Battle of Badr

His two brothers, Hazrat Tufail bin Harith and Hazrat Hussain bin Harith also participated alongside him in the Battle of Badr.

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 38-39, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990).

Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal participated alongside the Holy Prophet (sa) in all the battles, including the battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq. When he participated in the Battle of Badr, he was 20 or 21 years of age.

I will mention various expeditions in which Hazrat Uthman (ra) took part. As mentioned previously, Hazrat Uthman (ra) was not able to take part in the Battle of Badr because his wife, Hazrat Ruqayyah (ra), daughter of the Holy Prophet (sa), was extremely unwell. Owing to this, the Holy Prophet (sa) instructed Hazrat Uthman (ra) to remain behind in Medina in order to look after her but he considered Hazrat Uthman (ra) among those who participated in the battle. For this reason, he granted the same reward and the same number of provisions from the spoils of war as those who participated in the battle.

(Sharh Zurqani ala al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 2, p. 334, Ghazwah Badr, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996)

Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf had a long-standing friendship with Umayyah bin Khalf. There is a detailed narration about this in Sahih Bukhari in which Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf narrates that he wrote a letter to Umayyah bin Khalf stating:

“Umayyah would look after my property in Mecca and I would look after his in Medina. When I wrote my name as ‘Abdur Rahman’, Umayyah said, ‘I do not know any Abdur Rahman. Tell me and write down for me your name by which you went during the jahiliyyah, [i.e. the period of ignorance prior to the advent of Islam].’ So, I wrote my name as Abd Amr. When he came to participate in the Battle of Badr, I went up the hill to protect him once all the people had gone to sleep, but somehow Bilal (ra) saw him. Hence, Hazrat Bilal (ra) went to a gathering of the Ansar and standing among them, said, ‘Umayyah bin Khalf is nearby; if he escapes, then my life will be in danger.’ So, a group of people who were with Hazrat Bilal (ra) went out to follow us (i.e. Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) and Umayyah bin Khalf because Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf went out to protect him and to offer him refuge).”

The narrator further states:

“Being afraid that they would catch us, I left Umayyah’s son behind so that they would first engage in fighting with him and we would be able to advance further ahead (i.e. those Muslims who were pursuing them would become busy with fighting the son and they themselves would gain some lead over them and he would take Umayyah to a safe place). Subsequently, they killed him, (i.e. they killed his son) and they did not let my plan succeed and carried on following us. Umayyah was of a heavy build, so he was unable to escape quickly. Eventually, when they approached us, I told him to sit down. So, he sat down and I laid myself on him to protect him but they killed him by piercing him with their swords underneath me and one of them also injured my foot with his sword.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Wakalah, Bab Idhaa Wakala al-Muslimu Harbiyyan fi Dar al-Harb, Hadith 2301)

Further details of this incident are recorded in Tarikh al-Tabari as follows:

Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf narrates:

“Umayyah bin Khalf was my friend in Mecca. I used to go by the name Abd Amr at the time. While still in Mecca, I accepted Islam and I was given the name Abdur Rahman. After that, whenever he used to meet me, he would say, ‘O Abd Amr! Do you disregard the name given to you by your father?’ I used to say, ‘Yes’, upon which he would say, ‘I do not recognise any Rahman. It would be better if you proposed a different name and so, I will address you by that name because you do not respond to your old name. I will not address you by the name of something I am not aware of.’”

Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf further narrates:

“Whenever he used to call me by the name Abd Amr, I would not respond. I said, ‘O Abu Ali! You choose whatever you wish in this regard, but I will not respond to this old name.’ Umayyah bin Khalf then said, ‘Well, in that case, Abd Ilaah would be a better name for you.’ I said, ‘Fine!’ Hence, whenever we used to meet after that, he would address me by the name Abd Ilaah. I would respond to him and talk to him and this continued like this until the day of the Battle of Badr arrived and I passed by Umayyah, who was standing and holding his son, Ali bin Umayyah’s hand. I was holding a few chin armours, which I had acquired, and I was walking with them. Upon seeing me, he called out to me saying, ‘O Abd Amr!’ However, I did not respond to him. Following this, he said ‘O Abd Ilaah!’ Upon this I replied and enquired what he wanted. He responded, ‘Am I not better than these chain armours you are carrying?’ I said that if this is the case then come with me. I threw away the chain armours in order to give him refuge and grabbed hold of his and his son, Ali’s hand. Upon this, he said ‘I have never seen a day such as this one.’”

Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf further relates:

“I took both of them and set off, whilst walking in between father and son, holding them by the hand. Umayyah asked me, ‘O Abd Ilaah! Who is it among you that has the feather of an ostrich marked on his chest?’ I replied that it was Hamza bin Abdil-Muttalib. Umayyah said, ‘He is responsible for our state’” i.e. this terrible state that they were in was due to him.

Nevertheless, he further relates:

“I was walking along with him when Bilal (ra) saw me with them. Umayyah was the one who used to torture Hazrat Bilal (ra) in Mecca so that he would leave Islam. He used to take him to the rocky part of Mecca and once they had become extremely hot under the intense heat of the sun, he would make him lay on his back on the burning surface. He would then order for a large rock, which would be placed upon his chest. Following this, he would say that he would continue to be punished until he left the religion of Muhammad (sa). However, despite this torture, Bilal (ra) continued to say, ‘Ahad, Ahad’”, that is, “He is One, He is One.” “Therefore, when he saw him, that is when Hazrat Bilal (ra) saw Umayyah, he started saying that Umayyah bin Khalf was the chief of the disbelievers and that I would not survive if he was spared.’”

Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf narrated:

“I said to him ‘O Bilal! Both of them are my prisoners.’ Upon this, Bilal (ra) once again repeated that he would not survive if Umayyah was spared. I again said to Hazrat Bilal(ra), ‘O Ibn Sauda! Do you not hear [what I am saying]?’ Upon this, Bilal (ra) once again said, ‘I will not survive if he is spared.’ Following this, Hazrat Bilal (ra) said the following words in an extremely loud voice: ‘O Ansar! This is Umayyah bin Khalf, the chief of the disbelievers. I shall be destroyed if he is spared.’”

Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf further relates:

“Following this call of his, people surrounded us from all sides and trapped us and I began to protect Umayyah. One individual struck his son with the sword and he fell to the ground. At that moment, Umayyah screamed in such a loud manner that I had never heard the like thereof before. I told him to run but he was unable to do so. [I said] ‘By Allah! I am unable to assist you in any manner.’ In the meantime, the attackers struck both of them with their swords to such an extent that they killed them both.”

Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf used to say, “May Allah the Exalted have mercy on Bilal (ra) because not only did I lose my chain armours, but he also forcefully took my prisoners from me.”

(Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2, p. 35, Dhikr Waqi’ah Badr al-Kubra, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1987)

At the time of the departure for the Battle of Badr, the companions had 70 camels between them. As such, one camel had to be allotted to three individuals and each of them would take turns to ride upon it. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf shared one camel and took turns to ride it.

(Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Bab Dhikr Maghaziyah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 204)

In relation to the departure of the Holy Prophet (sa) for the Battle of Badr, it is mentioned that the Holy Prophet (sa) left Medina in order to stop the caravan of Abu Sufyan, which was approaching from Syria. When the Muslims reached Dhafiran, which was situated on the outskirts of Medina near the Safra valley, the Holy Prophet (sa) was informed that the Quraish had set out in order to protect this trade caravan. The Holy Prophet (sa) consulted his companions and informed them that an army from Mecca was swiftly heading towards them and asked their opinion in this regard. He asked if, instead of fighting this army, they preferred to confront the trade caravan. They replied in the affirmative; that is, one group [of companions] said that with regard to facing the enemy, they preferred to confront the trade caravan.

In one narration, it is mentioned that one group said, “Had you informed us about a battle, we would have prepared for it. However, we have set out for this trade caravan.” In another narration, it is mentioned that they said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! You should leave the enemy and head towards the trade caravan.” Upon this, the expression of the blessed countenance of the Holy Prophet (sa) changed. Hazrat Abu Ayub (ra) relates that this very incident was the cause of the following revelation:

كَمَآ‭ ‬اَخْرَجَكَ‭ ‬رَبُّكَ‭ ‬مِنْۢ‭ ‬بَيْتِكَ‭ ‬بِالْحَقِّ‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬اِنَّ‭ ‬فَرِيْقًا‭ ‬مِّنَ‭ ‬الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ‭ ‬لَكٰرِهُوْنَ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“As it was thy Lord Who rightfully brought thee forth from thy house, while a party of the believers were averse […]”.

[Ch8: V.6]

At the time, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stood up and very eloquently said a few words. Following this, Hazrat Umar (ra) stood up and also spoke briefly in an articulate manner. Then, Miqdad (ra) stood up and said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Let us head towards wherever Allah has commanded you to go. We are with you. By Allah! We will not say to you what the Children of Israel said to Moses (as):

فَاذْهَبْ‭ ‬اَنْتَ‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬رَبُّكَ‭ ‬فَقَاتِلَآ‭ ‬اِنَّا‭ ‬هٰهُنَا‭ ‬قٰعِدُوْنَ ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ “‘Therefore, go thou and thy Lord and fight, and here we sit.’”

[Ch.5: V.25]

Rather he said, “We will fight with you as long as there is life within us.”

(Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Bab Dhikr Maghaziyah, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], pp. 205-206) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-i-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 125)

Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) relates that when the Muslims captured the prisoners during the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (sa) said to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra), “What is your opinion in relation to these prisoners?” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) replied, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! These are our paternal cousins and relatives. I think you ought to take some ransom instead as that will strengthen us against the disbelievers and it is possible that Allah the Almighty will guide them towards Islam.”

The Holy Prophet (sa) said, “O Ibn Khattab! What is your opinion on this?” Hazrat Umar (ra) replied, “No, O Messenger (sa) of Allah! By God, I do not hold the same opinion as Abu Bakr. My opinion is that you should hand them over to us so that we may kill them; hand Aqil over to Ali so he can cut off his head, and hand (so and so, who was related to Hazrat Umar (ra)) so that I may sever his head, because they are all disbelievers and among the leaders of the Quraish.” The Holy Prophet (sa) gave preference to the opinion of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).

Hazrat Umar (ra) narrates, “The Holy Prophet (sa) did not choose my opinion. The next day I came and saw that both the Holy Prophet (sa) and Abu Bakr (ra) were sat weeping. I asked, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! What has caused you and your companion to cry? Tell me the reason, for I will weep if I am moved by it, or if not then at the least I will make my appearance to seem as if I am crying.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, ‘I weep over the punishment that was shown to me regarding those companions who suggested that I ought to take ransom. It was shown to me closer than this tree’ (i.e. referring to a tree that was near to him). Subsequently, Allah the Almighty then revealed the following verse:

مَا‭ ‬كَانَ‭ ‬لِنَبِيٍّ‭ ‬اَنْ‭ ‬يَّكُوْنَ‭ ‬لَهٗ‭ ‬اَسْرٰى‭ ‬حَتّٰى‭ ‬يُثْخِنَ‭ ‬فِي‭ ‬الْاَرْضِ ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ “It does not behove a Prophet that he should have captives until he engages in regular fighting in the land” [Ch.8: V.68] (and it was revealed up to)

فَكُلُوْا‭ ‬مِمَّا‭ ‬غَنِمْتُمْ‭ ‬حَلٰلًا‭ ‬طَيِّبًا ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬ “So eat, of that which you have won in war, as lawful and good” [Ch.8: V.70]. Thus, Allah made the spoils of war lawful for them.’” This is a narration of Sahih Muslim.

(Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Jihad wa al-Siyar, Bab al-Imdad bi al-Mala‘ikah, Hadith 4588)

In this narration, the words in the beginning, which state that the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) were weeping and the subject matter of the subsequent verses that were revealed, render this entire narration ambiguous and the matter remains unclear. However, deeming this narration to be correct, the majority of historians, biographers and commentators of the Quran have written that Allah the Almighty expressed displeasure at the suggestion that the captives of Badr should be freed after taking ransom and instead, favoured the opinion of Hazrat Umar (ra).

Those who have written about the life and character of Hazrat Umar (ra), usually pen a chapter about the Quranic injunctions that were revealed in line with the opinions of Hazrat Umar (ra); it is mentioned therein that with regard to the captives of Badr, Allah the Almighty favoured the opinion of Hazrat Umar (ra). But as mentioned, this matter is ambiguous. In fact, it seems that the biographers and commentators of the Quran have erred in their understanding of this narration.

Nonetheless, there is a note among unpublished notes of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) which rejects the biographers and commentators’ conclusions and the explanation given by Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) is the correct interpretation. It seems that biographers and commentators have created this narration to needlessly elevate the status of Hazrat Umar (ra) or they have erred in their understanding of this narration. Nevertheless, expounding upon verse 68 of Surah al-Anfal, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Prior to the advent of Islam, there was a custom in Arabia, which regrettably is still prevalent in some parts of the world today, that even if no war has taken place, people would be taken captive and enslaved. This verse abolishes this abhorrent custom and in plain words has commanded that a person can only be taken captive after the commencement of war against an opponent. If a war has not taken place, then it is unlawful to make someone a captive. This verse has been severely misinterpreted.”

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) further states:

“After the Battle of Badr, when the Muslims had captured some of the Meccans, the Holy Prophet (sa) sought advice from his Companions about what to do with them. Hazrat Umar (ra) was of the opinion that they ought to be killed, whereas Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) opined that they ought to be released for a ransom. The Holy Prophet (sa) preferred the advice of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).”

This is verse 68 of Surah al-Anfal in which it is mentioned that it is not lawful for a prophet to take captives unless he is engaged in an all-out war.

Nonetheless, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has explained this incident in which Hazrat Abu Bakr’sra opinion was different to Hazrat Umar’s (ra) and the Holy Prophet (sa) favoured the opinion of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and thus, released the captives after taking ransom. However, the commentators have alleged that the revelation of this verse indicates that God Almighty was displeased with this deed of the Holy Prophet (sa) in that the captives should have been killed instead of taking ransom. This is the explanation of Tabari.

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) writes:

“However, this interpretation is incorrect. Firstly, until that time, no command had been revealed which prohibited releasing prisoners by taking ransom for them. Therefore, no blame can be placed upon the Holy Prophet (sa) for taking ransom. Secondly, prior to this incident, the Holy Prophet (sa) released two captives in Nakhlah after taking ransom and Allah the Almighty did not disapprove of this act. Thirdly, two verses on from this, Allah the Almighty permits the Muslims to utilise what one obtains from the spoils of war, declaring it to be lawful and good. It is an extremely far-fetched notion to say that Allah the Almighty was displeased at the Holy Prophet (sa) accepting ransom and then declare the money obtained from it to be lawful and good. Therefore, this interpretation is wrong and the correct interpretation is that a general principle has been mentioned here in that no one can be made a captive unless an all-out war takes place with an enemy who is subdued after the battle.”

(Durus Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) (unpublished), Surah al-Anfal, Register 36, pp. 968-969)

From among the commentators of the Quran, Allamah Imam Razi and the famous biographer Allama Shibli Nomani also held the same opinion as Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra).

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Allamah Imam Razi, Vol. 8, Ch. 15, p. 158, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2004) (Sirat al-Nabi (sa), Shibli Nomani, Vol. 1, p. 194, RZ Publications, Lahore, 1408 H)

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“When the Holy Prophet (sa) returned to Medina, he sought counsel as to what should be done with the prisoners. Generally, it was a practice in Arabia to execute prisoners or make them permanent slaves. However, the disposition of the Holy Prophet (sa) was averse to such harsh measures. Moreover, no divine injunctions in this respect had been revealed either. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, ‘In my opinion, they should be released on ransom because after all, they are our brethren and kindred. Who knows, if tomorrow, devotees of Islam are born from among these very people.’ However, Hazrat Umar (ra) opposed this view and said, ‘There should be no consideration of kinship in a matter of religion. These people have become deserving of execution due to their actions. My opinion is that all of them should be executed. As a matter of fact, the Muslims should execute their respective relatives by their own hands.’ Swayed by his innate nature of mercy, the Holy Prophet (sa) approved of the proposal made by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). He thus, issued an order against execution and directed that such idolaters who pay their ransom, would be released. Therefore, subsequently, a divine injunction was also revealed to this effect”.

Since a divine injunction has been revealed to take fidya just as Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has also written, therefore it seems rather strange to use that hadith as a basis to explain the reason why the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) were crying.

In any case, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) further writes:

“As such, a ransom of 1,000 dirhams to 4,000 dirhams was set for each individual according to his means. In this manner, all of the prisoners continued to be released.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), pp. 367-368)

During the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Ali (ra) and Hazrat Abu Lubabah (ra) would all take turns to sit on the camel. Hazrat Ali (ra) and Hazrat Abu Lubabah (ra) insisted that they should go by foot and for the Holy Prophet (sa) to remain on the camel, but the Holy Prophet (sa) did not agree and smiled, saying the two of them were not stronger than him in walking, nor was he in less need when it came to gaining reward than the two of them.

(Seerat Khatam-un-Nabiyeen, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra), p. 353), (At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Vol. 2, pg. 15-16, Ammar bin Yassir, Dar Ihya At-turath Al-Arabi, 1990, Beirut)

Whilst describing the circumstances during the Battle of Badr and the incident regarding the killing of Abu Jahl, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“Now, the field of battle was heated by bloodshed. Before the Muslims was a party three times their number, which had entered the field of battle, embellished with all kinds of military equipment, determined to erase all traces of Islam. The poor Muslims were fewer in number, lesser in equipment and struck by shocks of poverty and exile, and as far as apparent means were concerned, they were a prey of a few minutes before the people of Mecca. However, they had become intoxicated in the love of Divine Unity and Prophethood. Living faith is a power in comparison to which there is no greater power on the earth, and it had instilled within them a supernormal strength. At that time, in the field of battle, they were displaying an unparalleled example of service to the faith.

“Every man would step ahead further than the other, and seemed restless to offer his life for the sake of God. Hamza (ra), Ali (ra) and Zubair (ra) cut down rank upon rank of the enemies. The passionate sincerity of the Ansar was such that Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) relates:

‘When the war fully commenced, I looked to my right and left, but found two youngsters from the Ansar to both my sides. Upon seeing them, my heart sank, because in such wars, the outcome of battle greatly depends on the companions to the right and left. Only such a person can fight effectively, whose sides are secure.’

“Abdur Rahman (ra) adds:

‘I was still in this state of mind, when one of the two boys enquired of me in a whisper, as if to keep it secret from the other, (i.e. lest the boy on the other side should hear them) “O Uncle! Where is that Abu Jahl who would give grief to the Holy Prophet (sa) in Mecca? I have made an oath with God that I shall either kill him or die trying.” I had not yet responded when the other also whispered the same enquiry. Upon witnessing their courage, I was stunned because Abu Jahl was the general of the army and he was surrounded by veteran warriors. I pointed to him saying, “That is Abu Jahl.”’

Abdur Rahman (ra) states:

‘I had only to make an indication, when both children sprung forward like hawks and cutting through the enemy ranks reached there in an instant. They executed an assault so swiftly, that Abu Jahl and his comrades were left dumbstruck, and Abu Jahl was mixed to dust.’

“Ikramah bin Abi Jahl also accompanied his father. Although he was unable to save his father, he managed to strike Mu‘az (ra) from behind in such a manner, that his left arm was cut and began to dangle. Mu‘az (ra) pursued Ikramah, but he escaped. Since a semi-attached arm was a hindrance in battle, Mu‘az (ra) tore it forcefully from his body and continued to fight.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 362)

Although the details of Abu Jahl’s death have already been presented in a sermon last year, they will be presented again due to their importance in relation to the account of Hazrat Mu‘az (ra).

Salih bin Ibrahim narrates from his grandfather Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) who stated:

“While I was standing in the row for the Battle of Badr, I looked to my right and left and found two youths from the Ansar. At the time I wished that I was standing among people who were older and stronger. During this very instance, one of them tapped me and asked, ‘Uncle, do you recognise Abu Jahl?’ I said to him, ‘Yes, my nephew, what do you want with him?’ He replied, ‘I learnt that he would hurl abuse at the Holy Prophet (sa). I swear by Him in Whose Hands is my life, if I were to see him, my eyes would not move from him, until one of us – whose end has been decreed – dies.’”

Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin ‘Auf (ra) states:

“These words left me astonished. Then the other one who was standing on the other side tapped me and asked me the same question. After a short while, I saw Abu Jahl circling among the ranks. I said to them, ‘There is that individual about whom you asked.’ As soon as they heard this, they rushed towards him with their swords drawn. They continued their onslaught until he died.

Following this, they returned to the Holy Prophet (sa) to inform him. The Holy Prophet (sa) enquired, ‘Which one of you killed him?’ Both of them replied that they had killed him. The Holy Prophet(sa) then asked, ‘Have you wiped your swords clean?’ They replied that they had not yet done so. The Holy Prophet (sa) examined their swords and said, ‘Both of you have killed him.’ Following this, he said, ‘His wealth will be given to Mu‘az bin Amr bin Jamooh.’”

Both of them were named Mu‘az, i.e one was called Mu‘az bin Afraa and the other was Mu‘az bin Amr bin Jamooh.

This is a narration of Sahih Bukhari.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fard al-Khumus, Bab Man Lam Yukhammis al-Aslab, Hadith 3141)

Hazrat Anas (ra) narrates, “On the day of the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Who will go to see what became of Abu Jahl?’ Hazrat Ibn Mas‘ud (ra) went and saw that both sons of Afraa, Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) and Hazrat Mu‘awwiz (ra) had struck him with their swords to such an extent that he was on the brink of death. Hazrat Ibn Mas‘ud (ra) went to him and asked if he was Abu Jahl? Hazrat Ibn Mas‘ud narrates, ‘I grabbed Abu Jahl by the beard. Abu Jahl said, “Have you killed a greater man than this”, or he said, “Had his nation killed a greater man than him?”’”

Ahmad bin Yunus has mentioned this in his narration in the following manner, that Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud stated, “You must be Abu Jahl?” This is also a narration of Bukhari.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitabul Maghazi, Bab Qatl Abi Jahl, Hadith 3962)

In relation to this narration found in Bukhari, Hazrat Sayyid Zain-ul-Abideen Waliullah Shah Sahib (ra) states in his commentary:

“In some narrations, it is mentioned that the two sons of Afraa, Mu‘az (ra) and Mu‘awwiz (ra), attacked Abu Jahl to the extent that he was on the brink of death, and that Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (ra) severed his head later on. This is mentioned in Bukhari, in the Book of Maghazi [military expeditions]. Allama Ibn Hajar Asqalani has expressed the possibility of Mu‘awwiz bin Afraa (ra) having also attacked him [i.e. Abu Jahl] after Mu‘az bin Amr (ra) and Mu‘az bin Afraa (ra) had already done so.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Fard al-Khumus, Vol. 5, p. 491, Footnote, Urdu translation Nizarat Ishaat, Rabwah)

With regard to who took part in the killing of Abu Jahl during the Battle of Badr, in one place, we find the details regarding this in the following manner:

Ibn Hisham narrated from Allama Ibn Ishaq, “Mu‘az bin Amr bin Jamooh (ra) wounded the leg of Abu Jahl, as a result of which he fell down. Ikrimah bin Abu Jahl struck Hazrat Mu‘az’s (ra) hand with his sword, which was severed as a result of the blow. Either his hand or his arm was cut off. Following this, Mu‘awwiz bin Afraa (ra) attacked Abu Jahl, as a result of which Abu Jahl fell to the ground but was still alive. Subsequently, Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (ra) severed his head from his body.”

When Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (ra) was sent by the Holy Prophet (sa) to find Abu Jahl among those who had been killed, it was then that Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (ra) severed his head from his body.

According to a tradition of Sahih Muslim, the two sons of Afraa attacked Abu Jahl so ferociously that he died as a result. Similarly, in Bukhari, under the heading of the killing of Abu Jahl, it has been recorded in a similar manner. Imam Qurtabi expresses doubt that the two sons of Afraa killed Abu Jahl. He says that some narrators confused Mu‘az bin Amr bin Jamooh (ra). That is, instead of Mu‘az bin Afraa (ra), it was in fact Mu‘az bin Amr bin Jamooh (ra) [who killed Abu Jahl], whom people considered to be Mu‘az bin Afraa (ra). He says that people have confused Mu‘az bin Amr bin Jamooh (ra) with Mu‘az bin Afraa (ra).

Allama Ibn al-Jawzi says that Mu‘az bin Jamooh (ra) was not from among the progeny of Afraa and that Mu‘az bin Afraa(ra) was among those individuals, who killed Abu Jahl. Perhaps a brother or paternal uncle of Mu‘az bin Afraa (ra) was present at that time, or only one of the sons of Afraa were mentioned, but the narrator may have mistakenly mentioned both sons.

Abu Umar states that the more reliable narration is that of Hazrat Anas bin Malik (ra), in which it is stated that Ibn Afraa killed Abu Jahl, i.e., one of the sons of Afraa. Ibn Theen relates that there is a possibility that both Mu‘az’s – i.e., Mu‘az bin Amr bin Jamooh (ra) and Mu‘az bin Afraa (ra) were brothers from the same mother, or that they were foster-brothers [who were weaned by the same wet-nurse]. Allamah Daudi has taken the two sons of Afraa to actually mean Sahl and Suhail and it is said that they were both Mu‘awwiz (ra) and Mu‘az (ra).

(Umdatul Qari, Vol. 15, pp. 100-101, Darul Fikr, Beirut)

In any case, these are the various accounts in which it is either mentioned that three individuals killed [Abu Jahl] or two individuals and among them there is mention of Hazrat Mu’az bin Harith (ra).

Hazrat Saeed (ra) bin Zaid could not take part in the Battle of Badr, however the Holy Prophet (sa) granted him a share from the spoils of the battle.

(Usdul Ghabah, Vol. 2, p. 476, Saeed bin Zaid, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 292, Saeed bin Zaid wa min Bani Adiyy bin Ka‘b bin Lu‘ayy, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Therefore, I have also included him and all those companions as Badri Companions, who either participated in the battle along with the Holy Prophet (sa) or, upon the instruction of the Holy Prophet (sa), were given a share from the spoils [from the Battle of Badr] and thus also included them amongst the Badri companions. The reason why he did not participate in the Battle of Badr has been previously mentioned in reference to Hazrat Talha (ra) bin Ubaidullah. In any case, the reason why Hazrat Saeed (ra) bin Zaid did not participate in the Battle of Badr is as follows:

The Holy Prophet (sa) was aware that the caravan of the Quraish had departed from Syria and subsequently he sent Hazrat Talha (ra) bin Ubaidullah and Hazrat Saeed (ra) bin Zaid 10 days prior to his own departure, in order to gather information about this caravan. Both of them set off and reached Haura, where they stayed until the caravan passed by. Haura was a resting place situated along the Red Sea, where caravans travelling between the Hijaz and Syria would pass by.

Nevertheless, the Holy Prophet (sa) came to know of the news of the caravan before Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Saeed (ra) returned, i.e. that the caravan already passed by and was not coming towards them. The Holy Prophet (sa) did not know the exact information, but, nonetheless, had found that the caravan had gone. The Holy Prophet (sa) assembled the companions and set off in pursuit of this caravan of the Quraish. However, the caravan escaped taking another route, i.e. it quickly set off on a path along the coast. The people of the caravan continuously walked day and night in order to escape from those who were in search of them. And so, by taking a different route which was along the coast, they did not meet.

Hazrat Talha (ra) bin Ubaidullah and Hazrat Saeed (ra) bin Zaid set off towards Medina in order to inform the Holy Prophet (sa) of this caravan. They were unaware that the Holy Prophet (sa) had already departed for the Battle of Badr. They reached Medina on the same day the battle between the Quraish and the Holy Prophet (sa) took place in Badr. Both of them set off from Medina in order to present themselves before the Holy Prophet (sa) and met with him at Turbaan, while he was returning from Badr. Turbaan is a valley at a distance of nineteen miles from Medina, which has an abundance of sweet water wells. The Holy Prophet (sa) stayed there on his journey towards the Battle of Badr.

There were two different caravans; one, a trading caravan that left by taking a different route, however this other caravan had come from Mecca with the intention of battle and it was against them that the battle took place at Badr. The Holy Prophet (sa) left Medina in pursuit of the trading caravan and to find out what their intentions were and was not aware that an actual army was also approaching. In any case, Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Saeed (ra) did not participate in the Battle of Badr. However, the Holy Prophet (sa) granted them a share of the spoils of this battle and thus they were also counted amongst the Badri Companions.

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, pp. 292-293, Saeed bin Zaid wa min Bani Adiyy bin Ka‘b bin Lu‘ayy, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah alaa Daw al-Quran wa al-Sunnah, Vol. 2, p. 123) (Farhang Sirat, p. 75, Zawwar Academy Publications, Karachi, 2003)

With regard to the Holy Prophet (sa) seeking counsel on what to do with the prisoners of Badr and Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) suggestion being implemented, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“When the Holy Prophet (sa) returned to Medina, he sought counsel as to what should be done with the prisoners. Generally, it was a practice in Arabia to execute prisoners or make them permanent slaves. However, the disposition of the Holy Prophet (sa) was averse to such harsh measures. Moreover, no divine injunctions in this respect had been revealed either. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) submitted, ‘In my opinion, they should be released on ransom, because after all, they are our brethren and kindred. Who knows, if tomorrow, devotees of Islam are born from among these very people.’ However, Hazrat Umar (ra) opposed this view and said, ‘There should be no consideration of kinship in a matter of religion. These people have become deserving of execution due to their actions. My opinion is that all of them should be executed. As a matter of fact, the Muslims should execute their respective relatives by their own hands.’

“Swayed by his innate nature of mercy, the Holy Prophet (sa) approved of the proposal made by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). He thus, issued an order against execution and directed that such idolaters who pay their ransom, would be released. Subsequently, a divine injunction was also revealed to this effect.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), pp. 367-368)

Hazrat Khubaib (ra) bin Adiyy took part in the Battle of Badr and killed Harith bin Aamir during the battle. During the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Khubaib (ra) bin Adiyy was appointed to supervise over the army’s possessions.

(Sair Al-Sahaba, Vol. 3, pt. 4, p. 309, Iadaara Islamiyaat, Lahore)

When a fierce battle began, the Holy Prophet (sa) came out of his tent and roused the spirits of the people for battle. The Muslims were stood in their ranks occupied in the remembrance of Allah. The Holy Prophet (sa) participated in the battle as well and fought emphatically. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stood right beside the Holy Prophet (sa) whilst fighting the enemy. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) demonstrated his exemplary bravery and was ready to fight against every rebellious disbeliever even if it was against his own son.

Whilst mentioning this, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Once, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was eating in the company of the Holy Prophet (sa) and they began speaking on different topics. Hazrat Abdur-Rahman, who was the eldest son of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and later became a Muslim, took part in the battle of Badr or Uhud from the disbelievers’ side. During the course of their meal, he said, ‘Father, you walked by such and such place during the battle and at the time I was hiding behind a rock. If I wanted to I could have attacked and killed you. However, I thought to myself, “Why would I kill my father?”’ Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) replied, ‘God had decreed that you were going to accept faith thus you were saved, otherwise, by God, if I had seen you, I would have certainly killed you.’”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 9, p. 588)

On the day of the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet(sa) offered the prayer:

اَللّٰهُمَّ اكْفِنِيْ نَوْفَلَ ابْنَ خُوَيْلِد

“O Allah! Become sufficient enough for me against Naufal bin Khwailid.” He was a leader from among the idolaters of Mecca.

Hazrat Jabbar(ra) bin Sakkhar captured him and Hazrat Ali(ra) killed him. The Holy Prophet(sa) later enquired if anyone had any news about Naufal and Hazrat Ali(ra) replied that he had killed him. Upon this the Holy Prophet(sa) prayed, “All praise is due to Allah Who accepted my prayer.” He was an extremely bitter opponent, hence the Holy Prophet(sa) prayed to God Almighty to be sufficient for him against him. God Almighty then made the provisions for his death. (Subul-ul-Huda Wa Al-Rashaad Fi Seerat Khair Al-Abaad, Vol. 4, p. 49, Ghazwa-e-Badr Al-Kubra, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993)

Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Rawaha was able to read and write in the era of ignorance, a time when the practice of writing was not common amongst the Arabs. After the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (sa) sent Hazrat Zaid (ra) bin Haritha from Badr to Medina and Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Rawaha to Awaali to announce news of the victory. Awaali is the name of the area situated 4-8 miles north of Medina in which the village of Quba and some tribes are located.

In the history of the Battle of Badr in 2 AH, we find a famous incident that took place. One of the disbelievers, Aswad bin Abdul Asad Makhzoomi, who was a very nasty and horrible man came forward. He had sworn that he would either drink from the well of the Holy Prophet (sa) and the Muslims, or demolish it or desecrate it, or else would die nearby trying to achieve this goal.

When he arrived there, he was challenged by Hazrat Hamza (ra) bin Abdul Muttalib. Hamza (ra) attacked him with his sword and cut through half of his calf. He was close to the well and fell on his back. He tried to get nearer to the well in order to fulfil his oath. Hazrat Hamza (ra) followed him and finished him off by attacking him again. Aswad died close to the well but was unable to drink from it or spoil it in any way.

(Sirat Ibn-e-Hisham, pp.298-299, Bab Maqtal Al Aswad bin Abdul Asad, Daru Ibn Hazm, 2009, Beirut)

Hazrat Ali (ra) states regarding the Battle of Badr that the number of disbelievers was many times greater than that of Muslims. The Holy Prophet (sa) spent the entire night praying with deep yearning and great humility. When the army of disbelievers came close and the Muslims took their positions, they saw a man on a red camel and he was moving among the ranks. The Holy Prophet (ra) asked Ali (ra) to check with Hamza (ra), who that man was, as Hamza (ra) was closer to the opposition army.

Then the Holy Prophet (sa) said:

“If there is anyone among the disbelievers who can admonish them, it is that man on the red camel”.

Meanwhile Hazrat Hamza (ra) came and said that it was Utba bin Rabi‘ah who was trying to persuade the disbelievers from engaging in battle, but Abu Jahl had taunted him for being a coward and fearing war. Upon hearing this taunt, Utba had become charged and had said, “We will see who is a coward”.

(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 1, pp. 338-339, Hadith No. 948, A’alamul Kutub, 1998, Beirut)

Hazrat Ali (ra) narrates, “Utba bin Rabi‘ah came forward to fight along with his son and brother, and challenged anyone to a fight. Many Ansari young men accepted this challenge. Utba then asked them who they were and when they said they were from among the Ansar, he said that they did not have any quarrel with them. They only wished to fight their uncles’ sons.

Upon hearing this the Holy Prophet (sa) said, “O Hamza, arise! O Ali, stand up! O Abu Ubaida bin Harith, step forward!” Hazrat Ali (ra) says, “Hamza (ra) went toward Utba, and I went toward Shaibah, and Abu Ubaida contested with Waleed and they both injured each other severely. Both Hazrat Hamza (ra) and I then turned towards Waleed and killed him. We then brought Abu Ubaida (ra) back from the battlefield”.

(Sunan Abu Daud, Kitabul Jihad, Bab Fil Mubarizah, Hadith No. 2665)

Hazrat Ali (ra) and Hazrat Hamza (ra) had killed their rivals. When the Holy Prophet (sa) had called all three to march forward and fight, when approaching their enemies, Utbah told them to say something so that they could be recognised as they were wearing helmets that covered their faces. Upon this Hazrat Hamza (ra) said:

“I am Hamza (ra). I am the Lion of Allah and His Messenger”.

Utba responded, “What a worthy rival”.

*(At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra Li Ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 2, p.12, Hamza bin Abdil Muttalib, Darul-Kutub Al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1990, Beirut) *

Hazrat Hamza (ra) was so brave that he had an ostrich feather placed as a sign of battle to awestrike the disbelievers. Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) narrates that Umayya bin Khalf, who was amongst the chieftains of the Quraish, the man who would torture Hazrat Bilal (ra) in Mecca, was killed at the hands of the Ansar in Badr. He had asked Abdur Rahman, “Who is the man with the ostrich feather on his chest”? Hazrat Abdur Rahman informed him that it was Hazrat Hamza (ra) bin Abdul Muttalib. Umayyah said, that it was Hamza that had caused the most harm to them that day.

(Sirat Ibn-e-Hisham, p. 302, Bab Maqtal Umayya bin Khalf, Daru Ibn Hazm, 2009, Beirut)

The English historian Sir William Muir writes about the participation of Hazrat Hamza (ra) in the Battle of Badr, that Hazrat Hamza (ra) was visibly prominent across the battlefield as he was wearing the feather of an ostrich.

*(The Life of Mohammad, Sir William Muir, Heading – Battle of Ohod [sic], p. 260, 1923) *

When the Holy Prophet (sa) departed for the Battle of Badr, he, along with his army, camped at Buyut as-Suqya, located on the outskirts of Medina. Some minors, eager to accompany the Holy Prophet (sa), who had also come along, were sent back from there. Then the Holy Prophet (sa) ordered his companions to fetch water from the well at Suqya. He drank from its water and then offered the prayer near the houses of Suqya. When departing from Suqya, the Holy Prophet (sa) ordered Hazrat Qais bin Abi Sa‘sa to take a count of the Muslims. At that occasion he was also appointed to oversee the arrangements for water. After that, the Holy Prophet (sa) himself stayed near the well at Bir-e-Abi Inaba, located at about 2.5 kilometres from the Prophet’s Mosque. Upon receiving the instruction from the Holy Prophet (sa) to count the number of people, Hazrat Qais counted them and submitted to the Messenger (sa) of Allah that their number was 313. The Holy Prophet (sa) was pleased to hear this number and said that the companions of Talut also numbered the same.

The Well of Suqiya

According to the note written with regard to Suqya, it was located about two kilometres from the Prophet’s Mosque. Its previous name was Husaiqa. Hazrat Khallad (ra) narrates that the Holy Prophet (sa) changed its name from Husaiqa to Suqya. He states, “I wished to purchase Suqya but Hazrat Sa‘d bin Waqas had already bought it in return for two camels.” According to some, he bought it for seven Auqiyah i.e. 280 Dirhams. When this was mentioned to the Holy Prophet (sa), he said his trade was very profitable.

(al-Sira al-Nabawaiyyah Ala’ Zou al-Quran Wa al-Sina, Vol. 2, p. 124, Maktabah Shamilah) (Subl-ul-Huda Wa al-Rishad, Vol. 4, p. 23 & 25, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1993) (Yaum-ul-Furqan Israr Ghazwah-e-Badr, Dr Mustapha Hasn al-Badwi, p. 124, Dar-ul-Minhaj, Beriut, 2015) (Imta-ul-Isma’, Vol. 8, p. 341, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1999), (Kitab-ul-Maghazi Li-al-Waqadi, Vol. 1, pp. 37-38, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2013)

Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) and his two brothers, Hazrat Auf (ra) and Hazrat Mu‘awwiz (ra), participated in the Battle of Badr. Hazrat Auf (ra) and Hazrat Mu‘awwiz (ra) were martyred during the Battle of Badr, but Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) participated in all the subsequent battles along with the Holy Prophet (sa) thereafter.

Hazrat Talha (ra) bin Ubaidullah did not participate in the Battle of Badr, however the Holy Prophet (sa) gave him a share from the spoils of war. The reason he did not participate in the Battle of Badr is that the Holy Prophet (sa) was aware that the caravan of the Quraish had departed from Syria and subsequently sent Hazrat Talha (ra) bin Ubaidullah and Hazrat Saeed (ra) bin Zaid 10 days prior to his own departure, in order to gather information about this caravan. Both of them set off and reached Haura, where they stayed until the caravan passed by. Haura was a resting place situated along the Red Sea, where caravans travelling between the Hijaz and Syria would pass by.

Nevertheless, the Holy Prophet (sa) came to know of this before Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Saeed (ra) returned. The Holy Prophet (sa) assembled the companions and set off in pursuit of this caravan of the Quraish. However, the caravan escaped taking another route, i.e., it quickly set off on a path along the coast. The people of the caravan continuously walked day and night in order to escape from those who were in search of them; i.e., the caravan of the disbelievers from Mecca. Hazrat Talha (ra) bin Ubaidullah and Hazrat Saeed (ra) bin Zaid set off towards Medina in order to inform the Holy Prophet (sa) of this caravan. They were unaware that the Holy Prophet (sa) had already departed for the Battle of Badr. They reached Medina on the same day the battle between the Quraish and the Holy Prophet (sa) took place in Badr. Both of them set off from Medina in order to present themselves before the Holy Prophet (sa) and met with him at Turbaan, while he was returning from Badr. Turbaan is a valley at a distance of nineteen miles from Medina, which has an abundance of sweet water wells. The Holy Prophet (sa) stayed there on his journey towards the Battle of Badr.

Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Saeed (ra) did not participate in the Battle of Badr. However, as mentioned previously, the Holy Prophet (sa) gave them a share of the spoils of this battle. Thus, the two of them are counted amongst those who participated in the Battle of Badr.

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 162, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (al-Sirat al-Nabawiyyah, Fi Daw al-Quran Vol. 2, p. 123, Dar-ul-Qalam, Damascus) (Farhang Sirat, p. 75, Zawwar Academy Publications, Karachi, 2003)

Whilst mentioning this same account, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) has explained it in the following manner:

“Whilst Abu Jahl, who was the leader of the whole of Mecca and the commander of the Meccan army, was arranging the rows of his army for battle, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf, an experienced general, states that he looked to his right and to his left to see what kind of support he had. He found to his amazement that he had only two young boys from the Ansar on his flanks, who were around 15 or 16 years of age. His heart sank and he said to himself, ‘Today I will not be able to carry out what my heart yearns for because unfortunately I have two inexperienced youths on either side of me. Moreover, they belong to the Ansar and thus are completely inexperienced in the art of war.’”

Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) further relates:

“Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf had hardly finished saying this to himself when one of the boys touched his side with his elbow. Assuming that he wanted to say something to him, he turned towards him and he said, ‘O my Uncle, can you crouch a little more for I wish to say something in your ear, lest my companion hears me.’ Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf states that as he bent down to hear him, the youth said, ‘Which one is Abu Jahl, who used to cause pain and torment the Holy Prophet (sa). Uncle, I wish to fight him; tell me where he is.’ Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf had not yet replied to this youth’s enquiry, when his attention was similarly drawn by the boy on the other side, who tapped his elbow and asked him the same question, ‘O Uncle, which one is Abu Jahl, who used to cause pain and torment the Holy Prophet (sa)? I wish to kill him today.’

“Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf states that despite being a seasoned soldier, he did not think that even he would be able to kill Abu Jahl, who was not only the commander of the enemy but was surrounded by such experienced and skilled soldiers. Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf raised his finger to point at Abu Jahl for both of them and said, ‘There is Abu Jahl, who is armed to the teeth and standing behind the lines protected by those strong and fearless generals, with drawn swords.’ By this, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf meant that to do such a thing was impossible for such inexperienced youth. However, he had not even dropped his finger, when the two boys dashed into the enemy ranks like an eagle catches its prey, making straight for their chosen target. Ikramah, the son of Abu Jahl, was standing in front of him, who was also a very experienced and fearless general, however, the two Ansari youth went so suddenly that no one could even react quick enough to find out why they were advancing ahead and quickly reached the guards in order to attack Abu Jahl. Their attack was so swift and sudden that the soldiers stood at guard could not even bring down their unsheathed swords, except for one and he cut the arm off of one of the Ansari boys. However, those who are ready and willing to sacrifice their life, what can a severed arm do to stop them? The two youths pounced with such force upon those stood at guard just like a rock falls from a mountain and ultimately attacked Abu Jahl, killing the commander of the enemy even before the battle had commenced.

“Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Mas‘ud states that towards the end of the battle, he arrived at the location where Abu Jahl was on the floor and breathing his last. Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Mas‘ud enquired his condition and Abu Jahl responded, ‘I am dying but in a state of anguish. Death is nothing significant, but the most regretful thing is that before I could even fulfil what my heart desired, I was attacked by two youths of the Ansar.’ The people of Mecca would consider the Ansar to be very lowly people hence he was dying in a state of anguish for he had been slain by two youths of the Ansar. He then said to Abdullah (ra) bin Mas‘ud, ‘I am in extreme pain. Do me a favour, sever my head with one single blow of your sword, but ensure that you cut my head from the lower part of the neck because the neck cut in this manner is the sign of a slain general.’ Although Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Mas‘ud accepted this request of his to kill him and cut short his pain, but severed his head in a way that it was closer to his chin. In other words, even at the time of his death, this desire of his went unfulfilled, i.e. to have his head severed in a manner where his neck would remain long.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 8, p. 100)

Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) has related this account in regard to the subject of sacrifice in that even the children were filled with such deep love and affection for the Holy Prophet (sa) and how they sought to take revenge against those who opposed the Holy Prophet (sa).

This account has been related a few times before as well, but in any case, such was their level of sacrifice and love and affection for the Holy Prophet (sa) that they did not even have any concern for their own lives.

Hazrat Muawiz (ra) had the opportunity to participate in the Battle of Badr alongside his two brothers; Hazrat Muaz (ra) and Hazrat Auf (ra).

(Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 5, Muawiz bin Afra [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2003] 231)

During the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Muaz (ra), Hazrat Auf (ra) and Hazrat Muawiz (ra), who were referred to as the Banu Afraa and their freed slave Abul Hamraa, had one camel between them, and they would take turns to ride on it.

(Al-Waqidi, Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, Vol. 1, Badr al-Qital [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah (2013)] 38)

I presented the following narration once before in relation with Hazrat Muaz (ra) but it is also important that it is mentioned here in relation to Hazrat Muawiz (ra), hence, I will narrate it here as well. Hazrat Anas (ra) narrates, “On the day of the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Who will go to see what became of Abu Jahl?’ Hazrat Ibn Mas‘ud (ra) went and saw that both sons of Afraa had attacked him with their swords to such an extent that he was on the brink of death. Hazrat Ibn Masud (ra) went to him and asked, ‘Are you Abu Jahl?’”

Hazrat Anas (ra) further narrates, “Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (ra) grabbed hold of Abu Jahl by the beard. Abu Jahl said, ‘Have you killed a greater man than this?’ or he said ‘has his tribe had killed a greater man?’”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Maghazi, Bab Qatl Abi Jahl, Hadith 3962)

This is a narration from Sahih Bukhari.

In the commentary to this narration, Hazrat Sayyid Zain-ul-Abideen Waliullah Shah Sahib (ra) states:

“In some narrations, it is mentioned that the two sons of Afraa, Muaz (ra) and Muawiz (ra) attacked Abu Jahl to the extent that he was on the brink of death and that Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (ra) severed his head later on. Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani has expressed the possibility of Muawiz (ra) bin Afraa having also attacked him [i.e. Abu Jahl] after Muaz (ra) bin Amr and Muaz (ra) bin Afraa had already done so.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fard al-Khumus, Bab man lam Yakhmus al-Aslab, Hadith 3141, Vol. 5, p. 491, footnote, Urdu translation, published by Nazarat-e-Ishaat Rabwah)

In another narration, it is mentioned that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stood guarding the Holy Prophet (sa) in the canopy with an unsheathed sword, while the Holy Prophet (sa) spent the entire night in fervent supplications. It is also recorded that he was the only one to remain awake the entire night whilst others in the army took turns to sleep.

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 357) (Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Vol. 11 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 398)

There is a narration of Hazrat Ali (ra) in relation to the bravery of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). Hazrat Ali (ra) relates, “I asked a group of the Companions (ra), ‘Who is the bravest of all people?’ They answered, ‘You are, O Ali (ra).’”

Hazrat Ali (ra) then said, “The bravest person among the people was Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). On the day of Badr, we prepared a canopy for the Holy Prophet (sa), and we asked one another who would remain with the Holy Prophet (sa) so that no idolater could reach him. By Allah, none of us was close to the Holy Prophet (sa), but Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) went and stood right by him with his sword unsheathed, so that if any idolater were to reach, they would have to face Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) first.’”

(Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, Bab Dhikr Maghaziyah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 214)

In relation to this, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Hazrat Ali (ra) once said that the bravest and most courageous of all people was Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). He also said that when a separate canopy was constructed for the Holy Prophet (sa) during the Battle of Badr, at the time, the question was raised as to who would be responsible for guarding the Holy Prophet (sa) that day. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) immediately stood with his sword unsheathed, and he fulfilled this duty of safeguarding him during an extremely perilous time with utmost bravery.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 7, pp. 364-365)

Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) relates that whilst the Holy Prophet (sa) was in a large tent, he stated:

اللّٰهُمَّ‭ ‬إنِّيْ‭ ‬أَنْشُدُكَ‭ ‬عَهْدَكَ‭ ‬وَوَعْدَكَ‭ ‬اللّٰهُمَّ‭ ‬إِنْ‭ ‬شِئْتَ‭ ‬لَمْ‭ ‬تُعْبَدْ‭ ‬بَعْدَ‭ ‬الْيَوْمِ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“O Allah, I swear by Your oath and Your promise; O Allah, if You desire for the Muslims to be destroyed, then after today there shall be no one left to worship You.”

Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then took hold of his hand and said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah, please rest now! You have persisted a great deal in beseeching your Lord.”

At the time, the Holy Prophet (sa) was still wearing his chain mail. He came forth out of his tent and was reciting,

سَيُهۡزَمُ‭ ‬الۡجَمۡعُ‭ ‬وَيُوَلُّونَ‭ ‬الدُّبُرَ‭ ‬‬‬‬‬ بَلِ‭ ‬السَّاعَةُ‭ ‬مَوۡعِدُهُمۡ‭ ‬وَالسَّاعَةُ‭ ‬أَدۡهَىٰ‭ ‬وَأَمَرُّ‬‬‬‬‬

“Soon they shall all be defeated and flee, and this is the hour about which they were warned, and this hour shall be extremely difficult and severe for them.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Jihad wa al-Siyar, Bab ma Qila fi Dar‘ al-Nabi (sa) al-Qamis fi al-Harb, Hadith 2915)

Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas (ra) states, “Hazrat Umar (ra) bin Khattab told me that on the day of Badr, the Holy Prophet (sa) looked towards the idolaters and saw that they numbered 1,000 while his own Companions (ra) numbered only 319. The Holy Prophet (sa) turned in the direction of the Ka‘bah, raised both his hands and cried out to his Lord:

اللَّهُمَّ‭ ‬أَنْجِزْ‭ ‬لِي‭ ‬مَا‭ ‬وَعَدْتَنِي‭ ‬اللَّهُمَّ‭ ‬آتِنِي‭ ‬مَا‭ ‬وَعَدْتَنِي‭ ‬اللَّهُمَّ‭ ‬إِنْ‭ ‬تُهْلِكْ‭ ‬هَذِهِ‭ ‬الْعِصَابَةَ‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬أَهْلِ‭ ‬الإِسْلاَمِ‭ ‬لاَ‭ ‬تُعْبَدُ‭ ‬فِي‭ ‬الأَرْضِ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“Meaning, ‘O Allah, fulfil Your promise to me. O Allah, grant me that which You have vouchsafed. O Allah, if you allow this group of Muslims to be defeated, then there will be no one left on this earth to worship You.’

“He continued to face the Ka’bah with both his hands outstretched while continuously beseeching his Lord aloud. As he did so, his cloak fell from his shoulders. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) went towards him, lifted the cloak and placed it back on his shoulders. Then he held the Holy Prophet (sa) from behind and said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah, you have offered a lot of fervent supplications before your Lord; He will surely fulfil that which was promised to you.’ Upon this, Allah the Almighty revealed the following verse:

إِذۡ‭ ‬تَسۡتَغِيثُونَ‭ ‬رَبَّكُمۡ‭ ‬فَاسۡتَجَابَ‭ ‬لَكُمۡ‭ ‬أَنِّي‭ ‬مُمِدُّكُم‭ ‬بِأَلۡفٖ‭ ‬مِّنَ‭ ‬الۡمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِ‭ ‬مُرۡدِفِينَ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“‘And remember the time when you implored the assistance of your Lord, and He answered you, saying, “I will assist you with a thousand of the angels, following one another. [Ch.8: V.10]”’

“Thus, Allah helped him by sending angels.”

(Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Jihad wa al-Siyar, Bab al-Imdad bi al-Mala‘ikah fi Ghazwat Badr…, Hadith 4588)

It is recorded that the Battle of Badr took place in Ramadan, 2 AH, or in March of the year 623 CE.

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 349)

When departing for the Battle of Badr, the Companions (ra) had in their possession 70 camels. For this reason, one camel was given to every three persons, and each person would take turns riding it. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf shared one camel and took turns riding it.

(Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, Dhikr Maghaziyah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 204)

Regarding the departure of the Holy Prophet (sa) for the Battle of Badr, it is narrated:

“The Holy Prophet (sa) set out from Medina to intercept the caravan of Abu Sufyan, which was returning from Syria. When the Muslim convoy reached the Valley of Dhafiran – a valley in the surrounding area of Medina close to the Valley of Safra – the Holy Prophet (sa) received news that the Quraish had set out in order to protect and escort their trade caravan. The Holy Prophet (sa) sought the counsel of his Companions (ra) and informed them about an army that was swiftly advancing from Mecca toward them. He asked them, ‘What should we do about this? Do you prefer to engage the trade caravan over the army?’ They answered in the affirmative. In other words, a party from among them said that they prefer to engage with the trade caravan as opposed to the enemy army.”

In another narration, it is recorded, “A small group among the Companions (ra) said, ‘Why did you not inform us of a battle? We could have prepared for it. Our intention was to pursue the trade caravan.’”

According to one narration, they said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! You ought to head towards the trade caravan and leave the enemy army.” Upon hearing this, the expression of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) face changed.

Hazrat Abu Ayyub (ra) narrates: “It was for this moment that the following verse of the Holy Qur’an was revealed:

كَمَآ‭ ‬أَخۡرَجَكَ‭ ‬رَبُّكَ‭ ‬مِنۢ‭ ‬بَيۡتِكَ‭ ‬بِالۡحَقِّ‭ ‬وَإِنَّ‭ ‬فَرِيقٗا‭ ‬مِّنَ‭ ‬الۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ‭ ‬لَكٰرِهُونَ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“As [it was] thy Lord Who rightfully brought thee forth from thy house, while a party of the believers were averse.”) Ch.8: V.6)

“Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stood up and addressing the people, delivered an excellent speech, following which Hazrat Umar (ra) also stood and addressed the people and gave an excellent speech. Thereupon, Hazrat Miqdad (ra) stood and humbly submitted, ‘O Messenger of Allah (sa)! March towards that which you have been commanded by Allah. We are with you. By Allah, we will not say to you what the Israelites said to Moses (as):

فَاذۡهَبۡ‭ ‬أَنتَ‭ ‬وَرَبُّكَ‭ ‬فَقٰتِلَآ‭ ‬إِنَّا‭ ‬هٰهُنَا‭ ‬قٰعِدُوْنَ‬‬‬‬‬‬

That is, “Go thou and thy Lord and fight, and here we sit.” (Ch.5: V.25)

We will fight alongside you as long as we are alive. By Allah, Who has raised you as a prophet with the truth, even if you lead us to Bark al-Ghimad, we will march with you, fighting with our swords in hand until we reach our destination.”’

Bark al-Ghimad is a coastal town situated at a distance of five days journey from Mecca. Nonetheless, Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Mas‘ud narrates, “I looked at the blessed countenance of the Holy Prophet (sa). Upon hearing this statement, his face began to glow with joy and he became very happy.”

(Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, Dhikr Maghaziyah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], pp. 204-205) (Yaqut Ibn Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu‘jam al-Buldan, Vol. 1 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah], p. 475)

The Holy Prophet (sa) then set off from Dhafiran and set up camp near Badr. Then the Holy Prophet (sa) and one of his companions got on his mount – according to Ibn Hisham that companion was Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), but according to another narration, it was not Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) but Hazrat Abu Qatadah bin Nu‘man (ra) or Hazrat Muaz (ra) bin Jabal – until they stopped by an elderly Arab man. They inquired of him about the Quraish and about any news of Muhammad (sa) and his Companions (ra).

(Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Ghazwat Badr al-Kubra Dhikr al-Rasul (sa) wa Abu Bakr (ra) Yata‘arrafan Akhbar al-Quraish [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 421) (Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, Dhikr Maghaziyah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 207)

When they gathered at the battlefield of Badr, a canopy was made for the Holy Prophet (sa). With regard to its preparation, it is recorded:

“By the suggestion of Saad (ra) bin Muaz, leader of the Aus tribe, the Companions (ra) prepared a canopy in one part of the battlefield of Badr for the Holy Prophet (sa). Hazrat Saad (ra) tied the mount of the Holy Prophet (sa) by the canopy and said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah, sit under this canopy and in the name of Allah we shall face the enemies.’ Hazrat Saad (ra) and other Companions (ra) then stood around it to keep guard. The Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) spent the night therein.”

With regard to the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“Hazrat Ali (ra) relates that during the course of battle, whenever the Holy Prophet (sa) would come to mind, he would run towards his tent, but whenever he went there, he found the Holy Prophet (sa) weeping in prostration. He also heard that the Holy Prophet (sa) would constantly repeat the words:

يَا‭ ‬حَيُّ‭ ‬يَاقَيُّوْمُ۔‭ ‬يَاحَيُّ‭ ‬يَاقَيُّوْمُ‬‬‬‬

“‘O my Ever-Living, Life-Giving Master! O my Ever-Living, Life-Giving Master!’

“Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was greatly anxious by this state of the Holy Prophet (sa) and at times, would spontaneously say, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! May my mother and father be sacrificed for you! Do not worry, Allah shall certainly fulfil His promises.’ However, the Holy Prophet (sa) remained constantly engaged in his supplications (out of fear that some promises of Allah the Almighty are conditional).”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 361)

With regard to Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) bin Ubadah participating in the Battle of Badr, there are two varying opinions. Waqidi, Madayini and ibn Kalbi are of the opinion that Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) bin Ubadah participated in the Battle of Badr, however, according to Ibn Ishaaq, Ibn Uqbah and Ibn Sa‘d, he did not participate in the Battle of Badr. Nonetheless, a narration of At-Tabaqat al-Kubra sheds further light on this incident. It states that Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) bin Ubadah was not present in the Battle of Badr. He was making preparations for the battle and would visit various houses of the Ansar to ensure they were prepared for the battle. However, before the army left for Badr, Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) bin Ubadah was bitten by a dog and as a result of this he was not able to participate in the battle. The Holy Prophet (sa) stated that although Sa‘d (ra) did not participate in the battle, he desired fully to partake and thus granted him a share from the spoils of the battle. Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) bin Ubadah participated in all the battles alongside the Holy Prophet (sa) including the battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq.

(al-Isti’ab, Vol. 2, p. 594, Sa‘d bin Ubadah, Dar-ul-Jeel, Beirut, 1992) (Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 461, Sa‘d bin Ubadah, Dar-ul-Kutub al Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Siyar as-Sahaba, Vol. 3, p. 377, Sa‘d bin Ubadah, Darul Isha‘at, Karachi, 2004)

During the Battle of Badr, from the Muslim army, he [Hazrat Ubaidah bin Harith (ra)] was sent to combat in a duel against Waleed bin Utbah. It is mentioned in the Ahadith that a verse of the Holy Quran was also revealed in relation to this incident. Hazrat Ali (ra) relates:

“The verse:

ہَذَانِ خَصْمَانِ اخْتَصَمُوا فِی رَبِّہِمْ

(Surah al-Hajj: V.20) was revealed regarding those individuals who fought in the combat duels in the Battle of Badr i.e. Hazrat Hamza bin Abdil Muttalib, Hazrat Ali bin Talib and Hazrat Ubaidah bin Harith, and they faced off with Utbah bin Rabi‘ah, Shaybah bin Rabi‘ah and Waleed bin Utbah.”

(al-Mustadrik Ala al-Sahihain, Vol. 2, p. 419, Kitab-ul-Tafsir, Surah al-Hajj, Hadith 3456, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2002)

The meaning of this verse is, “These two are two disputants who dispute regarding their Lord.” The whole verse is as follows:

ہَذَانِ خَصْمَانِ اخْتَصَمُوا فِی رَبِّہِمْ فَالَّذِینَ کَفَرُوا قُطِّعَتْ لَہُمْ ثِیَابٌ مِنْ نَارٍ یُصَبُّ مِنْ فَوْقِرُءُوسِہِمُ الْحَمِیمُ

“These two are two disputants who dispute concerning their Lord. As for those who disbelieve, garments of fire will be cut out for them; and boiling water will be poured down on their heads.” (Surah al-Hajj: V.20)

Further details of this combat duel have been recorded in Sunan Abi Dawud. Hazrat Ali (ra) relates:

“Utbah bin Rabi‘ah, followed by his son and brother came forward and announced, ‘Who is it that will come to face us?’ Thereupon, many of the youth from among the Ansar answered him. Utbah asked ‘Who are you?’ They replied, ‘We are the Ansar’. Utbah then said, ‘We have no dispute with you, we only wish to fight the sons of our uncles’. The Holy Prophet (sa) then said, ‘O Hamza (ra) rise; O Ali stand up and O Ubaidah bin Harith rise and go forth.’”

Hazrat Ali (ra) further narrates: “As soon as we heard the call of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Hamza (ra) advanced towards Utbah, I advanced towards Shaybah and there was an encounter between Ubaidah bin Harith and Waleed and they both inflicted severe wounds on one another. Then we turned to Waleed and killed him and took Ubaidah bin Harith away from the battlefield.

(Sunan Abu Daud, Kitab-ul-Jihad, Baab Fi al-Mubariza, Hadith no. 2665)

During the duel, Utbah struck the calf of Hazrat Ubaidah bin Harith and cut open his calf. The Holy Prophet (sa) ordered for him to be removed from the battlefield and after the Battle of Badr had ended, he passed away in Safra, a place near Badr, and he was also buried there.

(al-Mustadrik Ala’ al-Sahihain, Vol. 3, pp. 207-208, Kitab-ul-Marifa al-Sahaba Min Manaqib Ubaidah bin Harith, Hadith no. 4862, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2002) (Lughat-ul-Hadith, p. 67, Mir Muhammad Kutub Khana Araam Baagh, Karachi)

According to a narration, it was only when the calf of Ubaidah (ra) was cut and the marrow was gushing forth from it, that the companions brought him to the Holy Prophet (sa) and he said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! Will I be considered a martyr?” He had been injured in the battle but did not die immediately. The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, “Indeed! You will be considered a martyr.” According to another tradition, when Hazrat Ubaidah (ra) bin Harith was brought before the Holy Prophet (sa) and he placed his head on his lap. Hazrat Ubaidah(ra) then said, “If only Abu Talib was alive today, he would know that I am more entitled than him to what he used to say, and that was:

ونسلمه حتيّٰ نصرع حوله

ونذهل عن ابناءنا و الحلائل

That is, “It is a lie that we will hand over Muhammad (sa) to you. Such will only be possible when we are struck down around him to the extent we become oblivious to our wives and children.”

Such was the passion of these people. At the time of his demise, Hazrat Ubaidah bin Harith was 63 years of age.

(al-Mustadrik Ala al-Sahihain, Vol. 3, p. 208, Kitab-ul-Marifa al-Sahaba Min Manaqib Ubaidah bin Harith, Hadith no. 4863, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2002) (Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 3, p. 547, Dar-ul-Kutb al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

Whilst describing the circumstances prior to the commencement of the conflict on the occasion of the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes in Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin:

“The Holy Prophet (sa) began to swiftly advance towards Badr and when he neared Badr, motivated by some feeling, which narrations have not disclosed, the Holy Prophet (sa) seated Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) behind himself and proceeded ahead of the Muslim army. At that time, the Holy Prophet (sa) encountered an old bedouin, from whom the Holy Prophet (sa) gathered during the course of conversation that the army of the Quraish had reached very close to Badr. Upon hearing this news, the Holy Prophet (sa) returned and dispatched Hazrat Ali (ra), Zubair bin al-Awwam (ra) and Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas (ra) to gather information. When these people arrived at the Valley of Badr, suddenly they noticed that a few Meccans were collecting water from a spring. These Companions attacked this party, taking captive an Abyssinian slave and brought him to the Holy Prophet (sa) … Then, the Holy Prophet (sa) gently enquired himself, ‘At this time, where is the army positioned?’ He responded, ‘On the opposite side of the hillock before you.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) enquired, ‘How many men are there in the army?’ He responded, ‘A multitude, but I am unaware of the exact figure.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Alright, then tell me how many camels are slaughtered daily for consumption?’ ‘Ten’, he responded. The Holy Prophet (sa) turned to the Companions and said, ‘It seems as if they are a force of 1,000 men.’ This estimate actually turned out to be correct.”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), pp. 355-356)

During the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Bilal (ra) killed Umayyah bin Khalf, who was a staunch enemy of Islam and used to persecute Hazrat Bilal (ra) for accepting Islam.

(Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 2, Bilal bin Rabah [Karachi, Pakistan: Dar al-Isha‘ah, 2004] 256)

The incident in regard to the killing of Umayyah is mentioned in Sahih al-Bukhari [previously cited in relation to Khubaib bin Isaaf]. Nevertheless, they shall also be narrated here as some of these details relate directly to Hazrat Bilal (ra) as well.

Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf relates (ra), “I wrote a letter to Umayyah bin Khalf stating that he should look after my property and family in Mecca – which at the time had become a land of conflict – and I would in turn look after his wealth and property in Medina.” Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) had known Umayyah bin Khalf for a long time. Umayyah bin Khalf also participated in the Battle of Badr alongside the army of the disbelievers and Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) learnt of this. Owing to this old relation of theirs, he wished to extend him a favour and thought of protecting him the night after the battle.

Hence, he narrates, “During the battle when everyone had fallen asleep, I made my way towards a hilltop in order to give him refuge. I knew in which direction he would have gone, so I too went there to protect him and offer him refuge, but somehow, in that moment, Hazrat Bilal (ra) saw him. Hence, Hazrat Bilal (ra) went and stood in a gathering of the Ansar, saying, ‘Umayyah bin Khalf is nearby; if he escapes, then my life will be in danger.’ So, a group of people who were with Hazrat Bilal (ra) went forth in pursuit of us. Being afraid that they would catch us, I left Umayyah’s son behind so that they would first engage in fighting with him and we would be able to advance further ahead. Subsequently, they killed him in battle. And so, this plan of mine proved unsuccessful as they killed him and continued to pursue us. Umayyah, being of a heavy build, was unable to escape quickly. Eventually, when they reached us, I told him to sit down. So, he sat down and I laid myself on him to protect him but they, i.e., those pursuing us, killed him by piercing him with their swords underneath me, and one of them also injured my foot with his sword.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Wakalah, Bab idha Wakkala al-Muslim…, Hadith 2301)

A part of another narration in which this incident is mentioned is as follows. Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) relates, “I was walking along with both of them”, i.e., Umayyah bin Khalf and his son, “when all of a sudden, Hazrat Bilal (ra) spotted Umayyah with me. Umayyah was the one who used to greatly torture Hazrat Bilal (ra) in Mecca so that he would leave Islam. Therefore, when Hazrat Bilal (ra) saw Umayyah, he started saying, ‘Umayyah bin Khalf, the chief of the disbelievers is here and I will not survive if he is spared.’”

Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) further narrates, “After hearing this I said to him ‘O Bilal! Are you saying this about my prisoners?’ Thereupon, Hazrat Bilal (ra) once again repeated what he was saying and each time, I would reply in the same manner that they were my prisoners. Following this, Hazrat Bilal(ra) said the following words in an extremely loud voice: ‘O Ansar of Allah! This is Umayyah bin Khalf, the chief of the disbelievers. I shall be destroyed if he is spared’ and he continued to say this over and over.”

Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf then says, “Following this call of his, the Ansar charged forward and surrounded us from all sides. Hazrat Bilal (ra) drew his sword and attacked Umayyah’s son and as a result, he fell down. Out of fear for his son, Umayyah let out such a shocking cry that I had never heard before. Thereafter, the Ansar struck both of them with their swords.”

(Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 2, Bab Dhikr Maghaziyat al-Nabi (sa) /Gahzwat Badr al-Kubra [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah] 232-233)

Whilst mentioning these incidents from the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) writes:

“The Holy Prophet (sa) addressed the Companions (ra) and said:

“‘There are some people among the army of the Quraish who have not come to participate in this campaign with pleasure; rather, they have only come along under the pressure of the chieftains of the Quraish. Otherwise, deep down they harbour no enmity to us. Similarly, there are also such people in this army, who in our time of hardship, dealt with us generously when we were in Mecca. It is our obligation to repay their benevolence. As such, if a Muslim subdues any such individual, he should not cause him any harm.’

“Among the first category of people, the Holy Prophet (sa) specifically mentioned the name of Abbas bin Abdil-Muttalib and in the second category of people, he mentioned the name of Abul-Bakhtari, and forbade their killing. However, the course of events took such an unavoidable turn that Abul-Bakhtari could not be spared from death. Nonetheless, prior to his death, he found out that the Holy Prophet (sa) had forbidden his killing. After saying this to the Companions (ra), the Holy Prophet (sa) retired to his tent, and became engaged in supplications once again. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) also accompanied him, and a party of the Ansarunder the command of Saad (ra) bin Muaz were stationed around the tent to stand guard. After a short time, there was an uproar in the field of battle, which indicated that the Quraish had launched a full attack. At that time, the Holy Prophet (sa) was weeping profusely and supplicating before God with his hands extended. He would say with extreme anguish:

اللّٰهُمَّ‭ ‬إنِّيْ‭ ‬أَنْشُدُكَ‭ ‬عَهْدَكَ‭ ‬وَوَعْدَكَ‭ ‬اللّٰهُمَّ‭ ‬إِنْ‭ ‬تُهْلِكْ‭ ‬هَذِهِ‭ ‬الْعِصَابَةَ‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬أَهْلِ‭ ‬الإِسْلاَمِ‭ ‬لاَ‭ ‬تُعْبَدُ‭ ‬فِي‭ ‬الأَرْضِ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“‘O My God! Fulfil Your promises. O My Master! If today, this party of Muslims is destroyed in the field of battle, there shall remain none who would worship You on the face of this earth.’

“At this time, the Holy Prophet (sa) was in a state of such agony, that sometimes he would fall into prostration, and at times he would stand up to call upon God. The mantle of the Holy Prophet (sa) would repeatedly fall from his back, and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would pick it up and place it on the Holy Prophet (sa) again and again. Hazrat Ali (ra) relates that during the course of battle, whenever the Holy Prophet (sa) would come to mind, he would run towards his tent, but whenever he went there, he found the Holy Prophet (sa) weeping in prostration. He also heard that the Holy Prophet (sa) would constantly repeat the words:

يَا‭ ‬حَيُّ‭ ‬يَا‭ ‬قَيُّوْمُ‭ ‬يَا‭ ‬حَيُّ‭ ‬يَا‭ ‬قَيُّوْمُ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“‘O My Ever-Living God! O My Life-Giving Master!’

“Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was greatly disturbed by this state of the Holy Prophet (sa), and at times would spontaneously say, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah! May my mother and father be sacrificed for your sake. Do not worry, Allah shall definitely fulfil His promises.’ However, the Holy Prophet (sa) remained constantly engaged in his supplications, weeping and wailing, according to the following proverb:

ہر‭ ‬كہ ‬عارف‭ ‬ہر‭ ‬تراست‭ ‬ترساں‭ ‬تر‬‬‬‬‬

“Meaning: ‘The wiser a saint, the greater his fear.’”

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), pp. 360-261)

It is mentioned in a narration that Muaz bin Rafa‘ah related from his father, “I accompanied the Holy Prophet (sa), while riding on a very frail and weak camel along with my brother, as we headed towards Badr. We reached a place called Bareed, which comes after Rauhah and there our camel gave up and sat down. Upon this, I prayed, ‘O Allah! We make this vow to You that if You return us to Medina, we will sacrifice this camel.’ At the time, the Holy Prophet (sa) was passing by us and enquired what the matter was with both of us. We narrated the entire incident to him. The Holy Prophet (sa) remained with us. He performed ablution and mixed his saliva with the leftover water. Then, upon his order, we opened the camel’s mouth. He poured some of that water into the camel’s mouth and then some upon its neck, its shoulders, its hump, its back and its tail. Then the Holy Prophet (sa) supplicated, ‘O Allah! Make it possible for Rafe‘ and Khallad to ride on it and to reach their destination.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) then left and we also got up to depart. We caught up with the Holy Prophet (sa) at Mansaf, while our camel was at the forefront of the caravan. When the Holy Prophet (sa) saw us, he smiled. Due to the prayer of the Holy Prophet (sa), the camel’s weakness had completely gone away. We continued travelling until we reached Badr. While returning from Badr, when we reached Musalla, the camel sat down again, upon which my brother slaughtered it and distributed its meat, which we gave out as Sadaqah [charity].”

(Kitaab-ul-Maghaazi Lil Waqdi, Baab Badr Al-Qitaal, Vol. 1, p. 25, Aalim-ul-Kutub, 1984) (Usdul Ghaaba, Vol. 2, p. 181, Khallad Bin Rafe, Dar-ul-Kutub-ul-Ilmiyyah, Beirut)

They had made a vow that once they reached a certain place, they would slaughter it. Thus, they fulfilled this.

He also played a huge role in putting an end to Abu Jahl. It is narrated by Hazrat Anas that at the end of the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, “Is there anyone who can find out the accurate and correct news regarding Abu Jahl?” And so, Abdullah bin Mas‘ud went and saw that Abu Jahl was lying in the battlefield, wounded and in agony. The sons of Ifra had caused him to be in this state. Hazrat Ibn Mas‘ud grabbed him by his beard and said, “Are you Abu Jahl?” Even in that state he very arrogantly replied, “Have you ever killed a greater chieftain than me?”

(Sahih Al-Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Maghazi, Baab Qatl Abi Jahl, Hadith no. 3962)

The first narration was from Bukhari however there is also a narration from Sahih Muslim. The narration from Sahih Muslim regarding this incident is that Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud grabbed him by the beard and asked him, “Are you Abu Jahl?” Abu Jahl replied, “Have you ever killed a great man like me before?” The narrator states that Abu Jahl said, “If only a person other than a farmer would have killed me.”

(Sahih Muslim, Kitab-ul-Jihad Wa Al-Sair, Hadith no. 4662)

There were two boys of Medina who left him in this state. Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II (ra) has also mentioned this in Tafsir-e-Kabir in great detail that how the opponents burnt in the fire of spite and malice all their lives and even at the time of their death they were in this state. He writes that Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud said, “After the battle, I saw that Abu Jahl was groaning in agony due to the wounds. I went to him and asked how he was. He replied, ‘I am not regretful of my death. It is soldiers who die after all. I am regretful that I was killed by the hands of two Ansari boys of Medina. I am going to die so confer one favour upon me and sever my head with a sword so that I am relieved of this misery. But remember to sever my head from the lower part of the neck so that my head stands tall as generals are killed in a similar manner from the lower part of the neck.’” Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud said, “I will not fulfil your last desire and will sever your head from your chin.” At last he placed his sword on his chin and beheaded him.

Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) writes, “Look at the scale of this fire that was burning Abu Jahl. All his life he was spiteful over the fact that they were unable to inflict the pain that they desired upon the Holy Prophet (sa). Even at the time of his death he was burning with rage since he was going to die as a result of an attack from the hands of two unskilled boys of Medina. The last desire that he had at the time of his death was also not fulfilled and he was beheaded close to the chin.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 6, p. 461). Ultimately burning in all sorts of enraging fires he departed from this world.

Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah (ra) took part in all the battles alongside the Holy Prophet (sa), including the Battle of Badr and Uhud.

(Ibn Sa‘d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1990] 313.)

Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah was 41 years old at the time of the Battle of Badr.

(Ibn Sa‘d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012] 316.)

On the day of the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah (ra) entered the battlefield on the side of the Muslims and his father, Abdullah fought on the side of the disbelievers and both father and son encountered one another. His father made him the target during the battle; however, Hazrat Ubaidah (ra) would outmanoeuvre him. That is, he would escape to one side whilst protecting himself.

Nevertheless, his father continued to pursue after him and was intent on killing him one way or another. Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) also had the chance to kill his father, but he avoided him so that he would not have to kill him and at the same time continued to evade him.

When Hazrat Ubaidah (ra) saw that his father was not leaving him alone, his passion and honour for the unity of God transcended beyond that for his family ties. Upon seeing that his father was intent on killing him, simply because he had believed in the unity of God, his family relations were reduced to nothing.

Furthermore, it is written in narrations that when Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) saw that his father was not stopping in his pursuit to kill him, his passion and honour for the unity of God transcended all family ties and Abdullah, the father of Hazrat Ubaidah bin Jarrah (ra) was killed at the hands of his own son. Ultimately, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) was left with no choice but to kill his father.

(Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 2 [Karachi, Pakistan: Dar al-Isha’ah, 2004] 124.)

Hazrat Abu Talha (ra) participated alongside the Holy Prophet (sa) in the Battle of Badr. Hazrat Abu Talha (ra) narrates that on the day of Badr, the Holy Prophet (sa) passed a verdict that twenty-four chiefs from among the Quraish to be thrown into one of the feculent wells situated in Badr. Whenever the Holy Prophet (sa) was victorious over a people, he would stay in the battleground for three nights. When the Holy Prophet (sa) stayed in Badr and the third day approached, he ordered for the saddle to be placed on his camel, which was subsequently prepared. The Holy Prophet (sa) then set off and the Companions (ra) also joined him. The Companions (ra) stated that they thought that perhaps the Holy Prophet (sa) set off for a particular reason. The Holy Prophet (sa) then reached the well and stood over the well where the bodies of the 24 men had been thrown. This was a closed well. The Holy Prophet (sa) began to call their names as well as the names of their fathers that “O son of such and such person! Had you obeyed Allah and His Messenger, would you not have rejoiced now? Verily, we have received what our Lord had promised us but have you also received what your lord had promised you?” Hazrat Abu Talha (ra) narrates that Hazrat Uma r(ra) submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! What are you saying to these lifeless corpses?” The Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “I swear by Him in Whose hands lies the life of Muhammad! You are not hearing these words any more than they are hearing them.” That is, Allah the Almighty was now relaying these words to them to signify how terrible their end was.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitabul Maghazi, Bab Qatli Abi Jahl, Hadith 3976)

During the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (sa) appointed Hazrat Abdullah bin Maktoom as the Amir in his absence, but when he reached a place called Roha, which is thirty-six miles from Medina, then perhaps owing to the fact that Abdullah was blind and anticipating the arrival of the Meccan Army, the Holy Prophet (sa) thought that the arrangements in Medina should be made stronger. Therefore, he appointed Abu Lubabah (ra) bin Munzir as the Amir of Medina and sent him back. The Holy Prophet (sa) instructed that Hazrat Abdullah bin Maktoom should be the Imam for prayers, and all the administrative duties should be carried out by Hazrat Abu Lubabah (ra).

(Seerat Khatam-un-Nabiyeen, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra), p. 354)

In any case, this is how he returned after travelling half way.

Ibn-e-Ishaq says that the Holy Prophet (sa) assigned a portion for him from the spoils of war.

(Al-Asaaba fi Tameez Al-Sahaba, Vol. 7, p. 290, Abu Lababa bin Abdul Munzir, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, 1995)

The Battle of Badr took place in 2 AH, or March 623 CE. With regard to Hazrat Ali’s (ra) participation in this battle, it is recorded in the traditions that the Holy Prophet (sa) sent Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Zubair (ra), Hazrat Saad (ra) bin Abi Waqas and Hazrat Busbus (ra) bin Amr to the spring of Badr to find out information regarding the idolaters. They saw the Quraish giving their animals water and they captured this group of idolaters and brought them to the Holy Prophet (sa).

(Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 2, Ghazwat Badr [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, 1996], 256) (Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 349)

During the Battle of Badr, when the two armies came face to face, the two sons of Rabi‘ah, Shebah and Utbah, along with Walid bin Utbah stepped forward and challenged the Muslims for a duel. Three Ansar companions from the Banu Harith tribe, Muaz, Muawwiz and Auf, who were the sons of Afra, stepped forward to battle with them. However the Holy Prophet (sa) did not like for the Ansar to be involved in the initial combat between the idolaters and Muslims. Instead, he desired that this glory should be exhibited by the progeny of his uncle and by his people [i.e. the Quraish]. Thus, he commanded the Ansar to return to their ranks and commended them for this act. Then, the idolaters said, “O Muhammad, send forth those individuals from our people who can compete with us.” Thus, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, “O Banu Hashim, go forth and fight for the truth – the truth with which Allah has sent your prophet, for these people have come with their falsehood in order to try and extinguish the light of Allah.”

Thus, Hazrat Hamzah (ra) bin Abdul Muttalib, Hazrat Ali (ra) bin Abi Talib and Hazrat Ubaidah (ra) bin Harith went forth against them. Utbah told them to say something so that they may recognise them as they were wearing helmets due to which their faces were hidden.

Hazrat Hamzah (ra) said, “I am Hamzah bin Abdil Muttablib. I am the lion of Allah and His Messenger (sa).” Upon this, Utbah said that he was a worthy opponent and that he himself was the lion of the tribes. Then he enquired regarding the other two. Hazrat Hamzah (ra) said that they were Ali (ra) bin Abi Talib and Ubaidah (ra) bin Harith. Utbah said that they too were worthy opponents.

Then, Utbah said to his son, “O Walid, go forth.” Hazrat Ali (ra) went up against to fight him; both began wielding their swords and Hazrat Ali (ra) killed him. Then Utbah went forth and Hazrat Hamzah (ra) stood to fight him. Both wielded their swords and Hazrat Hamzah (ra) killed him. Then Shebah stood and Hazrat Ubaidah (ra) bin Harith went forth to fight him; on that day, Hazrat Ubaidah (ra) was the eldest amongst all the companions of the Holy Prophet (sa). Shebah struck Hazrat Ubaidah’s (ra) leg with his sword and wounded his calf. Hazrat Hamzah (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra) attacked Shebah and killed him.

(Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 2, Ghazwat Badr [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, 1996], 257)

This same narration was mentioned two years ago, a part of which I will mention again. The aforementioned incident is recorded in this particular narration in which Hazrat Ali (ra) narrates that Utbah bin Rabi‘ah, along with his son and his brother, stepped forward and declared, “Who will come forth and challenge us?” Upon this, a few youngsters from the Ansar responded. Utbah asked who they were and they responded by saying that they were from among the Ansar. Utbah replied saying, “We have nothing to do with you, we only wish to fight the sons of our uncle.” The Holy Prophet (sa) then said, “O Hamzah, get up. O Ali, stand up. O Ubaidah bin Harith, go forth.” Hamzah (ra) set off towards Utbah and Hazrat Ali (ra) says that he went towards Shebah, while Ubaidah clashed with Walid. Both severely injured one another, after which both Hazrat Hamzah (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra) went towards Walid and killed him and took Ubaidah (ra) away from the battlefield.

(Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab al-Jihad, Bab fi al-Mubarazah, Hadith 2665)

With regard to the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Ali (ra) states, “The disbelievers heavily outnumbered the Muslims. The Holy Prophet (sa) spent the entire night fervently praying to God. When the army of disbelievers came near and we formed our ranks, my gaze fell on a person who was riding a red camel which was walking through the ranks of the enemy. The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘O Ali, call Hamzah, who is stood close to the disbelievers and ask him who is riding the red camel and what he is saying.’ Then the Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘If there is anyone from among the disbelievers who can give them good and beneficial advice, it is this person who is riding the red camel.’ Meanwhile, Hazrat Hamzah (ra) came and informed that it was Utbah bin Rabi‘ah, who was advising the disbelievers against fighting. However, Abu Jahl responded to him and said that he was a coward and was afraid of fighting. This incited Utbah’s pride and he said, ‘Today we shall see who is a coward.’”

(Ahmad (rh) bin Hanbal, Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 1, Musnad Ali (ra) bin Abi Talib, Hadith 948 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1998], 338-339)

Hazrat Ali (ra) narrates that on the occasion of the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (sa) said to both him and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), “On the right side of one of you is Gabriel and on the right side of the other is Mikael; and Israfil is a great angel who is present during times of war and stands among the ranks.”

(Al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihain, Vol. 3, p. 345, Kitab Marifat al-Sahabah, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, 2002)

Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf participated in all the battles alongside the Holy Prophet (sa), including the Battle of Badr and Uhud.

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 95, Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Relating an account from the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf relates:

“I was standing in the rows for battle on the day of Badr. When I looked to my right and left, I saw two Ansari youths standing on either side of me, who were very young in age. At that moment, I wished that I was in between two people who were more mature and stronger. Thereupon, one of the youths nudged my hand and asked, ‘O my uncle! Do you recognise Abu Jahl?’ to which I said, ‘O my nephew, why is it that you ask?’ The young boy replied, ‘I heard that he would use foul language for the Holy Prophet (sa). I swear by the One in Whose hands is my life, if I see him, I will not let him out of my sight until the one who is destined to die from among us perishes.’ I was astonished by this reply. Then the other boy also tapped my hand and made the same enquiry. A short while passed when I saw Abu Jahl walking between the ranks. I said to the two young boys that there was the one about whom they enquired. Immediately the two youths drew their swords and cutting the ranks pounced on Abu Jahl and killed him. They then returned to inform the Holy Prophet (sa) of the news. The Holy Prophet (sa) asked which one from among them killed him? They both laid claim to the kill. The Holy Prophet (sa) then asked whether they had wiped their swords after they had killed him? They replied in the negative. The Holy Prophet (sa) then inspected their swords and said that both of them had in fact killed him. The Holy Prophet (sa) then said that the spoils of war would be given to Mu‘az bin Amr bin Jamooh. Both youths had the same name; one was Mu‘az bin Afraa and the other was Mu‘az bin Amr bin Jamooh.” This is a narration from Bukhari.

I have previously presented the clarification in relation to Abu Jahl’s killing but will mention it once again. According to some narrations, the two sons of Afraa, Mu‘awwiz and Mu‘az severely wounded Abu Jahl to the extent that he was on the brink of death and afterwards Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Mas‘ud severed his head. Imam Ibn Hajar has also stated the possibility that, “After Mu‘az bin Amr and Mu‘az bin Afraa attacked Abu Jahl, Mu’awwiz bin Afraa may have also attacked him as well.” This has been mentioned in the commentary of Bukhari, Fath-ul-Bari.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fard al-Khumus, Bab Man lam Yakhmus al-Aslab, Hadith 3141, Kitabul Maghazi, Bab Qatl Abi Jahl, Hadith 3961-3962) (Fath-ul-Bari Sharh Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 7, pp. 295-96, al-Maktabah al-Salafiyyah)

Hazrat Murarah (ra) had the honour of participating in the Battle of Badr. According to Imam Bukhari (rh) and other books about the Companions (ra), it mentions that he took part in the Battle of Badr. Whereas, according to the list compiled by Ibn Hisham, he has not been mentioned in the list of Companions (ra) who participated in the Battle of Badr.

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra) further writes about him in Seerat Khatam Al-Nabiyyeen, “When the Holy Prophet (sa) received news from his informants that the army of the Quraish had reached nearby, he sent a companion named Hubbab bin Munzir to obtain information as to the enemy’s number and strength. Moreover, the Holy Prophet (sa) also emphasised that if the strength of the enemy was greater than their own and the Muslims were in a state of danger, Hubbab should not announce this news openly upon his return in the gathering; rather, he should convey this news privately, so that no one was disheartened. Hubbab quietly left and returned with great skill in a short period of time submitting his report to the Holy Prophet (sa).”

(Seerat Khatam-un-Nabiyeen, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra), p. 484)

Whilst relating the incident of Abu Jahl’s killing, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II (ra) states:

“Sometimes, a person celebrates something and deems it to be useful for him. However, that same thing becomes the cause of his destruction and downfall.

“At the occasion of Badr, when the disbelievers of Mecca arrived at the scene, they thought, ‘We will be rid of these Muslims in no time.’ Abu Jahl said, ‘We will mark this as a joyous occasion and drink wine.’ He thought to himself that he would not return until he killed all the Muslims. However, that same Abu Jahl was killed by two young boys from Medina. The disbelievers of Mecca used to look at the people of Medina with contempt. Abu Jahl had to experience such humiliation that even his final wish was left unfulfilled. It was a custom among the Arabs that if a chief was killed in a battle, they would cut his neck in a manner that it would be prominent so that he can be recognised as one of the chiefs. Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (ra) saw him as he was lying there motionless and injured and said to him, ‘Look what has become of you!’ He replied, ‘I do not regret anything but the fact that the children of farmers from Medina have killed me.’ That is, children of people who plant crops and work as farmers; such work was considered inferior in the eyes of the Meccans and they believed that such people from Medina had no knowledge of war and fighting. However, these very people killed him and shattered his arrogance. As a matter of fact, it was not just these people, rather it was their sons, who were not experienced in the slightest. Abdullah (ra) asked Abu Jahl if he had any last wish. He replied that he wanted his neck to be cut off slightly longer. However, Abdullah (ra) said that he would not fulfil this request of his either and severed his neck close to his chin. The day he wanted to be a source of happiness for him became a day to mourn and he was not even able to digest the alcohol he had consumed.”

(Khutbat-e-Mahmud [Khutbat Eid-ul-Fitr] Vol. 1, p. 11)

The Promised Messiah (as) states:

“On numerous occasions in the Holy Quran, the Holy Prophet (sa) was promised victory over the disbelievers. Yet, when the Battle of Badr – the first battle in Islam – commenced, the Holy Prophet (sa) started weeping and praying. Whilst praying, the Holy Prophet (sa) uttered the words,

اللّٰهُمَّ‭ ‬إِنْ‭ ‬أَهْلَكْتَ‭ ‬هَذِهِ‭ ‬الْعِصَابَةَ‭ ‬فَلَنْ‭ ‬تُعْبَدَ‭ ‬فِي‭ ‬الأَرْضِ‭ ‬أَبَدًا‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“Meaning, ‘O God, if you destroy this group (which comprised 313 men) then there will be no one to worship You until the end of times’. When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) heard the Holy Prophet (sa) utter these words, he said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah, why are you so worried? God has made a firm promise to you that He will surely grant you victory.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, ‘This is true; however, I am aware of His Self-Sufficiency.’ In other words, God Almighty is not compelled to fulfil any promise.”

(Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya – Part V, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 21, pp. 255-256.)

In relation to him, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra) has written in Seerat Khatam-un-Nabiyeen,

“The place where the Muslim army encamped was not ideal. At this, Habbab bin Munzir enquired of the Holy Prophet (sa) as to whether he had selected this place according to Divine revelation or merely as a strategy of war. Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘No divine commandment has been received in this regard; if you wish to make a proposal, then please do so.’ Hubbab submitted, ‘Then in my opinion, this place is not ideal. It would be better to advance and take possession of the spring located closest to the Quraish. I am aware of this spring, and its water is quite pleasant and generally plentiful as well.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) approved of this proposal and until then, since the Quraish were still encamped on the opposite side of the hillock, and the spring was unoccupied, the Muslims advanced and took possession of this spring. However, as mentioned in the Holy Quran, even at that time, the water of the spring was not as plentiful as usual, and the Muslims were faced with a shortage of water. In addition to this, the side of the valley where the Muslims were positioned was not ideal either, because it was very sandy, which made it difficult to maintain firm footing.

“Then, another grace of God was that there was some rainfall during the night as well, by which the Muslims found the opportunity to gather water in the form of reservoirs. Another benefit of this was that the sand hardened, which prevented their feet from sinking. Conversely, towards the side of the Quraish, it became muddy and their water also became dirty.”

(Seerat Khatam-un-Nabiyeen, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra), pp. 356-357)

Hazrat ibn ‘Abbas (ra) states, “Hazrat Gabriel descended upon the Holy Prophet (sa) and said: ‘Hazrat Hubbab bin Munzir’s suggestion is correct.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) stated, ‘O Hubab your advice was wise.’” At the time of the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Hubbab bin Munzir was carrying the flag of the Khazraj tribe. He was thirty-three years old at the time.

(At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Vol. 2, p. 10, Hubbab bin Munzir, Da-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, 1990, Beirut)

After the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (sa) sent Hazrat Zaid (ra) bin Haritha to the people of Medina to convey to them the glad tidings. Hazrat Zaid (ra) came on the camel of the Holy Prophet (sa). When he reached the prayer area, he shouted out, whilst on the camel, that the two sons of Rabi‘a, Utbah and Shaybah, the sons of Hajjaj, Abu Jahl and Abul Bakhtari, Zam‘ah bin al-Aswad and Umaiyyah bin Khalf had all been killed and Suhail bin Amr and many others had been held captive. The people of Medina could not believe what Zaid (ra) bin Haritha was saying and thought that Zaid (ra) had fled after losing, and this angered the Muslims. The hypocrites and enemies were saying that he was panicking and this was why he was saying all this. A man from among the hypocrites said to Hazrat Usama bin Zaid (ra), “Your master and all those with him have all been killed.” One man said to Hazrat Abu Lubabah (ra) “Your friends [i.e. the Companions (ra)] have been desolated to the extent that they will never be able to come together again, now that Muhammad (sa) and his high-ranking Companions (ra) have all been killed. This camel belongs to him and we recognise it. Out of fear, Hazrat Zaid (ra) does not even know what he is saying.” The protagonists further said that Hazrat Zaid (ra) did not know himself what he was saying and had returned having fled from the defeat. Hazrat Abu Lubabah (ra) replied that God Almighty would prove his words to be wrong. The Jews too were saying that Hazrat Zaid (ra) had returned having been defeated. Hazrat Usama bin Zaid (ra) states, “I asked my father in private if what he says is true.” Hazrat Zaid replied, “O my son, by Allah all that I have said is the truth.” Hazrat Usama (ra) states that upon hearing this his became resolute.

(Kitab-ul-Maghazi, Vol. 1, p. 114, Badr Al-Qitaal, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyaah, Beriut, 2004).

During this battle, Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) son, Abdur Rahman had come to fight from the disbelievers’ side and was considered as one of the bravest amongst the Arabs and an expert archer amongst the Quraish. When he later accepted Islam, he asked his father, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), “On the day of Badr, you were right before me and within reach of my target. However, I moved away from you and did not kill you.” Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “If you had been within reach of my target, I would not have moved away.”

*(Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) aur Karname [Pakistan: Maktabat al-Furqan], pp. 108-109) *

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“What manifested through the Holy Prophet (sa) during the Battle of Badr was enough to astonish the eyes of those who possess insight and it shows the degree to which he feared Allah the Almighty. During the Battle of Badr, the effects of divine help were apparent as the Holy Prophet (sa) advanced against the enemy alongside his brave and devoted Companions (ra). In order to ensure firm footing, the disbelievers had set up camp on hardened ground, leaving a sandy area for the Muslims. However, God sent rain, which caused the disbelievers’ campsite to become muddy and the ground under the Muslim encampment became firm. Similarly, other forms of heavenly assistance were manifested, yet, the fear of God was so deeply entrenched in the Holy Prophet’s (sa) heart, that despite these promises and Signs, the Holy Prophet (sa) would become anxious of God Almighty’s Self-Sufficiency and beseeched for the Muslims to be victorious. Thus, Hazrat ibn Abbas (ra) says that during the Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (sa) was in a round tent and would supplicate, ‘O my Lord, I implore You by way of Your vows and promises, and beseech for them to be fulfilled. O my Lord, if You desire the destruction of Muslims, then after today, there will be no one left to worship You.’

“Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) took hold of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) hand and said, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah, please stop. You have gone to great lengths in worshipping your Lord.’

“At the time, the Holy Prophet (sa) was wearing his armour; he emerged from the tent and said, ‘Their army will be defeated and they will turn their back and run. In fact, this is the time of their reckoning; it will be extremely difficult and bitter for them.’

“By Allah! His fear of God was such, that despite the promises made to him, he thought of God’s Self-Sufficiency, yet at the same time his level of certainty was such that when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said this, he loudly proclaimed, ‘I am not afraid; rather, God has informed me that the enemy will be humiliated and abased in defeat, and the leaders of the disbelievers will be killed right here.’ And this is what transpired.”

(Sirat al-Nabi (sa), Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 1, pp. 466-467)

Whilst relating this incident, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II (ra) states:

“Abu Jahl was that individual, at the birth of whom camels were slaughtered for weeks, and the meat distributed among the people; at the birth of whom Mecca was echoing with the sound of tambourines.”

In other words, on the news of his birth, the people of Mecca were rejoicing with the sound of drums and other musical instruments. He further writes:

“When he was killed during the Battle of Badr, it was two fifteen-year-old youngsters of the Ansar who wounded him. Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (ra) relates, ‘When the people were returning from the battle, I went to see those injured in combat.’ He too was from Mecca, so Abu Jahl would have recognised him instantly. He states, ‘I was walking in the battlefield when all of a sudden, I saw Abu Jahl injured and was groaning with pain. When I approached him, he said to me, “It does not seem as if I will survive this, my injury has taken a turn for the worst. Seeing as you are also a Meccan, it is my wish that you kill me to put an end to my suffering. But as you are aware, I am an Arab chief, and it is an Arab custom to cut the neck in a manner that it would be prominent as this is the sign of a slain chief. So I want you to cut my neck in this manner.”’ Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (ra) continues, ‘I cut his neck in a manner that it was short (i.e., near to his chin), and said that even your last wish will not be fulfilled.’ Now in terms of their end, observe how humiliating the death of Abu Jahl was, whose head was always held high during his lifetime, but at the time of his death his neck was cut very short and even his final wish was left unfulfilled.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 7, p. 101)

After the battle of Badr had ended, he was the one who delivered the message of victory to the people of Medina.

(Al-Tabqat Al-Kubra Li-ibni Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 398, Bab Abdullah (ra) bin Rawaha, Darul Kutub Al-‘Ilmiyah, Beirut 1990)