wa Ashabih ila al-Medina, Hadith 3906) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Salah, Hadith 428) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], pp. 101-102)

According to this narration of Bukhari, the Holy Prophet (sa) spent more than 10 nights in Quba. According to another narration, the Holy Prophet (sa) spent four days in Banu Amr bin Auf, i.e. Quba, that is Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday. On Friday, the Holy Prophet (sa) left for Medina. According to another narration, it is said that the Holy Prophet (sa) spent 22 nights [in Quba].

(Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, Bab Ard Rasul (sa) Allah Nafsah … [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 75)

With regard to the Holy Prophet’s (sa) arrival in Quba, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“After seeing off Suraqah and having travelled some distance, the Holy Prophet (sa) arrived in Medina. The people of Medina were eagerly awaiting his arrival. A more auspicious day could not have dawned for them. For, the sun which had risen for Mecca had come instead to shine on Medina.

“The moment (the people of Medina) heard the news that the Holy Prophet (sa) was no longer in Mecca, they were expecting his arrival. Parties of them would travel miles out of Medina to look for him every morning and they would return disappointed in the evening. When the Holy Prophet (sa) reached near Medina, he decided to stop for a while in Quba, a nearby village. A Jew saw their camels and realised that this was the caravan of the Holy Prophet (sa). He climbed a hillock and shouted, ‘O progeny of Qaila’” – Qaila was the name of one of the grandmothers of the people of Medina and hence they were also known as the progeny of Qaila, “‘he for whom you waited has come.’ Everyone in Medina who heard this cry rushed to Quba, while the people of Quba were overjoyed at the arrival of the Holy Prophet (sa) in their midst.

The greed of the reward made a lot of people pursue the Holy Prophet (sa). There is an incident mentioned in books of history: Buraidah bin Husaib states, “When the Quraish announced a reward of 100 camels for whoever goes after the Holy Prophet (sa) and brings them back dead or alive, I was also tempted by greed. Subsequently, I set out with 70 riders from the Banu Sahm and met with the Holy Prophet (sa). The Holy Prophet (sa) asked me who I was, to which I replied, ‘Buraidah’. Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) turned towards Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and said, ‘O Abu Bakr! We have been granted relief and our matter has eased.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) then said, ‘Which tribe do you belong to?’ I replied, ‘The tribe of Aslam’. The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘May peace be with them.’ He then asked, ‘From which progeny?’ to which I replied, ‘From among the Banu Sahm.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘O Abu Bakr! You are very fortunate.’”

Buraidah then asked the Holy Prophet (sa), “Who are you?” The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, “I am Muhammad (sa), son of Abdullah, the Messenger of Allah.” Upon this Buraidah said, “I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and Muhammad (sa) is His servant and messenger.” Buraidah accepted Islam and also all those who were with him. Buraidah then said, “All praise belongs to Allah, the Banu Sahm accepted Islam wholeheartedly without any compulsion.” The following morning, Buraidah said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! You ought to enter Medina with a flag.” He then took off his turban and tied it to a spear and began walking ahead of the Holy Prophet (sa) and the Muslims then entered Medina.

(Sharh al-Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1996], p. 148) (Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, Bab al-Hijrah ila al-Medina [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 71)

Hazrat Mus‘ab (ra) bin Umair requested permission from the Holy Prophet (sa) before the second pledge at Aqabah to lead the Friday prayers in Medina, and he was duly granted permission. Hazrat Mus‘ab (ra) bin Umair led the first Friday prayers in the house of Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) bin Khaithamah, in which 12 people of Medina participated and on this occasion, he slaughtered a goat.

Hazrat Mus‘ab (ra) bin Umair was the first person in Islam to lead the Friday prayers in Medina. However, there is another narration in which it is mentioned that Hazrat Abu Umamah As‘ad (ra) bin Zurarah was the first to lead the Friday prayer in Medina.

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, pp. 87-88, Mus‘ab (ra) bin Umair, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 1, p. 171, bab Dhikr al- al-Aqabah al-Ula Itha al-Ashara, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) has mentioned this incident in Sirat Khataman Nabiyyin as follows:

“In the darkness of the night, the cruel Quraish from various tribes had besieged the home of the Holy Prophet (sa) with their bloodthirsty intentions. They were waiting for dawn, or for the Holy Prophet (sa) to come out of his home, so as to launch a sudden assault and assassinate him. Various trusts belonging to the disbelievers were still with the Holy Prophet (sa), for despite their extreme enmity, many people would often entrust their belongings to the Holy Prophet (sa) on account of his truthfulness and trustworthiness. Therefore, the Holy Prophet (sa) explained the accounts of these trusts to Hazrat Ali (ra), and instructed him not to leave Mecca until these trusts were returned. Then he instructed, ‘You lie on my bed,’ and assured him that no harm would come to him. He lay down and the Holy Prophet (sa) covered him with his red-coloured mantle. After this, the Holy Prophet (sa) invoked the name of Allah, and left his home. At that time, the besiegers were present in front of the Holy Prophet (sa) door. However, since they did not anticipate that the Holy Prophet (sa) would leave his home so early in the night, at that time, they were in such a state of unawareness that the Holy Prophet (sa) left right through their midst, leaving them in their ignorance, and they had not a clue […] On the other hand, the Quraish who had besieged the home of the Holy Prophet (sa), would peer through after short intervals, and upon seeing Hazrat Ali (ra) who was in fact lying in the place of the Holy Prophet (sa), they would find comfort. But the next morning, they found out that their prey had slipped their hands. Upon this, they franticly ran here and there, searched the streets of Mecca, looked in the homes of companions, but nothing was to be found. In their rage, they took hold of Hazrat Ali (ra) and beat him somewhat.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), pp. 236-237)

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) has written that the Holy Prophet (sa) left in the early part of the night. Regarding this, he states:

“At that time, the besiegers were present in front of the Holy Prophet (sa) door. However, since they did not anticipate that the Holy Prophet (sa) would leave his home so early in the night, at that time, they were in such a state of unawareness that the Holy Prophet (sa) left right through their midst, leaving them in their ignorance, and they had not a clue. Now, the Holy Prophet (sa) was silently, but quickly, passing through the streets of Mecca and it was not long before he reached the outskirts of the town and started towards the Cave of Thaur. The entire matter had been pre-settled with Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), who also met the Holy Prophet (sa) en-route.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 237)

When Hazrat Abu Kabsha migrated to Medina, he stayed with Hazrat Kulthum bin Al-Hadam. According to another narration, he stayed with Hazrat Sa‘d bin Khaithma. Hazrat Abu Kabsha passed away on the first night after Hazrat ‘Umar (ra) was elected as Khalifa. This was on the twenty-second Jamadi-uth-Thani [sixth month of the lunar calendar] in the thirteenth year of Hijra.

(At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 36, Abu Kabsha, Da-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, 1990, Beirut), (Usdul Ghaaba, Vol. 5, pp. 301-302, Dar-ul-Kutub-ul-Ilmiyyah, Beirut)

Medina Munnawarah

According to one narration, the last individuals to migrate to Medina were Hazrat Ali (ra) and Hazrat Suhaib (ra) bin Sinaan, who migrated in the middle of Rabi‘ al-Awwal [third month in the Islamic calendar]. The Holy Prophet (sa) was staying in Quba and had not yet set off for Medina.

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 172, Suhaib bin Sinaan, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2017)

In one narration, it is mentioned that when Hazrat Suhaib (ra) set off to migrate towards Medina, a party of idolaters pursued him. He subsequently dismounted, emptied his quiver and said, “O party of the Quraish! You know that I am among your most skilful archers. By Allah! You will not be able to reach me until I fire all of my arrows at you. I will then fight you with my sword until I am left empty handed. Therefore, you may do as you please. If it is my wealth you desire, I will tell you where it is and you may then leave my path.” These people replied in the affirmative.

Hence, Hazrat Suhaib (ra) told them [where his wealth was] and when he presented himself before the Holy Prophet (sa), the Holy Prophet (sa) said that this deal had been profitable for Abu Yahya”, i.e. it had been beneficial for him.

The narrator says that upon this, the following verse was revealed:

وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ یَّشْرِیْ نَفْسَہُ ابْتِغَآءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللّٰہِ وَاللّٰہُ رَءُوْفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ

“And of men there is he who would sell himself to seek the pleasure of Allah; and Allah is Compassionate to [His] servants.” (Surah al-Baqarah, Ch.2: V.208)

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, pp. 171-172, Suhaib bin Sinaan, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2017)

According to one narration, Hazrat Suhaib (ra) went to the Holy Prophet (sa) after migrating from Mecca to Medina. At the time, the Holy Prophet (sa) was in Quba and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra) were with him. At the time they all had fresh dates in front of them, which were brought by Hazrat Kulthum (ra) bin Hidam. On the way, Hazrat Suhaib (ra) contracted an eye infection (he had an ailment of the eye), but was also suffering from starvation and tiredness due to the journey. When Hazrat Suhaib (ra) rushed towards the dates, Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah, look at Suhaib (ra); he has an eye infection and is eating the dates”. The Holy Prophet (sa) replied in a lighthearted manner saying, “You are eating the dates despite your eye infection?”, i.e. he had swollen eyes with tears running down. Hazrat Suhaib (ra) submitted, “I am eating whilst using the side of my eye which is healthy”. Upon hearing this, the Holy Prophet (sa) smiled. Hazrat Suhaib (ra) turned to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and said, “You promised me that you would take me with you in the migration, but you went without me.” He then turned to the Holy Prophet (sa) and said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah, you also promised to take me along with you on the migration, but you also left without me. The Quraish captured me and detained me, so I had to buy my freedom and that of my family by giving up my wealth.” The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, “This was a very beneficial deal indeed.”

Thereafter, God Almighty revealed the verse:

وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ یَّشْرِیْ نَفْسَہُ ابْتِغَآءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللّٰہِ وَاللّٰہُ رَءُوْفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ

“And of men there is he who would sell himself to seek the pleasure of Allah; and Allah is Compassionate to [His] servants.” (Surah al-Baqarah, Ch.2: V.208)

Hazrat Suhaib (ra) said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah, I took with me one mudd [approximately 0.5kg] of flour as provisions for my journey, which I had prepared at Abwah until I reached you.”

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 172, Suhaib bin Sinaan, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2017)

This was all he had to eat on this journey.

In this regard, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) writes:

“Suhaib (ra) was a prosperous merchant and in Mecca he was considered a reputable person, but despite the fact that he was wealthy and was no longer a slave, the Quraish continued to beat him even after his release to the extent that he would pass out. When the Holy Prophet (sa) left Mecca and migrated to Medina, Suhaib (ra) also wanted to migrate, but the Meccans stopped him from doing so. They said that he was not permitted to take the wealth he had earned in Mecca with him. Suhaib (ra) offered to surrender all his property and earnings and asked whether they would then let him go. The Meccans accepted the arrangement. Suhaib (ra) handed everything over to them and reached Medina empty-handed and met the Holy Prophet (sa). The Holy Prophet (sa) said to him, ‘Out of all the transactions you have ever made, this was the best.’ In other words, he previously used to earn money by trading goods, but this time he traded money in return for his faith.”

(Dibacha Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwarul Ulum, Vol. 20, pp. 194-195)

“The utter simplicity of the Holy Prophet (sa) is illustrated by an incident which took place at this time. Most people in Medina had not seen the Holy Prophet (sa) before. The Holy Prophet (sa) was sat under a tree outside of Quba, and people rushed towards them from Medina. Since the Holy Prophet (sa) was sat in a most simple manner, many of them who were unaware took Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) for the Holy Prophet (sa). Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), though younger, had a greyer beard and was wearing slightly better clothes than the Holy Prophet (sa). Hence, they would turn to him and sit in front of him with great respect. When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) saw this, he realised that people had made a mistake. He quickly rose and took his mantle and hung it against the sun and said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! You are in the sun. I make this shade for you.’ In this subtle manner, he made plain to the people their error.”

(Dibachah Tafsir-ul-Quran, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 20, pp. 226-227)

Whilst mentioning the details of this incident, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) has referenced a narration of Bukhari and writes:

“There is a narration in Bukhari related by Bara’ bin Azib that, ‘I have never seen the Ansar as happy as they were at the arrival of the Holy Prophet (sa) to Medina, on any other occasion.’ Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah have related from Anas bin Malik that, ‘When the Holy Prophet (sa) arrived, we felt as if Medina had become illuminated; and on the day that the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away, the city of Medina never seemed darker.’

“After meeting the people who had come to receive him, the Holy Prophet (sa) – due to a reason which history has not recorded – did not enter the city directly. Instead, the Holy Prophet (sa) travelled out of his way to the right, and went to an elevated habitation named Quba, which was situated at a distance of 2-2.5 miles from the city. Various families of the Ansar resided here; among them, the family of Amr bin Auf is distinct. In that era, Kulthum bin Al-Hadam was the chief of this family. The Ansar of Quba gave the Holy Prophet (sa) a very warm welcome. The Holy Prophet (sa) stayed in the home of Kulthum bin Al-Hadam. Those Muhajirin who had already reached Quba prior to the arrival of the Holy Prophet (sa), were residing in the home of Kulthum bin Al-Hadam and other nobles from among the Ansar. Perhaps this is the reason behind the Holy Prophet (sa) deciding to first stop in Quba.

In an instance, news of the arrival of the Holy Prophet (sa) spread throughout Medina. All of the Muslims began to gather in troops at the residence of the Holy Prophet (sa) restlessly, in the fervour of their love.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), pp. 264-165)

The enemy followed the Holy Prophet (sa) and when they reached the mountain where the Cave Thaur was located, the person who was searching their tracks said, “I cannot tell where these two individuals went from here.” When they reached near the cave, he said, “By God! The person you are pursuing did not go beyond this point.”

(Tarikh al-Khamis, Vol. 2, p. 15, fi Waqai‘ al-Sanah al-Ula min al-Hijrah, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2009)

When the person searching the tracks uttered these words at the entrance of the cave, and at this point someone even wanted to take a look inside the cave, Umayya bin Khalaf said in a rather harsh and careless manner, “I have seen this web and tree here even before Muhammad (sa) was born. You must have lost your mind. How could he be here? Let us leave this place and look for him elsewhere.”

Having said this, the people returned.

(Allama Qastallani, Al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 1, pp. 292-293, Al-Maktabah al-Islami, Beirut, 2004)

According to one narration, when they reached Juhfa, which is situated approximately 82 miles from Mecca, the following verse was revealed:

اِنَّ‭ ‬الَّذِيۡ‭ ‬فَرَضَ‭ ‬عَلَيۡكَ‭ ‬الۡقُرۡاٰنَ‭ ‬لَرَآدُّكَ‭ ‬اِلٰي‭ ‬مَعَادٍ

“Most surely, He Who has made [the teaching of] the Quran binding on thee will bring thee back to [thy] place of return.” (Surah al-Qasas, Ch.28: V.86)

(Abdul Hameed Jaudah al-Sahhar, Muhammad (sa) Rasulullah walladhina ma‘ahu, Vol. 3 [Egypt: Maktabah Misr], p. 64)(Sharh al-Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1996], p. 172)

They continued the journey through the entire night and as midday approached, they took some rest in the shade of a large rock. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) prepared a place for the Holy Prophet (sa) to lay down and then requested him to take some rest and the Holy Prophet (sa) then laid down. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then left to see whether anyone was coming in pursuit of them. During this time, a shepherd came towards them in search of some shade. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) relates, “I asked him, ‘Young boy, whose servant are you?’ He replied that he was the servant of one the members of the Quraish. He said a name which I recognised. I then asked him if his goats had any milk, to which he replied in the affirmative. I then asked him if he could draw some milk for us, to which he agreed. And so, I asked him to draw out some milk for us. The young boy took hold of one of his goats’ leg and placed it between his calf and thigh. I told him to first properly clean the udders and then under my supervision I had the milk drawn out into the bowl. He then added some water to cool the milk and I then presented it to the Holy Prophet (sa).”

According to some narrations, when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) came to present the milk to the Holy Prophet (sa), he was still asleep. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) did not deem it appropriate to disturb the Holy Prophet (sa) whilst he was resting and so waited until the Holy Prophet (sa) woke up. When the Holy Prophet (sa) woke up, he presented the milk and submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Please drink this.” The Holy Prophet (sa) drank so much that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) states that his disposition was filled with happiness. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! The time for our departure has come.” The Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “Yes”. In another narration, it states that the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “We should continue on with our journey.” Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, “Yes, my master!” and following this they continued on with their journey.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fadail Ashab al-Nabi (sa), Bab Manaqib al-Muhajirin wa Fadlihim, Hadith 3652) (Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Vol. 3, Jama abwab al-Hijrah ila al-Madinah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1993], pp. 243-244)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has also narrated this incident. Sometimes, there are certain additional details mentioned which have not been heard before, therefore I shall quote the incident in his words as well. Although the incident is more or less the same, however Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has his own unique style of narration. He writes:

“While the Holy Prophet (sa) was in Medina, everybody longed to have the honour of being his host. As his camel passed through the streets, families would line up to receive the Messenger (sa) of Allah. With one voice, they would say, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Here we are with our homes, our property and our lives to receive you and stand ready to protect to you. Come and live with us.’ Many would show greater zeal, and would go forward and hold the reins of the camel and insist on the Prophet’s dismounting in front of their doors and entering their houses. Politely the Holy Prophet (sa) would refuse saying, ‘Leave my camel alone. She is under the command of God; she will stop where God wants her to stop.’

“Ultimately it stopped on a site which belonged to orphans of the Banu Najjar tribe. The Holy Prophet (sa) dismounted and said, ‘It seems that this is where God wants us to stop.’ Thereafter, the Holy Prophet (sa) enquired as to who the land belonged to. The guardian of the orphans came forward and informed the Holy Prophet (sa) and then offered the site for the use of the Holy Prophet (sa). The Holy Prophet (sa) replied that he would not accept the offer unless he were allowed to pay. A price was settled and the Holy Prophet (sa) decided to build a mosque and some houses on it. After this, the Holy Prophet (sa) asked who lived nearest to the site. Abu Ayub Ansari (ra) came forward and said that his house was the nearest and that his services were at the Holy Prophet’s (sa) disposal. The Holy Prophet (sa) asked him to prepare a room in his house for him. Abu Ayub’s (ra) house was double-storeyed. He offered to let the Holy Prophet (sa) have the upper storey. But the Holy Prophet (sa) preferred to have the lower storey for the convenience of his visitors.”

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) further writes: “The devotion which the people of Medina had for the Holy Prophet (sa) showed itself again. Abu Ayub (ra) agreed to let the Holy Prophet (sa) have the lower storey, but he and his wife were unable to sleep the entire night in the thought that the Holy Prophet (sa) was residing beneath them. He and his wife thought it discourteous to do so. (This was an expression of their deep love.) At night, a pale of water was accidentally broken and water flowed on the floor. Abu Ayub (ra), fearing lest some water should drip through to the room occupied by the Holy Prophet (sa), took his quilt and with it, dried up the water before any could drip through. In the morning, he presented himself before the Holy Prophet (sa) and narrated the events of the night before, upon hearing this, the Holy Prophet (sa) agreed to occupy the upper storey. Abu Ayub (ra) would prepare the meals daily and present it to the Holy Prophet (sa). Abu Ayub (ra) and his family would then eat whatever remained from it. After a few days, the other members of the Ansar insisted in having a share in serving the Holy Prophet (sa). Until the Holy Prophet (sa) settled in his own house and made his own arrangements, the Muslims of Medina would take turns in presenting their services to the Holy Prophet (sa).”

(Dibachah Tafsir al-Quran, Anwar al-Ulum, Vol. 20, pp. 228, 229)

When Hazrat Abu Ubaidah(ra) embraced Islam, his father tortured him immeasurably. Hazrat Abu Ubaidah(ra) was among the companions who migrated towards Abyssinia. When Hazrat Abu Ubaidah(ra) migrated to Medina, the countenance of the Holy Prophet(sa) started to glow upon seeing him. Hazrat Umar(ra) stepped forward and embraced him and he stayed at the house of Hazrat Kulthum bin Hidam(ra); this was not Umm-e-Kulthum, rather at the house of Kulthum bin Hidam. (Roshan Sitarey az Ghulam Bari Saif Sahib, Vol. 2, pp. 11-12) (Ibn Sa‘d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012] 313.)

Imam Bayhaqi writes that during the journey to Cave Thaur, sometimes Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would ride in front of the Holy Prophet (sa), sometimes behind him, sometimes to his right, and sometimes to his left. The Holy Prophet (sa) asked him the reason, to which he replied, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah, when I feel like someone may be approaching from the front, I ride in front of you, and when I fear that someone may attack from behind, I move behind you, and sometimes I move to your right and sometimes to your left, so that you remain protected from all sides.”

(Subul al-Huda wa al-Rishad, Vol. 3, p. 240, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993)