Brotherhood

The Holy Prophet (sa) formed a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (ra) and Hazrat Mus‘ab (ra) bin Umair.

(Ibn Abd al-Barr, Al-Isti‘ab fi Ma‘rifat al-Ashab, Vol. 2, Hazrat Khalid bin Zaid [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1995], 200.) (Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Hazrat Abu Ayub al-Ansari [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1990], 368-369)

When Hazrat Utbah (ra) bin Ghazwan migrated from Mecca to Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between him and Hazrat Abu Dujana (ra).

(Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Abu Dujanah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1990], 420)

The Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Saeed (ra) and Hazrat Rafay (ra) bin Malik and according to another narration it was established with Hazrat Ubayy (ra) bin Ka‘b.

The Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Umair and Hazrat Amr bin Mu‘az.

(Al-Tabkaat-ul-Qubra Li-ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 119, Umair bin Abi Waqas, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2002) (Al-Tabkaat-ul-Qubra Li-ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 73, Umair bin Abi Waqas, Dar-e-Ihyaa, Al-Turath Al-Arabi, Beirut, 1996)

According to some, the bond of brotherhood, established by the Holy Prophet (sa), was between Hazrat Umair bin Abi Waqas and Hazrat Khubaib bin Adi.

(Uyun Al-Athar, Vol. 1, p. 232, Bab- Dhikr-ul-Muwakhat, Dar-ul-Qalam, Beirut, 1993).

The Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Abu Abas and Hazrat Khunais. He passed away in 34 AH at the age of 70 and he had many children living in Mecca. Hazrat Usman led his funeral prayer and he was buried in Jannatul Baqee.

(Usdul Ghaba Fi Marifati Al-Sahaba, Vol. 5, pp. 204-205 Dar-ul-Fikr, Beirut, 2003) (Al- Isaba fi Tamyiz Al- Sahaba, Vol. 7, p. 222, Dar-ul-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2005) (Al-Tabkaat-ul-Qubra Li-ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 238, Dar-e-Ihyaa, Al-Turath Al-Arabi, Beirut, 1996)

When the Holy Prophet (sa) established the bonds of brotherhood in Mecca between the Muhajireen, he established a bond between Hazrat Zubair (ra) and Hazrat Abdullah bin Mas‘ud (ra). After the migration to Medina, the bond of brotherhood with the Ansar was established between Hazrat Zubair (ra) and Hazrat Salma bin Salaama (ra).

(Usdul Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 307, Zubair bin al-Awwam (ra), Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

The Holy Prophet (sa) formed a bond of brotherhood between him and Hazrat Sa‘ib bin ‘Uthman bin al-Maz‘oon.

(At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Vol. 3, p. 307, Saib Bin Usman Bin Maz‘oon, Dar Ihya At-turath Al-Arabi, 1990, Beirut)

There is a narration in Sahih Bukhari in which Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf relates that when he arrived in Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between him and Sa‘d (ra) bin Rabi‘. Upon this, Sa‘d (ra) bin Rabi‘ stated, “I am the wealthiest amongst the Ansar, therefore I shall give you half of my wealth and whichever of my two wives you like, I will separate from her for you. Once her iddat [a fixed period of time before a women can remarry] has passed, you can marry her.” Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf replied to Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) bin Rabi‘ that Allah the Almighty may bless his family and wealth, but he did not require anything for all he needed to know from him was whether there was a marketplace where people could trade. Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) informed him that there was a marketplace of the Banu Qaynuqah.

Subsequently, early next morning, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf went there and carried out some trade and acquired some cheese and clarified butter as profit. He then returned to Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) bin Rabi‘’s house. Similarly, he went to the marketplace every morning and made profit from his trade.

There are a few narrations about the bond of brotherhood established with Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). In one narration, [it is recorded] that the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Kharijah bin Zaid (ra).

(Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Al-Isabah fi Tamyiz al-Sahabah, Vol. 2, Kharijah bin Zaid [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, 2005], p. 190)

In another narration, it is recorded that the Holy Prophet (sa) formed a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra).

(Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) wa min Bani Tayyim… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, 1996], p. 93)

The bond of brotherhood established with Hazrat Umar (ra) took place in Mecca. The narration regarding this states that the bond of brotherhood established with Hazrat Umar (ra) was formed in Mecca.

Allamah Ibn Asakir writes:

“The Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra) bin Khattab in Mecca. After migrating to Medina, all such bonds of brotherhood were annulled with the exception of two; one was the bond of brotherhood between the Holy Prophet (sa) himself and Hazrat Ali (ra), and the other was between Hazrat Hamzahra and Hazrat Zaid bin Harithah (ra).”

(Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh Dimashq al-Kabir, Vol. 16, Abdullah bin Uthman bin Quhafah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya’ al-Turah al-‘Arabi, 2001], p. 32)

With respect to when these bonds of brotherhood were formed, historical accounts state that these bonds were established on two occasions. Allama Qastallani, who wrote a commentary on Sahih al-Bukhari, writes:

“Bonds of brotherhood were established on two occasions. The first time the Muslims were joined in bonds was in Mecca before the migration – they were between Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra), Hazrat Hamza (ra) and Hazrat Zaid (ra) bin Haritha, Hazrat Uthman (ra) and Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf, Hazrat Zubair (ra) and Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Mas‘ud, and Hazrat Ali (ra) and the Holy Prophet (sa) himself. Thereafter, when the Holy Prophet (sa) migrated to Medina, he established bonds of brotherhood between the Muhajirin and the Ansar in the house of Hazrat Anas bin Malik (ra).”

Ibn Saad writes, “The Holy Prophet (sa) joined 100 Companions (ra) in bonds of brotherhood.”

In other words, these were formed between 50 Muhajirin and 50 Ansar.

(Irshad al-Sari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 7, p. 133, Hadith 3937, Dar al-Fikr, 2010)

After Hazrat Suhaib (ra) migrated from Mecca to Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between him and Hazrat Harith (ra) bin Simmah. Hazrat Suhaib (ra) participated in the battles of Badr, Uhud, Khandaq and all other battles alongside the Holy Prophet (sa).

(Usdul Ghabah, Vol. 3, p. 39, Suhaib bin Sinaan, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2016)

After the migration to Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Mus‘ab (ra) bin Umair and Hazrat Abu Ayyub Ansari (ra).

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 88, Mus‘ab (ra) bin Umair, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Nevertheless, whatever the reasons were, Hazrat Uthman (ra) returned from Abyssinia after some time. The mention of his migration to Medina and the forming of his bond of brotherhood is such that Muhammad bin Ja‘far bin Zubair relates that when Hazrat Uthman (ra) migrated from Mecca to Medina, he lived in the house of Hazrat Aus (ra) bin Thabit, brother of Hazrat Hassan (ra) bin Thabit from among the Banu Najjar tribe. Musa bin Muhammad relates from his father that the Holy Prophet (sa) established the bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Uthman (ra) and Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf.

According to another narration, the bond of brotherhood was established between Hazrat Shaddad (ra) bin Aus’s father, Hazrat Aus (ra) bin Thabit and Hazrat Uthman (ra). It is also stated that the bond of brotherhood was established between Hazrat Abu Ubadah Saad (ra) bin Uthman Zuraqi and Hazrat Uthman (ra).

(Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Uthman (ra) bin Affan [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-‘Arabi, 1996], p. 31)

According to one narration, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between himself and Hazrat Uthman (ra). There is a narration of Ibn Labibah in Al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra, which states that in his final days, when the enemy besieged Hazrat Uthman (ra) (i.e. when the enemy besieged him and imposed all kinds of restrictions on him), he peered from the window of a room above and enquired from the people if Talha was among them. They replied in the affirmative.

Hazrat Uthman (ra) enquired from Hazrat Talha, “I ask you whilst bearing witness to Allah, do you recall when the Holy Prophet (sa) was establishing bonds of brotherhood between the Muhajireen and Ansar; he established his bond of brotherhood with me?” In other words, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between him and Hazrat Uthman (ra).

Hazrat Talha (ra) replied, “By Allah, it is indeed true.” Upon this, the enemy, who had surrounded the house of Hazrat Uthman (ra), questioned Hazrat Talha (ra) as to why he had said that. With great courage, Hazrat Talha (ra) replied, “Hazrat Uthman (ra) called Allah as His witness when he asked me. And the matter which he enquired of me was one that had taken place before my very eyes; how could I have then not testified to it?”

(Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Dhikr ma Qila li Uthman fi al-Khud‘a [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-‘Arabi, 1996], p. 38)

He could not utter a lie and told them that they could oppose him however they wished.

It is narrated by an individual from the Ansar that the Messenger (sa) of Allah established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Abdullah bin Rawaha (ra) and Hazrat Miqdad (ra). According to Ibn Sa’d, he was one of the scribes of the Holy Prophet (sa).

(Al-Isaba Fi Tamyeez Al-Sahaba, Vol. 4, p. 73, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, 2005)

When Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Zubair (ra) accepted Islam in Mecca, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between them prior to the migration. After the Muslims migrated to Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (ra). However, according to another narration, it is reported that the bond of brotherhood was established between Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Saeed (ra) bin Zaid and according to yet another narration, it was established between Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Ubayy (ra) bin Ka‘b. After migrating to Medina, Hazrat Talha (ra) stayed at the house of Hazrat Asad (ra) bin Zurarah.

(Usdul Ghabah, Vol. 3, p. 85, Talha bin Ubaidillah, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 161, Talha bin Ubaidillah, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

When the Muhajireen of Mecca migrated to Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) formed a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Mas‘ud and Hazrat Mu‘az (ra) bin Jabal. This is the only reference that can be found in this regard from the various books of history.

Hazrat Ammar bin Yasir (ra) stayed in the house of Hazrat Mubashar bin Abdul Munzir (ra) when he migrated to Medina. The Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Huzaifah bin Al-Yeman (ra) and Hazrat Ammar (ra). The Holy Prophet (sa) also granted Hazrat Ammar (ra) a piece of land for his residence.

(At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Vol. 3, pp. 189-190, Ammar bin Yasir, Dar-ul-Ihya At-turath Al-Arabi, 1990, Beirut)

Ata bin Abi Rabah states that Abu Salma and Umme Salma migrated and Hazrat Ammar bin Yasir (ra) also went with them as he had an alliance with them. Hazrat Ammar bin Yasir was Hazrat Umme Salma’s foster brother [suckled by same person].

(Al-Mustadrak Ala Al-Sahihain, Vol. 3, p. 471, Hadith 5720, Dar-ul-Haramain Li Al-Taba’ati Wa Al-Nashre Wa Al-Tauzi, 1997 & Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 8, p. 591, Umme Salma Zauj-ul-Nabi, Hadith 2706, Alam-ul-Kutub, Beirut, 1998)

There are various narrations with regards to Hazrat Umar’s (ra) bond of brotherhood; according to one narration, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra). The bonds of brotherhood were formed twice – once in Mecca and once in Medina after the migration. In Mecca, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between himself and Hazrat Ali (ra) and between Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). Nonetheless, these bonds of brotherhood are two separate incidents. In Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) established bonds of brotherhood between the Muhajireen and the Ansar. According to one narration, after the migration to Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Uwaim bin Saeedah. According to another narration, the bond of brotherhood was established between Hazrat Umar bin Al-Khattab (ra) and Hazrat Itban bin Malik. According to yet another narration, the bond of brotherhood was established between Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Muaz bin Afra.

(Mustafa Abd al-Wahid, Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad fi Sirat Khair al-Ibad, Vol. 3, Fi Mawakhatih baina Ashabihra [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1993], p. 363) (Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Islam Umar bin al-Khattab (ra) [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-‘Arabi, 2012], p. 206)

Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad Sahib (ra) has written that the bond of brotherhood was established between Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Itban bin Malik.

(Sirat Khatamun-Nabiyyin, Hazrat Mirza Bashir Ahmad (ra), p. 277)

The Holy Prophet (sa) formed a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Ubayy (ra) and Hazrat Talha bin Ubaidillah (ra). According to another narration, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Ubayy (ra) and Hazrat Saeed bin Zaid (ra).

(Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2017) 378]

Hazrat Bishr (ra) participated in the Second Bai‘at at Aqabah along with his father. Furthermore, from among the companions, Hazrat Bishr bin Bara (ra) was a skilled archer. The Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Bishr (ra) and Hazrat Waqid bin Abdullah (ra), who had come from Mecca to Medina. Hazrat Bishr (ra) participated alongside the Holy Prophet (sa) in the Battle of Badr, Uhud, Khandaq, the treaty of Hudaybiyyah and the Battle of Khaybar.

(al-Isabah Fi Tamyeez al-Sahabah, Vol. 1, p. 426, Bishr bin al-Bara (ra) Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2005) (al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 291, Bishr bin al-Bara (ra), Dar Ihyaa al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, 1996)

The Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas (ra) and Hazrat Mus‘ab bin Umair (ra), whereas according to another narration the bond of brotherhood was established between Hazrat Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas (ra) and Hazrat Sa‘d bin Mu‘az (ra).

(Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, pp. 103, Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas (ra), Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

Maulana Ghulam Bari Sahib Saif has presented a justification for the difference between the two narrations. He states that perhaps in Mecca, the bond of brotherhood was established with Hazrat Mus‘ab bin Umair (ra) and in Medina it was established with Hazrat Sa‘d bin Mu‘az.

(Roshan Sitarey az Ghulam Bari Saif Sahib, Vol. 2, p. 64)

Nevertheless, following the migration, the Holy Prophet (sa) formed a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Hamza (ra) and Hazrat Zaid (ra) bin Harithah. On this very basis, Hazrat Hamza (ra) made a will in the name of Hazrat Zaid (ra) while they were on their way to participate in the Battle of Uhud.

(At-Tabaqat Al-Kubra Li Ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p.6, Hamza bin Abdil Muttalib, Darul-Kutub Al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1990, Beirut)

When Hazrat Umair (ra) bin Abu Waqas migrated from Mecca to Medina, the Holy Prophet (sa) established a bond of brotherhood between him and Hazrat Khubaib (ra) bin Adiyy.

(Ayoon Al-Asar, Vol. 1, p. 232, Zikr-ul-Mawakhaat, Dar-ul-Qalam, Beirut, 1993)

The Holy Prophet (sa) formed a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Ubaidah bin Harith and Hazrat Umair bin al-Humam. Hazrat Ubaidah bin Harith and Hazrat Umair bin al-Humam were both martyred in the Battle of Badr.

(al-Isti‘ab, Vol. 3, p. 1214, Umair bin al-Humam, Dar-ul-Jamil, Beirut, 1992)

There is a tradition in Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra stating that when Hazrat Utbah (ra) bin Ghazwan and his freed slave, Khabbab, migrated towards Medina, they stopped at Quba and stayed in the house of Hazrat Abdullah bin Salama Ajlani. When Hazrat Utbah (ra) arrived in Medina, they stayed at Abbad bin Bishr’s house. The Holy Prophet(sa) established a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Utbah (ra) bin Ghazwan and Hazrat Abu Dujana (ra).

(Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, p. 73, Min Hulafa-e-Bani Naufal bin Abd Manaf, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990) (Al-Siratun Nabawiyyah Li ibn Hisham, p. 220, Manazilul Muhajireen Bil Madinah, Dar ibn Hazm, Beirut, 2009)

Various narrations can be found in relation to the bond of brotherhood established with Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra). According to some, the Holy Prophet (sa) formed a bond of brotherhood between Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) and Hazrat Salim (ra), the freed slave of Hazrat Abu Huzaifah (ra). According to others, the Holy Prophet (sa) formed a bond of brotherhood between him and Hazrat Muhammad bin Maslamah (ra). Yet, according to others, a bond of brotherhood was formed with Hazrat Sa‘d bin Mu‘az (ra).

(Ibn Sa‘d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012] 313.) (Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, al-Isabah fi Tamyiz al-Sahabah, Vol. 3, Amir bin Abd-Allah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2005] 476.)