In a Hadith of Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, it is mentioned that Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) related, “The Holy Prophet (sa) gave me 10 instructions, saying, ‘The first is to not associate any partners with Allah, even if you are killed or thrown into the fire. Secondly, to not disobey one’s parents, even if they deprive you of your share in the inheritance.’” One should not disobey their parents, no matter what happens, even if one received nothing from them. “‘The third advice is to not miss any obligatory prayer knowingly, for one who abandons an obligatory prayer on purpose deprives himself from the support and protection of God Almighty.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) then said, ‘Never consume alcohol, for this is the root of every indecency.’ He then stated, ‘Abstain from sin and disobedience, because sin draws the displeasure of God Almighty.’ He then said, ‘When facing the enemy in battle, you must not flee. If you are confronted by the enemy, then you should not run away out of fear, even if the people are killed.’ He then stated, ‘If the people are afflicted with an epidemic such as the plague, they should remain wherever they are.’”
If they reside in an area where there is an outbreak of the plague, then the Holy Prophet (sa) has instructed that one should remain where they are.
“The Holy Prophet (sa) further stated, ‘Spend on your family according to your means, fulfil their rights and do not show any negligence in their moral training, (even if one has to show a little strictness in their moral training then one should do so to ensure for a good upbringing), instil the fear of God in them.’”
These were the ten things the Holy Prophet (sa) advised him about.
(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal, Vol. 7, p. 366, Hadith 22425, Alam ul-Kutub, Beirut, 1998)
Hazrat Ibn Umar (ra) narrates that the Holy Prophet (sa) said to Hazrat Mu‘az (ra), “I shall grant you advice like a kind-hearted brother. I advise you to instil the fear of Allah in you, visit the sick, fulfil the needs of the widows and the elderly, comfort those who are in need, dispense justice, speak the truth and never allow your fear of being rebuked stop you in matters relating to God. This is the advice I give to you.”
(Kanz al-Ummal, Vol. 15, Hadith 43555, Kitab al-Mawa‘idh…, Chapter 10, Mu‘assisah al-Risalah, Beirut, 1985)
Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal relates: “I was riding behind the Holy Prophet (sa) and there was nothing between him and me but the rear part of the saddle, when he said, ‘O Mu‘az bin Jabal!’ to which I replied, ‘I am present O Messenger of Allah and at your service!’ The Holy Prophet (sa) travelled for a short while, when again, he said, ‘O Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal!’ to which I replied, ‘I am present, O Messenger (sa) of Allah and I am at your service.’ He then again travelled for a short while and said, ‘O Mu‘az bin Jabal!’ to which I replied, ‘I am present, O Messenger (sa) of Allah, and I am at your service!’ The Holy Prophet (sa) then said, ‘Do you know what right Allah has upon His servants?’ I submitted, ‘Allah and His Messenger (sa) know best.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Verily the right of Allah over His servants is that they should worship Him and not associate anything with Him.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) then rode a short distance and then said, ‘O Mu‘az bin Jabal!’ to which I replied, ‘I am present O Messenger of Allah and I am at your service!’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Do you know what rights the servants have upon Allah?’ I replied, ‘Allah and His Messenger (sa) know best.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘It is that Allah will not punish them.’” That is, people must firstly fulfil the rights they owe to Allah the Almighty. When they fulfil these rights and act accordingly, then they have rights over God Almighty.
When people obey Allah the Almighty’s commandments, then they are granted the right that Allah will not punish them. This is a narration of Sahih Muslim.
(Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Iman, Bab al-Dalil ala man mata ala al-Tauhid, Hadith 30)
Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal narrates: “I was once travelling in the company of the Holy Prophet (sa). Whilst we were on the journey, I moved closer and enquired, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah, tell me of a deed that will take me to Paradise and will keep me away from the Hellfire.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘You have asked me about a great matter indeed! Yet it is attainable for whom Allah makes it easy for.’ He further said, ‘Worship Allah and do not associate any partners with Him; observe prayer; pay the Zakat; fast in the month of Ramadan and perform the pilgrimage to the House of Allah.’
With regard to the narrations of ahadith, compared to other companions, there are very few marfu‘ hadith narrated by Hazrat Uthman (ra). In total, Hazrat Uthman (ra) narrated 146 traditions, out of which three are present in both Bukhari and Muslim (i.e. Muttafaq Alayh), eight are mentioned only in Bukhari and five mentioned only in Muslim. In total, 16 ahadith narrated by him are present in the Sahihhain [Bukhari and Muslim].
The reason why he narrated such few ahadith was that Hazrat Uthman (ra) was extremely cautious with regard to stating the traditions of the Holy Prophet (sa). He would say that the thing that prevented him from relating traditions of the Holy Prophet (sa) was that he thought perhaps his memory was weaker than that of other companions. He said that this would stop him in case he narrated an incident and his recollection was not as clear as some of the other companions, in which case their statement would be more accurate. For this reason, he was very cautious with regard to mentioning narrations. However, Hazrat Uthman (ra) said, “I testify that the Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Whosoever attributes a narration to me that I have not stated, they will prepare a place for themselves in hell due to it.’” For this reason, he would be very careful with regard to narrating ahadith.
Abdur Rahman bin Hatib narrates, “I have not seen any companion who would explain himself more clearly and unambiguously than Hazrat Uthman (ra) but he would show hesitance when it came to narrating Ahadith.”
(Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Khulafa’ Rashidin (ra), Vol. 1 [Karachi, Pakistan: Dar al-Isha‘ah, 2004], p. 204)
Not long had passed that once, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf came before the Holy Prophet (sa) and had a mark of saffron on him. And so, the Holy Prophet (sa) asked if he had married and he replied in the affirmative. The Holy Prophet (sa) enquired who he got married to and he replied that it was with a woman belonging to the Ansar. The Holy Prophet (sa) then asked how much dowry he had given and he stated that he gave gold the size of a nugget, or he perhaps said a nugget of gold. Upon this, the Holy Prophet (sa) stated that he should hold a walima [a ceremony after the consummation of marriage], even if it be by offering a single sheep.
(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Buyu‘, Bab Qaul Allah Wa Ahallallahu al-Bai‘a…’, Hadith 2048-2049)
Hazrat Anas (ra) bin Malik relates that the Holy Prophet (sa) stated to Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal whilst he was sat behind the Holy Prophet (sa) on the saddle, “O Mu‘az bin Jabl!” “O Messenger (sa) Allah, I am here at your service”, responded Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal. The Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “O Mu‘az!” Again, he answered, “O Messenger (sa) Allah, I am here at your service.” The Holy Prophet (sa) again called his name and he submitted, “O Messenger (sa) Allah, I am here at your service.”
After calling his name out three times, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, “Whoever, with sincerity of heart, testifies that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad (sa) is the Messenger of Allah, then Allah will surely safeguard him from the Hellfire.” Upon this, Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) submitted, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah, shall I not convey this to the others as it will be a source of joy for them?” The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, “Then they will only rely on this one thing and abandon all other virtues, therefore do not tell this to others.” Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) only revealed this saying of the Holy Prophet (sa) at the time of his demise, and even then, only did so lest he committed a sin for not having conveyed the words of the Holy Prophet (sa).
(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Ilm, Bab man Khassa bi al-‘Ilm Qauman, Hadith 128)
Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) felt that he ought to convey this saying to the scholars of the time but did not do this while he was alive and in good health.
Hazrat Waliullah Shah Sahib (ra) has written about this in the commentary of Bukhari. There were certain Hadith in relation to a subject and whilst mentioning those, he also included this particular Hadith and stated: “This particular intellectual statement is only addressed to certain people because others could suffer greatly on account of failing to understand its proper meaning. It is not enough to simply proclaim that ‘there is none worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad (sa) is the Messenger of Allah’ and then assume that there this no need to carry out any other deed.”
Hazrat Shah Sahib (ra) further writes: “This Hadith has explained that there is a particular context to such statements.”
He was mentioning various Ahadith and this particular Hadith was also included in that. He then further writes: “Hazrat Ibn Mas‘ud (ra) has recorded Hadith with the correct sanad [chain of narrators] in Sahih Muslim, which is as follows:
مَا اَنْتَ بِمُحَدِّثٍ قَوْمًا حَدِیْثًا لَا یَبْلُغُہٗ عُقُوْلُھُمْ اِلَّا کَانَ لِبَعْضِھِمْ فِتْنَۃٌ
“The gist of the aforementioned saying of the Holy Prophet (sa) is that one should address people in accordance to their intellect and level of understanding because certain statements can lead to fitnah.”
In any case, he further writes: “We see that how some people claim to be believers have made the mere verbal declaration of ‘there is none worthy of worship except Allah …’ as a way of freeing mankind from enduring the hardships of the Shariah by granting them a ‘certificate’ for their faith and whilst showing a complete disregard to all other religious obligations.”
Every maulvi [Muslim cleric] who delivers sermons from his pulpit claims that whoever offers their prayers behind him and recites the Kalimah he would be granted the certificate of faith and there is no need to do anything else.
He further writes: “It was in the presence of these very believers who had verbally testified their complete belief to whom the Holy Prophet (sa) stated that in the Latter Days, faith would neither be in the hearts, nor uttered from tongues of the people of that time; rather, it would ascend into the Pleiades. This was in reference to the Latter Days. Thus, it was in this context that the Holy Prophet (sa) mentioned this Hadith regarding the Kalimah.
Then Hazrat Waliullah Shah Sahib(ra) mentions the following narration:
مَنْ لَقِیَ اللّٰہَ لَا یُشْرِکُ بِہٖ شَیْئًا
“One who abstains from every kind of shirk [idolatry] right till his death, will enter paradise.”
He further writes: “The wisdom behind the Holy Prophet (sa) repeatedly calling Hazrat Mu‘az’s name and then remaining silent upon his response was in order to arouse his interest and passion to listen to the words of the Holy Prophet (sa). Thus, the Holy Prophet (sa) only told him this was once he was fully attentive and eager to listen.”
Shah Sahib (ra) further writes: “This was so that he would be able to truly understand what the Holy Prophet (sa) was going to say and so it would leave an impression on him. Thus, the Holy Prophet (sa) repeated his name three times in order to draw his attention on this matter. On the other hand, Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) greatly honoured what the Holy Prophet (sa) stated and did not disclose this to anyone, except towards the end of his life and even then it was only in fear of being held accountable by Allah the Almighty for not having conveyed something of knowledge to at least the scholars of the time.”
(Translation of Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 1, pp. 211-212, Nazarat Ishaat Rabwah)
In regard to the aforementioned Hadith – in which it states that Allah the Almighty would safeguard those from the Hellfire who recite the Kalimah – it also proves that the reward of this lies with Allah alone. It is not the duty of man to issue an edict regarding one who recites the Kalimah whether they are a Muslim or not. Such self-issued edicts are also against the Quranic teachings as well.
Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal relates that the Holy Prophet (sa) said, “Shall I not tell you about one of the doors to paradise?” Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal submitted, “Of course.” The Holy Prophet (sa) said to recite:
لَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّۃَ إِلَّا بِاللّٰہِ
‘There is no might or power except with Allah.’”
(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 7, p. 374, Hadith 22450, Alam al-Kutub, Beirut, 1998)
Hazrat Saeed (ra) bin Zaid would often have his prayers answered. On one occasion, he was accused of appropriating land, the details of which are as follows: Adjacent to the land of Hazrat Saeed (ra) bin Zaid was that of a lady named Arwa bint Uwais. She complained to Marwan bin Hakam, the governor of Medina appointed by Hazrat Muawiyyah (ra), that Hazrat Saeed (ra) had wrongly seized her land. Marwan appointed some people to investigate the matter. Hazrat Saeed (ra) bin Zaid answered them, “Do you really think that I could commit such a wrongful act after hearing the Holy Prophet (sa) say that he who unjustly takes control of even a hand’s-breadth of land will be made to wear the collar equal to the weight of seven lands around his neck on the Day of Judgement?” Thereafter, he prayed, “O Allah, if Arwa is lying, make it so that she loses her sight before her death and her grave lies in the well of her house.” Hence, it is recorded that she lost her sight and as she was walking one day, she fell and died in her own well. This was then made an idiom and the people of Medina would say:
أَعْمَاکَ اللّٰہُ کَمَا أَعْمٰی اَرْوٰی
“May Allah blind you as He blinded Arwa.”
(Usdul Ghabah, Vol. 2, p. 477, Saeed bin Zaid, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Roshan Sitarey az Ghulam Bari Saif, Vol. 2, pp. 164-165)
Hazrat Abu Hurairah (ra) narrates that the Messenger (sa) of Allah said, “How excellent are Abu Bakr, Umar, Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah, Usaid bin Hudair, Thabit bin Qais bin Shammaas, Mu‘az bin Jabal and Mu‘az bin Amr bin Jamooh‘.” That is, he praised them all.
(Jami‘ al-Tirmidhi, Abwab al-Manaqib, Bab Manaqib Mu‘az bin Jabal wa Zaid bin Thabit…, Hadith 3795)
“The Holy Prophet (sa) then said, ‘Shall I not inform you about the doors to attain goodness?’ The Holy Prophet (sa) then explained, ‘I shall inform you about the doors to attain goodness. Fasting is a shield and charity washes away sins just as water extinguishes a fire; and for one to offer prayers in the middle of the night (i.e. to offer Tahajjud prayers).’
“The Holy Prophet (sa) then recited the following verse:
تَتَجَافٰى جُنُوْبُہُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ یَدْعُوْنَ رَبَّہُمْ خَوْفًا وَّ طَمَعًا وَّ مِمَّا رَزَقْنٰہُمْ یُنْفِقُوْنَ۔ فَلَا تَعْلَمُ نَفْسٌ مَّا اُخْفِیَ لَہُمْ مِّنْ قُرَّۃِ اَعْیُنٍ جَزَآءً بِمَا کَانُوْا یَعْمَلُوْنَ
“‘Their sides keep away from their beds; and they call on their Lord in fear and hope and spend out of what We have bestowed on them. And no soul knows what joy of the eyes is kept hidden for them, as a reward for their good works.’ [Ch.32: V.17-18]
“The Holy Prophet (sa) further said, ‘Shall I not inform you of the best deed, its pillar and its peak?’ The Holy Prophet (sa) then stated, ‘It is to perform Jihad.’ He then said, ‘Shall I not tell you the foundation of all this (i.e. it is a fundamental matter upon which everything rests)?’ I said, ‘Yes, O Messenger (sa) of Allah.’ And so, the Holy Prophet (sa) took hold of his tongue and said, ‘To restrain this.’
“I submitted, ‘O Prophet (sa) of Allah, will we be held accountable for what we say with it?’ The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘May Allah bless you, O Mu‘az! There is nothing that throws people into the Hellfire upon their faces except what you reap from your tongues?’”
(Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab al-Fitan, Bab Kaff al-Lisan fi al-Fitnah, Hadith 3973)
Muhamamd bin Ali bin Hanafiya narrates, “Hazrat Ammar bin Yassir (ra) came to the Holy Prophet (sa). At the time, the Holy Prophet (sa) was unwell. The Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Shall I teach you a prayer which Gabriel said for me?’ Hazrat Ammar (ra) responded: ‘Yes, O Prophet of Allah (sa).’ The Holy Prophet (sa) then taught him the following prayer:
بِسْمِ اللهِ اَرْقِيْكَ وَاللهُ يَشْفِيْكَ مِنْ كُلِّ دَاءٍ يُّؤْذِيْكَ
That is, ‘I begin all prayers with the name of Allah and then blow on you. May God Almighty grant you recovery from every disease that might cause you to suffer.’ [He then said], ‘Hold fast to this and rejoice.’”
(Al-Mustadrak Ala Al-Sahihain, Vol. 3, pg. 481-482, Hadith 5726, Dar-ul-Haramain Li Al-Taba’ati Wa Al-Nashre Wa Al-Tauzi, 1997)
Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair (ra) relates, “I asked my father (Hazrat Zubair (ra)), ‘Why do I not hear you relate Ahadith from the Holy Prophet (sa) just as Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (ra) and other companions do so?’ To this he replied, ‘Ever since I accepted Islam, I have never been absent from the company of the Holy Prophet (sa) but I have heard him say that ‘whoever knowingly attributes falsehood to me, he in turn prepares an abode for himself in hell.’”
(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, vol. 1, p. 451, Zubair bin al-Awwam, hadith no. 1413, Alam-ul-Kutb, Beirut, 1998)
He did not imply that the others were attributing lies to the Holy Prophet (sa), but only that he deemed it better for himself to remain cautious, lest he utter something incorrect – even though the Holy Prophet (sa) stated that the punishment would be for those who utter falsehood knowingly. However, he was so careful to avoid even saying something accidentally and consequently becoming among those who incur punishment. This was how cautious he was in this matter.
In another narration it states that nearer to the time of his demise, Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (ra) stated, “I have kept hidden something from you which I had heard from the Messenger (sa) of Allah. The Messenger (sa) of Allah stated, ‘If you did not commit sin, then Allah the Most Exalted would have brought about a people who would have committed sin and Allah would then grant them His forgiveness.’”
In other words, this is the extent to which Allah the Almighty Manifests His attribute of mercy and forgiveness.
Abu Idrees Khaulani narrates, “When I entered into the mosque in Damascus, Syria, I saw a young man with bright shining teeth and people were sitting around him. Whenever people had a difference of opinion on a matter, they would present the matter to him and would give precedence to his opinion on the matter. When I enquired about him, I was informed that he was Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal.
“The next day in the afternoon, I went again and saw that he was already there before me and was offering his prayers. I waited and when he finished his prayer, I went before him and conveyed the greetings of peace. I then said, ‘I swear by Allah, I love you for His sake.’ Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal asked, ‘Do you swear by Allah?’ I replied, ‘Yes, I swear by Allah.’ Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal again asked, ‘Do you swear by Allah?’ I again replied, ‘Yes, I swear by Allah.’ Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal then took hold of the corner of my cloak and pulled me towards himself and said, ‘Rejoice, for I have heard the Messenger (sa) of Allah say that Allah the Exalted has stated, “Those who show love to one another for My sake, those who sit with one another for My sake, those who meet one another for My sake and those who spend their wealth for one another for My sake, will most surely be granted My love.”’”
In other words, Allah the Almighty’s love will become incumbent for them.
(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal, Vol. 7, p. 353-354, Hadith 22380, Alam al-Kutub, Beirut, 1998)
Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) relates, “When I placed my foot in the stirrup as I was about to depart to Yemen, the Holy Prophet (sa) gave me a final piece of advice, saying, ‘Meet people in a courteous manner, meet the people in a courteous manner.’”
(Ibn Sa‘d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1990], 439)
However, look at the condition of the Muslims of today. Do they conduct themselves in this manner? And yet, they celebrate the milad-un-Nabi [birthday of the Holy Prophet (sa)]? The true essence of commemorating milad-un-Nabi is by following the example of the Holy Prophet(sa) and to act upon his teachings. When the Holy Prophet (sa) sent Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) as the governor of Yemen, he described his status in the following words:
اِنِّیْ بَعَثْتُ لَکُمْ خَیْرَ اَھْلِیْ
meaning, “Surely I send to you the best of my people.”
(Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 3, Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal [Karachi, Pakistan: Dar al-Isha‘ah, 2004], 502)
It has been related from Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (ra) that he left to take part in Jihad during the rule of Amir Muawiyah. He states, “I became severally ill and told my fellow companions that if I passed away, they should carry me until they were stood in their rows to fight the enemy and bury me in the ground below them. ‘I shall share a hadith with you which I heard from the Messenger (sa) of Allah. If my demise was not imminent, I would never have related it. I heard the Messenger (sa) of Allah say, ‘Whoever dies in a state whereby they never committed any shirk [associating partners with Allah] shall enter paradise.’”
Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal narrates that he enquired from the Holy Prophet (sa) as to what the most excellent kind of faith was. The Holy Prophet (sa) replied, “The most excellent form of faith is to instil love for Allah and to only express your hatred for His sake, and to remain occupied in the remembrance of Allah.” Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) then asked, “O Messenger of Allah, what else?” The Holy Prophet (sa) answered, “Love for others what you love for yourself. You must like for others that which you like for yourself, and you must dislike for them that which you dislike for yourself.”
(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 7, p. 385, Hadith 22481, Alam al-Kutub, Beirut, 1998)
Saeed bin Musayyab relates from Hazrat Abu Lubabah (ra) bin Abdul Munzir that the Holy Prophet (sa) prayed for rain on a Friday, saying,
اَللّٰهُمَّ اسْقِنَا۔ اَللّٰهُمَّ اسْقِنَا۔ اَللّٰهُمَّ اسْقِنَا
“O Allah, send down rain upon us! O Allah, send down rain upon us! O Allah, send down rain upon us!” Abu Lababa (ra) stood up and said, “O Prophet of Allah (sa), the fruits have ripened in the orchards.” The narrator states that they could not see any cloud in the skies at the time. The Holy Prophet (sa) prayed, “O Allah! Send forth the rain in such abundance that Abu Lubabah(ra) will stop the waterhole reaching his barn of grains with the clothes off his body. He says that after the prayer, rain began to fall. The clouds emerged, rainfall began and the Holy Prophet (sa) then led the prayer. The narrator states that the Ansar came to Hazrat Abu Lubabah (ra) and said, “O Abu Lubabah, by God this rain shall not end until, according to the statement of the Holy Prophet (sa), you do not stop the flow of water entering into your stack of grain by using the clothes off of your bare body. Thus, Hazrat Abu Lubabah (ra) stood up to stop the flow of water with his clothes and thereafter the rain stopped.”
(Al-Sunan Al-Kubra Libehqi, Vol. 3, p. 500, Kitab-ul-Salat Al-Istisqa, Baab Al-Istisqa, Hadith 6530, Maktaba Al-Rushd, Beirut, 2004)