Khilafat

The Promised Messiah (as) states:

“Hazrat Ali, may Allah honour him, was initially somewhat hesitant in pledging allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra); however, when he reached home, only Allah knows what crossed his mind. He did not even wear his turban and instead wore a simple cap and came to pledge allegiance. He later asked for his turban to be brought. It seems that perhaps a thought crossed his mind that it would be a grave sin to abstain [from pledging allegiance] and this is why he left in such haste that he did not even tie his turban and instead came with a cap to pledge allegiance and asked for his turban to be brought later.”

(Malfuzat, Vol. 10, p. 183)

In relation to Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) Khilafat, there is a narration mentioned in Bukhari, which has been narrated previously as well, but I shall mention it again.

The Ansar came to the house of the Bani Saidah and gathered around Hazrat Saad (ra) bin Ubadah. They claimed that one leader should be appointed from among [the Ansar] and one from among [the Muhajireen]. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra) bin Al-Khattab and Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) bin Jarrah went to see them. Just as Hazrat Umar (ra) was about to say something, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) told him to remain silent. Hazrat Umar (ra) used to say, “By Allah, I had prepared such a speech to read out that day, which I was greatly pleased with, and I feared that perhaps Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would not be able to express it as effectively, i.e. he would not be able to say it in the same manner.”

Thereafter, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) delivered his speech and spoke in such a manner that no one could have expressed themselves in a more eloquent manner.

During his speech, he stated, “We are the amirs [leaders] and you are the viziers” i.e. he said that the Ansar were viziers. Upon hearing this, Hubab bin Munzir stated, “Certainly not! By God, we will never allow for this to happen. There shall be one leader from among you and one from among us.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) replied, “No, we are the amirs and you are the viziers, for the Quraish”, according to their lineage and tribe, “have always occupied a higher status amongst the Arabs and it has been this way since ancient times; therefore you must take the bai‘at of either Umar or Abu Ubaidah.”

Hazrat Umar (ra) responded, “No, we will only take your bai‘at (i.e. referring to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)) because you are our leader. You are the best among us and the most beloved of the Holy Prophet (sa) out of us all.” After saying this, Hazrat Umar (ra) held the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and performed the bai‘at. Thereafter, everyone else also followed and performed the bai‘at at the hands of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).

(Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Fazial Ashaab-ul-Nabi, Hadith no. 3668)

When Hazrat Umar (ra) held the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and asked to him take their bai‘at, Hazrat Umar (ra) also performed the bai‘at at his hands and stated, “O Abu Bakr! The Holy Prophet (sa) had instructed you to lead the prayers; therefore you are the Khalifa of Allah. We perform the bai‘at at your hands and amongst all of us, you were the most beloved to the Holy Prophet (sa).”

In regard to the disorder created by the apostates, it is written in Sirat ibn Hisham that when the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away, the troubles greatly increased. He states that he came across a narration in which Hazrat Aisha (ra) stated, “When the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away, some of the Arabs became apostates and the Jews and Christians began to rise up and their hypocrisy became evident.”

(Sirat Ibn Hisham, p. 903, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

Hazrat Abu Hurairah (ra) relates that after the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) became the Khalifa and amongst the Arabs, some began to reject the religion of Islam. Upon this, Hazrat Umar (ra) stated to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), “How will you fight against these people because the Holy Prophet (sa) had stated, ‘I have been commanded to fight against them until they proclaim, “There is none worthy of worship except Allah.”’” In other words, one cannot fight against those who proclaim that “there is none worthy of worship except Allah” and whosoever recites this, his life and wealth shall be protected, unless there is a lawful reason not to protect it. And the matter of such people will rest with Allah.

Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) replied, “By Allah, whoever distinguishes between the Salat and the Zakat [i.e. abandons the Zakat], I shall fight against him because the paying of Zakat on one’s wealth is an obligation. By Allah, if they refuse to give me even the rope that they tie the legs of their animals with, which they previously used to give to the Holy Prophet (sa), I shall fight against them if they refuse to give it.”

Hazrat Umar (ra) bin Al-Khattab stated, “By Allah, I had seen that it was Allah the Almighty Who had granted him the courage to fight and I understood that this indeed was the truth.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Kitab-ul-I‘tisam bil Kutub Wa Al-Sunnah, Hadith no. 7284 – 7285)

Upon the departure of Hazrat Usama bin Zaid’s (ra) army, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) called for Hazrat Usama (ra) and gave him some instructions. Hazrat Usama (ra) was mounted on his animal while Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was walking along with him. Hazrat Usama (ra) requested Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to ride on the animal, otherwise he would come off; however, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “Do not get off your ride. By Allah, I will not mount the animal.” He further stated, “What has happened to me that I cannot allow dust to cover my feet in the way of Allah the Almighty because every step taken by one who steps out for battle is equal to the reward of 700 deeds and his rank is elevated 700 times and 700 sins of his are forgiven.”

After imparting his instructions to him, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated to Hazrat Usama (ra), “If you deem it appropriate, help me through Umar.” In other words, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) requested Hazrat Usama (ra) to leave Hazrat Umar (ra) behind with him because the Holy Prophet (sa) had originally included Hazrat Umar (ra) in the army. Hazrat Usama (ra) accepted this request.

(Tarikh Al-Tabari, Vol. 2, p. 246, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1987)

There are many narrations regarding Hazrat Ali’s (ra) pledge of allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). In Tarikh al-Tabari, Habib bin Abi Thabit narrates:

“Hazrat Ali (ra) was in his home when a person came to him and said, ‘Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) is now taking the pledge of allegiance.’ Hazrat Ali (ra) was wearing a simple robe at the time. In that state, where he was not wearing any extra garments nor his mantle, he hurried to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and pledged allegiance to him for fear in case he was delayed. He then sat beside Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), after which he sent for his garments and dressed himself. He remained seated in the gathering around Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).”

(Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 3, Hadith al-Saqifah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2002], p. 257)

The narrations regarding Hazrat Ali’s (ra) pledge of allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) vary; some narrations suggest that Hazrat Ali (ra) did not pledge allegiance for six months, and pledged allegiance after the demise of Hazrat Fatimah (ra), while other narrations suggest that Hazrat Ali (ra) was inclined to pledge allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) immediately.

Hazrat Abu Saeed Khudri (ra) narrates:

“After Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had taken the pledge of allegiance from the Muhajirin and Ansar, he stood at the pulpit and looked to the people and noticed that Hazrat Ali (ra) was not among them. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) enquired about the whereabouts of Hazrat Ali (ra). Some people among the Ansar brought Hazrat Ali (ra). Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) [addressed him] and said, ‘O cousin and son-in-law to the Messenger (sa) of Allah, do you wish to break the strength of the Muslims?’ Hazrat Ali (ra) replied, ‘O Khalifa of the Messenger (sa) of Allah, do not deal strictly with me in this matter.’ Following this, he pledged allegiance to him.”

(Al-Salabi, Sirat Amir al-Mu’minin Ali bin Abi Talib Shaksiyyatuh wa Asruh [Beirut, Lebanon: Sar al-Ma’rifah, 2006], p. 119) (Ibn Kathir, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dhikr I‘tiraf Saad bin Ubadah bi Sihhat ma Qalah al-Siddiq Yaum al-Saqifah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2005], p. 693)

Allamah Ibn Kathir states:

“Hazrat Ali (ra) bin Abi Talib pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) on the first or second day after the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), and this is the truth. The reason being is that Hazrat Ali (ra) never abandoned Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), nor did he refrain from praying behind him.”

(Ibn Kathir, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dhikr I‘tiraf Saad bin Ubadah bi Sihhat ma Qalah al-Siddiq Yaum al-Saqifah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2005], p. 694)

With regard to Hazrat Umar’s (ra) demise and Hazrat Uthman’s (ra) election as Khalifa, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“When Hazrat Umar (ra) was injured and realised that his demise was imminent, he nominated six persons and advised them to elect the Khalifa from among themselves. They included Hazrat Uthman (ra), Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf, Hazrat Saad (ra) bin Abi Waqas, Hazrat Zubair (ra) and Hazrat Talha (ra). In addition to them, he included Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (ra) as an advisor, but did not declare him entitled to Khilafat. He also admonished that these people should give their verdict within three days and Suhaib (ra) should lead the prayer during that period of time. He appointed Miqdad bin Al-Aswadra to oversee the consultation and election process and directed him to gather the electoral college at one place and to guard them. He further said that the people should pledge allegiance to the person who was elected by the majority of votes and if anyone declined to do so, then he should be killed. If there were three votes on each side, then Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (ra) would recommend who the Khalifa should be. If the members of the electoral college did not agree to the decision of Abdullah (ra) bin Umar, then the person favoured by Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf should be appointed as Khalifa.

These five companions discussed this matter, as Talha (ra) was not in Medina at that time, but could not come to any conclusion. After a lengthy discussion, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf asked if anyone wanted to withdraw his name, but all of them remained quiet. On this, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf withdrew his name, then Hazrat Uthman (ra) withdrew his name and then two others did the same. Hazrat Ali (ra) remained quiet; however, he then took a pledge from Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf that he (i.e. Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra)) would be completely impartial, and entrusted the responsibility of making the decision to him. For three days, Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) visited every house in Medina to obtain the opinion of every man and woman in regard to who they thought should be elected as Khalifa. All of them expressed their agreement to the Khilafat of Hazrat Uthman (ra). Thus, he gave his verdict in favour of Hazrat Uthman (ra) and he became the Khalifa.”

(Khilafat-e-Rashidah, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 15, pp. 484-485)

Allama Ibn Saad writes:

“The pledge of allegiance to Hazrat Uthman (ra) took place on Monday, 29 Dhul Hijjah 23 AH. Nazzal bin Sabrah relates that when Hazrat Uthman (ra) became Khalifa, Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Masud stated, ‘Amongst those who remain from us, we have elected the best person and we carried out this election with utmost diligence.’”

On one occasion, Hazrat Uthman (ra) suffered from an illness and it was requested that he should appoint a Khalifa. Hisham has narrated this incident from his father. He narrates that Marwan bin Hakam told him that the year in which there was an outbreak of a disease which caused [severe] nosebleeds, Hazrat Uthman (ra) bin Affan also suffered from a severe nosebleed, to the extent that it prevented him from performing the Hajj and he even wrote down his will. In that moment, an individual from among the Quraish approached him and said, “Elect someone as the Khalifa” i.e. owing to his condition, he should appoint a Khalifa. Hazrat Uthman (ra) asked, “Have people made this request?” to which he replied in the affirmative. Hazrat Uthman (ra) asked who they wished to be appointed as the Khalifa, but to this, he remained silent. Then another person came, who the narrator says he believes was Harith and he also asked him to appoint a Khalifa. Hazrat Uthman (ra) asked, “Is this what the people are asking?” to which he replied, “Yes”. Hazrat Uthman (ra) asked, “Who should be the Khalifa?” to which the man remained silent. Hazrat Uthman (ra) then said, “Perhaps they desire to elect Zubair.” To which he replied, “Yes”. Hazrat Uthman (ra) then said, “By Him in Whose Hands is my life, as far as I know, he is the best among the people and he was the dearest to the Holy Prophet (sa).”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fada‘il Ashab al-Nabi (sa), Bab Manaqib Manaqib Zubair bin al-Awwam, Hadith 3717)

Expounding upon the verse:

وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُم‭ ‬مِّنۢ‭ ‬بَعۡدِ‭ ‬خَوۡفِهِمۡ‭ ‬أَمۡنًاۚ

“[…] and that He will, surely, give them in exchange security and peace after their fear”, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“The Khulafa never had to face any such trial owing to which they had to experience fear. And if they did, then this was transformed into a state of peace by God Almighty. Undoubtedly, Hazrat Umar (ra) was martyred, but when one ponders over the historical facts, it becomes evident that Hazrat Umar (ra) did not have any fear of him being martyred. In fact, he would repeatedly pray, ‘O Allah! Grant me the station of martyrdom, and that too, in the city of Medina.’

Thus, how could anyone possibly claim that a person who spent his entire life praying to be granted the station of martyrdom in Medina was made to experience fear at the time of his martyrdom and the state of his fear was not transformed into a state of peace? If Hazrat Umar (ra) was fearful of being martyred and was subsequently martyred, then it could have been said that God did not transform the state of fear into peace. However, Hazrat Umar (ra) would pray, ‘O Allah! Grant me the station of martyrdom in Medina.’

“Thus, in light of the incident of his martyrdom, how could anyone claim that he feared being martyred? In fact, since he did not fear being martyred and would pray for it, and God Almighty accepted his prayer, it is therefore evident that according to this verse, he never experienced any kind of fear. And, just as I have mentioned earlier, this verse states that anything which the Khulafa have fear of can never occur. Moreover, it is the promise of Allah the Almighty that He shall give them in exchange security and peace after their fear. However, if one does not even fear something, rather considers it to be a means of his honour and elevating his rank, then it is futile to claim that he experienced fear and to question why was it not transformed into a state of peace.”

This is a point which ought to be understood. Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) further states:

“When I read this prayer of Hazrat Umar (ra), I thought to myself that this means, in other words, that the enemy would have to attack Medina and the attack would be so intense that all the Muslims would be destroyed. Thereafter, the enemy would reach the Khalifa of the time and martyr him as well. However, Allah the Almighty accepted the prayer of Hazrat Umar (ra) but at the same time also created such means whereby the honour of Islam was safeguarded. Thus, instead of an external attack being launched on Medina, a wretched individual from within the city martyred him with a dagger.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 6, 378)

In reference to Hazrat Ammar (ra), it was mentioned last week that he was misled by the rebellious group when Hazrat Usman (ra) had sent him to investigate the governor there. He met the rebellious party and a thorough investigation did not take place. Whilst commenting on this in one place, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II (ra) says that the disorder created against Hazrat Usman (ra) and Khilafat was because these people were not properly trained and they would visit the headquarters very little. They possessed very limited knowledge of the Holy Quran and faith. For this reason, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II (ra) instructed the Jamaat that they should learn from this and this should serve as a lesson. Firstly, one should obtain knowledge of the Holy Quran, stay connected with the headquarters, and learn about the faith. In this way, if there ever was any discord in the Jamaat in the future, they will be able to protect themselves.

(Anwar-e-Khilafat, Anwar-ul-Uloom, Vol.3, p.171)

Hence, we should always keep this in mind. It is not possible for everyone to visit the headquarters and they cannot establish a personal relation with Khilafat in this manner. However, in this day and age, learning about the faith and the Holy Quran is possible for everyone through MTA, which has been established by Allah Almighty. This is such a resource that, if we wish, we can learn religious knowledge. One can find lessons on the Quran and the Hadith; the books of the Promised Messiah (as) and Friday Sermons are all on MTA. One can establish a relation with the institution of Khilafat in this manner. There are also other speeches that are played on MTA. So in this regard, if we at least connect ourselves and our children to MTA, then this can serve as a very good way of training. At the same time, this can also protect us against every kind of mischief and disorder and become a source of increasing one’s knowledge. So members of the Jamaat should direct their attention towards this. They should form a bond through MTA, which has been granted to us by God Almighty.

In respect to the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), Urwah bin Zubair has reported another narration from the blessed wife of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Aisha (ra):

“The Holy Prophet (sa) had passed away while Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was in Sun‘a’ (in other words, he was in the village of Sun‘a’, located in the outskirts). Upon hearing the news, Hazrat Umar (ra) stood up (when the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was not present, however, Hazrat Umar (ra) was present and he stood up) and said, ‘I swear by Allah, the Holy Prophet (sa) has not passed away.’”

Hazrat Aisha (ra) states:

“Hazrat Umar (ra) would say, ‘I swear by Allah, at the time, I felt that Allah will surely cause the Holy Prophet (sa) to awaken in order to cut the hands and feet of some of the people.’ Meanwhile, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) arrived, removed the cloth from the face of the Holy Prophet (sa), kissed [his forehead] and said, ‘May my parents be sacrificed for you. You are holy and pure at the time of your demise, just as you were during your life. I swear by Him in Whose hands is my life, Allah will never allow you to be subjected to two deaths.’ After saying this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) went outside and said, ‘O you who is swearing an oath, stop what you are doing (i.e. he told Hazrat Umar (ra) to stop).’ When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) began speaking, Hazrat Umar (ra) sat down. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) praised God and said,

ألَا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يَعْبُدُ مُحَمَّدًا صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَإِنَّ مُحَمَّدًا قَدْ مَاتَ، وَمَنْ كَانَ يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ فَإِنَّ اللّٰهَ حَىٌّ لاَ يَمُوتُ

“‘Whosoever worshipped Muhammad (sa), then let it be known that Muhammad has surely passed away. And whosoever worships Allah, then they should know that Allah is Living and can never die.’ Then, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) recited this verse:

اِنَّكَ‭ ‬مَيِّتٌ‭ ‬وَّاِنَّهُمۡ‭ ‬مَّيِّتُوۡنَ‬‬‬

“That is, surely, thou wilt die, and surely they too will die. (Surah az-Zumar, Ch.39: V31).

“He then recited the following verse:

وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ اِلَّا رَسُوۡلٌ ۚ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِنۡ قَبۡلِهِ الرُّسُلُ ؕ اَفَا۠ئِنۡ مَّاتَ اَوۡ قُتِلَ انۡقَلَبۡتُمۡ عَلٰۤي اَعۡقَابِكُمۡ ؕ وَمَنۡ يَّنۡققَلِبۡ عَلٰي عَقِبَيۡهِ فَلَنۡ يَّضُرَّ اللّٰهَ شَيۡئًا ؕ وَسَيَجۡزِي اللّٰهُ الشّٰكِرِيۡنَ

“‘And Muhammad is only a Messenger. Verily, all Messengers have passed away before him. If then he die or be slain, will you turn back on your heels? And he who turns back on his heels shall not harm Allah at all. And Allah will certainly reward the grateful.’”

(Surah aal-e-Imran, Ch.3: V.145)

The narrator says, “Upon hearing this, the people wept profusely.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fada’il Ashab a-Nabi (sa),Bab Qaul al-Nabi (sa) lau Kunta Muttakhidhan Khalilan, Hadith 3667-3668)

Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) states:

“I swear by Allah, it seemed as though up until that moment when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had recited this verse, the people were unaware that Allah had even revealed this verse. It was as if the people learnt this verse from him, and following this, whomever I came across was reciting this very verse.” The narrator states, “Sa‘eed bin Musayyib told me that Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, ‘I swear by Allah, as soon as I heard Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) recite this verse, I became so anxious that I fell to the ground because my feet could not hold me up out of awe. When I heard Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) recite this verse, I realised that the Holy Prophet (sa) had passed away.’”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Maghazi,Bab Marad al-Nabi (sa) wa Wafatuh, Hadith 4454)

Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (ra) narrates:

“Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) passed by Hazrat Umar (ra) while he was saying that the Holy Prophet (sa) had not passed away and would not pass away until Allah the Almighty eradicates the hypocrites.” Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (ra) continues, “Upon hearing this, they (the companions) rejoiced and raised their heads, while Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, ‘Let it be known that the Holy Prophet (sa) has indeed passed away (he was addressing Hazrat Umar (ra) and said that the Holy Prophet (sa) had indeed passed away). Have you not heard that Allah the Almighty has stated:

اِنَّكَ‭ ‬مَيِّتٌ‭ ‬وَّاِنَّهُمۡ‭ ‬مَّيِّتُوۡنَ‬‬‬

“Surely, thou wilt die, and surely they too will die.”

“And, [Allah the Almighty has also stated]:

وَمَا جَعَلۡنَا لِبَشَرٍ مِّن قَبۡلِكَ الۡخُلۡدَ

“We granted not everlasting life to any human being before thee.”’

Following this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stood at the pulpit and addressed the people.”

In any case, Abu Abdillah Qurtabi states in the commentary of this hadith, “This incident is a great testament to the bravery of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), because the pinnacle of bravery is to remain resolute and steadfast during adversity, and there could have been no greater trial for the Muslims at that time than the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa).

Thus, at that moment, the extent of his knowledge and bravery both became apparent.”

(Al-Mawahib al-Laduniyyah, Vol. 4, p. 457, Al-Maktab al-Islami, 2004)

His bravery was demonstrated by his ability to endure the tragedy, and his knowledge was demonstrated through his explanation of the verses of the Holy Quran.

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“It is recorded in books of traditions and history that the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa) had such a profound impact upon the Companions that they were utterly shocked, rendering some unable to speak, some unable to walk, some unable to maintain control over their senses and thoughts; in fact, some were so deeply impacted by this shock that within the span of a few days, they passed away one after the other.

“Hazrat Umar (ra) was so severely impacted by this shock, that he denied the news of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) demise altogether and stood with his sword in his hand declaring, ‘If anyone says that the Holy Prophet (sa) has passed away I will kill them. He has merely been summoned just as Mosesas had been. Just as he returned after 40 days, so too will the Holy Prophet (sa) return after some time. Those who raise allegations against him and are hypocrites will be killed and crucified.’ He made this declaration with such passion that none of the Companions felt the strength to refute him. In fact, seeing this passion from Hazrat Umar (ra) convinced some of them that indeed, the truth is that the Holy Prophet (sa) has not passed away and this joy was apparent from their expressions.

“Thus, people felt either dejected or elated. Upon seeing this state of affairs, some of the more prudent Companions immediately sent a Companion to bring back Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), who had travelled to a village near Medina with the permission of the Holy Prophet (sa) once his health had slightly improved. The Companion had only just set out when he met Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) who was on his way back. Upon seeing him, tears began flowing from the eyes of the Companion who had set out to deliver the news and wept uncontrollably. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) understood what had happened and asked the Companion whether the Holy Prophet (sa) had passed away. He explained that Hazrat Umar (ra) was declaring that whoever said the Holy Prophet (sa) had passed away, he would behead them with his sword.

“Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) proceeded to the Holy Prophet’s (sa) home. He removed the sheet that was covering the blessed body of the Holy Prophet (sa) in order to confirm that he had indeed passed away. The grief of losing his beloved drew Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to tears, as he bent down and kissed the Holy Prophet’s (sa) forehead and said, ‘By God, Allah the Almighty will not cause you to die twice. The world has suffered by your loss, such suffering which has never been endured upon the demise of any other prophet. Your being is beyond description and your grandeur is such that no amount of mourning will lessen our grief. Had we possessed the power to hinder your demise then all of us would have sacrificed our lives in exchange for saving yours from death.’

“After saying this, he covered the Holy Prophet (sa) with the sheet and then proceeded towards the area where Hazrat Umar (ra) was sitting with a group of Companions and he was telling them that the Holy Prophet (sa) had not passed away and was still alive. When he reached there, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) asked Hazrat Umar (ra) to be silent, however, he did not listen and continued speaking. Thus, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) moved to one side and began informing people that the Holy Prophet (sa) had passed away. The Companions moved away from Hazrat Umar (ra) and began gathering around Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra); eventually, Hazrat Umar (ra) had no choice but to listen to him. (As has been mentioned earlier), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then said:

وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ اِلَّا رَسُوۡلٌ ۚ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِنۡ قَبۡلِهِ الرُّسُلُ ؕ اَفَا۠ئِنۡ مَّاتَ اَوۡ قُتِلَ انۡقَلَبۡتُمۡ عَلٰۤي اَعۡقَابِكُمۡ ؕ وَمَنۡ يَّنۡقَلِبۡ عَللٰي عَقِبَيۡهِ فَلَنۡ يَّضُرَّ اللّٰهَ شَيۡئًا ؕ وَسَيَجۡزِي اللّٰهُ الشّٰكِرِيۡنَ، يَـٰٓأَيُّهَاالنَّاسُ مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يَعْبُدُ مُحَمَّدًا فَإِنَّ مُحَمَّدًا قَدْ مَاتَ، وَمَنْ كَانَ يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ حَىٌّ لاَ يَمُوتتُ

“Meaning, ‘And Muhammad is only a Messenger. Verily all Messengers have passed away before him. If then he die or be slain, will you turn back on your heels? Surely you will die, and surely they too will die. O people! Let whoever worshipped Muhammad (sa) hear that Muhammad (sa) has passed away. Whoever worshipped Allah should remember that He is Living and cannot die.’

“When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) quoted both of the verses just mentioned and informed people that the Holy Prophet (sa) had passed away, the Companions realised the reality and immediately began weeping. Hazrat Umar (ra) himself states, ‘When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) proved the Holy Prophet’s (sa) demise through verses of the Holy Quran, it felt to me as if those two verses had been revealed on that very day, and my knees became weak, almost unable to bear the weight of my body. I began stumbling and the immense shock caused me to fall to the ground.’”

(Dawat al-Amir, Anwar al-‘Ulum, Vol. 7, pp. 345-347)

In other narrations, it has been mentioned that Hazrat Ali (ra) did not perform the bai‘at of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) until after the demise of Hazrat Fatimah (ra). For example, in the narration of Bukhari it states that Hazrat Ali (ra) did not perform the bai‘at until after the demise of Hazrat Fatimah (ra).

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Maghazi, Bab Ghazwat Khaibar, Hadith 4240)

However, many ulema [Islamic scholars] have expressed varying opinions on this narration of Bukhari. Imam Bayhaqi in Sunan al-Kubra has commented on the narration of Imam Shahaab-ul-Din Zuhri in which it states that Hazrat Ali (ra) did not perform the bai‘at of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) until after the demise of Hazrat Fatimah (ra). The translation of this is that Imam Zuhri’s narration in which it states that Hazrat Ali (ra) did not perform the bai‘at of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) until after the demise of Hazrat Fatimah (ra) is munqati‘ [the chain of narrators is incomplete]. On the other hand, the narration of Hazrat Abu Saeed Khudri (ra) is more authentic wherein it states that Hazrat Ali (ra) performed the bai‘at at the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) after the initial bai‘at had been taken in Thaqifah [meeting place of the Banu Saidah].

(Imam al-Baihaqi, Al-Sunan al-Kubra, Kitab Qism al-Fai‘ wa al-Ghanimah, Bab Bayan Musrif Arba‘ah Ikhmas al-Fai‘ ba‘d Rasulillahsa, Hadith 12732)

Other scholars have sought to reconcile these two narrations by stating that the second bai‘at [i.e. after the demise of Hazrat Fatimah (ra)] was a pledge of reaffirmation. Perhaps these scholars thought that in light of the fact that this narration has been recorded in an authentic book like Bukhari and therefore it must have some significance, hence [these scholars] felt the need to give this second pledge a particular name. However, it is not necessary that all the narrations in Bukhari are completely accurate.

For example, Dr Ali Muhammad Salabi in his book, Sirat Amir-il-Muminin Ali bin Abi Talib Shakhsiyyatuh wa Asruh writes that according to Allama Ibn Kathir and many other scholars, Hazrat Ali (ra) once again performed the bai‘at and reaffirmed his pledge of allegiance after the demise of Hazrat Fatimah (ra).

(Sirat Amir-il-Momineen Ali bin Abi Talib Shakhsiyyatuh wa Asruh, p. 121, Vol. 1, Ali bin Abi Talib fi Ahd al-Siddiq, Dar al-Ma‘rifah, Beirut, Lebanon, 2006)

Thus, this bai‘at was named as “The Pledge of Reaffirmation”. Hazrat Ali (ra) had initially taken the bai‘at, but after the demise of Hazrat Fatimah (ra), he once again reaffirmed his pledge of allegiance. Allama Ibn Kathir writes that after the demise of Hazrat Fatimah (ra), Hazrat Ali (ra) decided to pledge his allegiance at the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) once again.

(Ibn Kathir, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dhikr E‘tiraf Saad bin Ubadah bi Sihhat Ma Qalahu al-Siddiq Yaum al-Saqifah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2005], 694)

With regard to the details of the election of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) Khilafat, it has been recorded in Tarikh al-Tabari that on this occasion, Hazrat Hubbab (ra) bin al-Mundhir stood up and said:

“O people of the Ansar! Keep this matter in your hands as these people are currently under your care”, referring to the Muhajirin. “No one will have the courage to oppose you and people will not disagree with your opinion. You are honourable, affluent, in the majority, strong, mighty and experienced warriors, courageous and brave. People have turned towards you in order to see what you do. Do not disagree at this moment as your [difference of] opinion will create disorder among you and your matter will be turned against you. Hence, if these people”, i.e. the Muhajirin of the Quraish, “reject what you have just heard then there will be one leader from among us and one leader from among them.”

Upon this, Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “This is impossible! Two swords cannot be combined in one sheath. By Allah! Arabs will never agree to elect you as the leader, while their Prophet (sa) is from a different tribe than yours. However, the Arabs will have no objection to entrusting their matters to those among whom prophethood was established, nor [would they object] that their leaders should be elected from them. Furthermore, if any Arab rejects the leadership in this case, then we will be justified and have the right to oppose him. Who will oppose us regarding the leadership of Muhammad (sa)? We are the very friends and family of the Holy Prophet (sa). None but the foolish, a sinner and the one who throws himself into destruction will oppose this proposition.”

Hubbab (ra) bin al-Mundhir said, “O people of the Ansar! Settle this matter among yourselves and do not at all agree with this person and his companions. They wish to devour your share as well and if they reject your proposition then drive them out of your areas and take control of all matters, because, by God, you are most deserving and worthy of this leadership. Your swords have made everyone obedient to this religion; all those who would otherwise not have obeyed. I take the responsibility of settling this entire matter on my shoulders, as I am experienced therein and also competent. By God! If you so desire then I will correct and settle this matter.”

Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “If you do this then Allah will destroy you!” Hazrat Hubbab (ra) replied, “It will, in fact, be you who will be destroyed!”

At this moment, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) said, “O congregation of Ansar! You are the pioneers in helping and assisting the religion. It should not be the case that you now become the first ones to alter and change it.”

Upon this, Bashir (ra) bin Saad said, “O congregation of Ansar! The sole objective of the opportunity we received of fighting the idolaters and serving the religion of Islam in its early stages was to acquire the pleasure of our Creator and it was done in obedience to our Messenger (sa) of Allah. It does not befit us to make ourselves superior to others and we do not desire any worldly benefit from this. This is merely a favour of Allah the Almighty upon us. Hearken! The Holy Prophet (sa) was most certainly from among the Quraish and as such, his tribe is more deserving and worthy of this leadership. I swear by God and proclaim that I will not dispute with them regarding this matter! Fear Allah and do not oppose them and do not dispute with them in relation to this matter!”

(Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1987], p. 243)

Another narration of the speech of Hazrat Umar (ra) is recorded in Sunan al-Kubra li al-Nasa‘i that when the Ansar said in the courtyard of the Banu Sa‘idah that there should be one leader from among each party, Hazrat Umar (ra) replied – as was previously mentioned – that there could not be two swords in one sheath as they would not fare well if it were so. Hazrat Umar (ra) then took the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and said, “Who is it that possesses these three qualities:

إِذۡ‭ ‬يَقُولُ‭ ‬لِصٰحِبِهِۦ‭ ‬لَا‭ ‬تَحۡزَنۡ‭ ‬إِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

That is, “When he (the Holy Prophet (sa)) said to his companion, ‘Grieve not, for Allah is with us’, who was the companion?” He then said:

إِذۡ‭ ‬هُمَا‭ ‬فِي‭ ‬الۡغَارِ

“‘When they were both in the cave,’ who were these two?”

Hazrat Umar (ra) continued:

لَا‭ ‬تَحۡزَنۡ‭ ‬إِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬مَعَنَا

“‘Do not grieve, for Allah is with us’; who was it that was beside the Holy Prophet (sa)? Who was He with aside from Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)?” Saying this, Hazrat Umar (ra) pledged his allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and told the people to also swear allegiance, which they then did.

(Al-Sunan al-Kubra li al-Nasa‘i, Kitab Wafat al-Nabi (sa), Hadith 7119, Vol. 4, p. 264, Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1991)

After Hazrat Umar (ra), Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) bin al-Jarrah and Hazrat Bashir (ra) bin Sad pledged their allegiance, and in this manner all of the Ansar pledged allegiance.

(Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, Vol. 2, p. 193, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003) (Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], p. 506)

In Islamic literature, this pledge is also known as the “Bai‘at Saqifah” or “Bai‘at Khassah”.

(Tarikh al-Khulafa al-Rashidin,Vol. 3, p. 367, 22, Dar al-Nafa‘is, Beirut, 2011)

It is mentioned in some narrations that Hazrat Saad (ra) bin Ubadah did not pledge his allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), whereas in other narrations it is evident that he pledged allegiance alongside all the Ansar. It is recorded in Tarikh al-Tabari that all the people pledged their allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) one after another, and Hazrat Saad (ra) bin Ubadah also pledged allegiance.

(Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 3, Sanat Ihda Asharah, Dhikr al-Khabar ‘amma Jara baina al-Muhajirin wa al-Ansar… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2002], p. 266)

The incident regarding the disagreement over who should be the Khilafa between the Ansar and the Muhajireen, which took place immediately after the Holy Prophet’s (sa) demise has been mentioned in Sahih Bukhari. I have previously quoted this whilst narrating the accounts of another companion; however, it is also important to narrate this with reference to Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra).

After the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), the Ansar gathered at the house of Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) bin Ubadah and suggested that one leader should be appointed from among the Ansar and another leader from among the Muhajireen. Subsequently, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) bin Jarrah went to see them. Hazrat Umar (ra) was just about to say something; however, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stopped him. Hazrat Umar (ra) states, “The only reason I wished to say something at the time was because I had already prepared a speech which I was very happy with and feared that perhaps Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would not be able to say something as impactful. However, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) delivered his speech in such an excellent and eloquent manner which was far better than any other speech.”

In his speech, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, “We, the Muhajireen, are the Amirs [leaders] and you, the Ansar, are the viziers.”

Upon this, Hazrat Habab bin Munzir (ra) stated, “Certainly not! By God, we will never allow for this to happen. There shall be one leader from among you and one from among us.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) replied, “No, we are the Amirs and you are the viziers, for the Quraish, according to their lineage and status, have always occupied a higher status amongst the Arabs and it has been this way since ancient times.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then proposed the names of Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) bin Jarrah and said that they could choose any one of them as their Khalifa and take his Bai‘at. Hazrat Umar (ra) responded, “No, we will only take your Bai‘at (i.e. referring to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)) because you are our leader. You are the best among us and the most beloved of the Holy Prophet (sa) out of us all.” After saying this, Hazrat Umar (ra) held the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and performed the Bai‘at. Thereafter, everyone else also followed and performed the Bai‘at at the hands of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fada‘il Ashab al-Nabi, Bab Qaul al-Nabi, Bab Law Kunta Muttakhidhan Khalilan, Hadith 3668)

In any case, this was the status of Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) in the eyes of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) whereby he proposed his name for Khilafat. Similarly, it was mentioned earlier that Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, “If Abu Ubaidah (ra) was alive, I would have appointed him as the next Khalifa, because according to the saying of the Holy Prophet (sa), he was the custodian [ameen] of this Ummah.”

I will present a few accounts with regard to Hazrat Uthman’s (ra) status and rank during the Khilafat of Hazrat Umar (ra). When Hazrat Umar (ra) was appointed as the Khalifa, he decided to seek advice from the eminent companions about their stipends from the treasury [Bait-ul-Maal]. Upon this, Hazrat Uthman (ra) stated, “Make use of it and impart some to us also.”

(Sirat Amir-il-Momineen Uthman bin Affan li-Ali Muhammad al-Salabi, p. 52, Vol. 1, Dhu al-Nurain; Uthman bin Affan bain Makkah wa Madinah, Dar al-Ma‘rifah, Beirut, Lebanon, 2006)

In other words, he should use the money to fulfil his requirements and to also help the people with their needs, so there is no need to fix an amount. When the Islamic Empire began to expand as did its wealth, Hazrat Umar (ra) gathered some of the companions to seek counsel about the wealth. Hazrat Uthman (ra) said, “I feel that the wealth has increased to an amount that it will be enough for the people. If we do not keep a record of the people who have received their share and those who have not, I fear that we will fall into great difficulty”, i.e some people may take it twice, “therefore, a set system should be implemented and records should be kept.” Upon this, Hazrat Umar (ra) accepted the advice of Hazrat Uthman (ra) and a census was carried out in which names were recorded in a register. After this people began to officially receive their share.

(Sirat Amir-il-Momineen Uthman bin Affan li-Ali Muhammad al-Salabi, p. 54, Vol. 1, Dhu al-Nurain; Uthman bin Affan bain Makkah wa Madinah, Dar al-Ma‘rifah, Beirut, Lebanon, 2006)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states regarding the first consensus among the Muslims on this occasion:

“All prophets prior to the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away, including Jesus (as). When the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away, the Muslims were in a state of anguish and the grief became unbearable. This same anguish led Hazrat Umar (ra) to draw out his sword while saying, ‘if anyone says that the Holy Prophet (sa) has passed away, I will behead them. The Holy Prophet (sa) has not passed away, rather, just like Mosesas, he has gone to meet God and will return to eliminate the hypocrites, and then pass away.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) believed that until the hypocrites were eliminated, the Holy Prophet (sa) could not pass away. Since there were still hypocrites present at the time of his demise, he thought that the Holy Prophet (sa) had not yet passed away. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) arrived from a village he had been visiting near Medina. He went to the Holy Prophet’s (sa) home, saw his body and confirmed that he had indeed passed away, after which he left. He emerged whilst saying, ‘Allah the Almighty will not allow the Holy Prophet (sa) to die twice’, meaning one being the physical demise, whilst the other referring to the spiritual death of Muslims upon his demise. He then went straight to the congregation of the Companions and said that he wished to say something to the people. Hazrat Umar (ra) was standing with his sword in hand with the intention that if anyone announced the Holy Prophet’s (sa) demise, he would kill them. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stood and made this very announcement to the people, saying:

مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يَعْبُدُ مُحَمَّدًا فَإِنَّ مُحَمَّدًا قَدْ مَاتَ، وَمَنْ كَانَ يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ حَىٌّ لاَ يَمُوتُ

“Meaning, ‘Let whoever worshipped Muhammad hear that Muhammad (sa) has passed away. Let whoever worshipped Allah rejoice, for He is Living and can never die.’

“Then, (as mentioned earlier), he recited the following verse from the Holy Quran:

وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٞ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِن قَبۡلِهِ الرُّسُلُ ۚ أَفَإِيْن مَّاتَ أَوۡ قُتِلَ انقَلَبۡتُمۡ عَلَىٰٓ أَعۡقَٰبِكُمۡ ۚ

“‘And Muhammad is only a Messenger. Verily all Messengers have passed away before him. (How then would he not pass away as well?). If then he die or be slain, will you turn back on your heels (and leave Islam)?’

Hazrat Umar (ra) states, ‘When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) recited this verse of the Holy Quran, it opened my eyes and it felt as if this verse had only just been revealed. It became clear to me that the Holy Prophet (sa) had passed away. My feet began to tremble and I fell to the ground.’”

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) continues:

“This is the only Ijma‘ [consensus] of the companions because, at the time, all the companions were present. In reality, the Muslims never experienced a time like this because, after that, they never gathered together in the same manner. In this consensus, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) recited the following verse:

“‘Muhammad was but a messenger, verily all messengers before him have passed away. Therefore, it is not an objectionable matter if he too passes away.’ And all of the companions agreed with him.”

(Mas‘alah-e-Wahi-o-Nubuwwat ke Muta‘allaq Islami Nazariyyah, Anwar al-‘Ulum, Vol. 23, pp. 327-328)

Whilst mentioning the qualities of Hazrat Ali (ra), the Promised Messiah (as) states:

“Was he not the most eloquent among the people, the most articulate in speech and the one who could breathe life through his words? Thus, he could have gathered people around him within an hour or even less due to the strength of his speech and oration, which would have affected the listeners and attracted them.”

(Sirr al-Khilafah, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 8, p. 350, Urdu Tarjumah of Sirr al-Khilafah, pp. 89-90, Nazarat Ishaat)

The Promised Messiah (as) further states:

“I know for certain that no one can be deemed a true believer nor a Muslim until they instil within themselves the qualities of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra), Hazrat Uthman (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra), may Allah be pleased with them all. Their hearts were pure from the love of this world; instead they devoted their lives in the way of God Almighty.”

(Lecture Ludhiana, Ruhani Khaza‘in, Vol. 20, p. 294)

Whatever the case may be, Hazrat Uthman (ra) was elected as Khalifa and matters returned to normal. When Hazrat Uthman (ra) was martyred, everyone rushed to Hazrat Ali (ra), among whom were the companions and Tabi‘een [the generation of Muslims who saw the Companions] and said that Hazrat Ali (ra) is the new Leader of the Believers [Amir-ul-Momineen]. They all went to his home and expressing their wish to take the pledge of allegiance, they asked him to extend his hand as they regarded him to be the most deserving of this lofty station. In response, Hazrat Ali (ra) said, “You do not have the right to make this assumption. This is the responsibility of the companions (ra) who participated in the Battle of Badr. The Khalifa can only be whoever they are pleased with.” Hence, all of the Badri companions (ra) came to Hazrat Ali (ra) and said, “We see no one more worthy than you in this matter, so extend your hand so that we may pledge our allegiance.” Hazrat Ali (ra) said, “Where is Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Zubair (ra)?” Thus, Hazrat Talha (ra) was the first to make the verbal pledge and Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) was the first to pledge his allegiance at the hand of Hazrat Ali (ra). When Hazrat Ali (ra) saw this, he went to the mosque, climbed to the pulpit and the first person to come up to him to pledge his allegiance was Hazrat Talha (ra). Thereafter, Hazrat Zubair (ra) and other Companions took the pledge of allegiance at the hand of Hazrat Ali (ra).

(Usdul-Ghaba Fi Marifat al-Sahaba, Vol. 4, p. 107, Kutub-ul-al-ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2003)

Hazrat Khalifatul Masih I (ra) states:

“Let it be known that Allah the Almighty does not remain indebted to anyone. In fact, however much one gives in the way of God, He grants hundreds of thousands of times more in return. Look at the example of Abu Bakr (ra), he left a simple dwelling in Mecca, but God Almighty valued that so much that in return, he granted him authority to reign over an entire kingdom.”

(Haqaiq-ul-Furqan, Vol. 1, p. 244)

Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) era of Khilafat was the shortest amongst all the Khulafa-e-Rashidin and spanned approximately two and a quarter years. Despite spanning such a short era, it is considered as one of the most significant and golden periods of Khilafat-e-Rashida. This is because Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had to face the greatest danger and trials, and in turn, owing to God Almighty’s extraordinary help, support and blessings, within a short period of time, Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) remarkable bravery, courage, sagacity and wisdom eliminated the precarious and dangerous circumstances and all the fears were transformed into peace. He crushed the unruly and rebellious people in a way that the leadership in the form of Khilafat, which appeared to be passing through a turbulent period, was established on firm foundations.

The dangerous circumstances and difficulties which Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) had to face have been mentioned by Umm al-Muminin, Hazrat Aisha (ra). Whilst mentioning this, the Promised Messiah (as) states:

“It has been narrated by Hazrat Aisha (ra), ‘When my father was appointed as Khalifa and Allah granted him leadership, right from the outset of his Khilafat he observed the upsurge of disorder from every direction, the efforts of the false claimants to prophethood and the rebellion of the hypocrites and apostates. The number of calamities he had to face were such that if they were to befall upon a mountain it would cause it to immediately crush and crumble to the ground. However, he was granted patience like that of the prophets and eventually Allah the Almighty bestowed His succour and the false claimants to prophethood and apostates were killed. The disorders and dangers were put to an end, the situation was resolved and the institution of Khilafat was firmly established. Allah the Almighty saved the believers from the calamity, transformed their state of fear into peace, established for them their religion, He established the entire land upon the truth and utterly humiliated those who sought to create disorder. Allah fulfilled His promise and granted support to His servant, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) and destroyed the leaders of the rebellion and their idols. The hearts of the disbelievers were completely overawed and they ultimately repented. This indeed was the promise of Allah, Who is the All-Powerful and Most Truthful. Thus, ponder how all the characteristics and hallmarks of Khilafat were fulfilled in the person of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra).’”

(Sirr al-Khilafah [translated], pp. 49-50, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 8, p. 335)

The Promised Messiah (as) then further states:

“The Khawarij proclaim that Hazrat Ali (ra) was rebellious and accuse him of committing many unrighteous acts. In fact, they consider him to be completely devoid of any faith. Thus, a natural question that arises here is that if righteousness, truthfulness and honesty is an essential requirement for one to become a Siddiq [the truthful one], then why is it that God Almighty made certain matters appear unclear or doubtful for the people relating to these pious men, who were prophets, messengers and saints?” Why were people not able to understand the true reality of the matters in relation to them? Why were their circumstances and their true character hidden from these people “and why did they fail to understand their words and actions to such an extent that they completely expelled them from the fold of righteousness, truthfulness and honesty and considered them to be from among the oppressors, who usurped the wealth of others, unlawfully shed the blood of others, committed deception and treachery and were subservient to their inner desires and committed vice?

“In fact, there are many people in the world who neither claim to be a messenger, nor a prophet, saint, imam or khalifa of the Muslims, and yet no one levels a single allegation against their way of life or their character. The answer to this question is that God Almighty did this so that the true reality of those who are His chosen and beloved servants remains hidden from those evil ones, who are quick to pass judgment and in whose nature it is to think ill of others just as God Almighty has concealed Himself from others.”

(Tiryaq al-Qulub, Ruhani Khaza‘in, Vol. 15, p. 422)

In other words, just as people think ill of Allah the Almighty, Who is hidden, in the same way these evil people think ill of His beloved servants as well and are quick to level allegations against them. These very people are ones who are devoid of righteousness and yet level accusations against those who are righteous.

The Promised Messiah (as) further states:

“There is no doubt that Hazrat Ali (ra) was a hope for the seekers of the truth and an unparalleled model of generosity. He was divine proof for the people and the best example of his time. He was the light of Allah that was to illuminate the world. However, the era of his Khilafat was not a time of peace and safety, but a time of intense conflict and discord. People differed between his Khilafat and the Khilafat of Ibn Abi Sufyan and would look to them in a state of utter perplexity. Some people considered them to be like two bright furqad [two bright stars of Ursa Minor] stars and considered them equal in stature.

“The fact of the matter is that the truth was on the side of [Ali] Al-Murtaza. Those who fought against him were rebellious and transgressors. However, his Khilafat was not the recipient of the glad-tidings given by the Gracious God regarding the establishment of peace and security. In fact, Hazrat Ali al-Murtazara was given a lot of pain from his opponents and his Khilafat was tarnished through various kinds of evils. Allah had greatly blessed him, but he remained full of sorrow and grief his entire life. He was not able to propagate the message of Islam and eradicate the Satanic forces [in the land] like the Khulafa before him; in fact, he was not even spared from being reviled by his own people. His every plan and desire was denied by his people and they failed to unite around him; rather, they were bent on continuously carrying out injustices against him and causing him pain. They hindered him and placed obstacles in every path of his. However, he was extremely patient and amongst the righteous, but still we cannot say that his Khilafat was a fulfilment of the glad-tidings mentioned in Ayat-e-Istikhlaf because his Khilafat was during an era of disorder, rebellion and turmoil.”

(Sirr al-Khilafah, Ruhani Khaza‘in, Vol. 8, pp. 352-353, Urdu Tarjumah of Sirr al-Khilafah, pp. 95-96, Nazarat Ishaat)

There is a dream of the Holy Prophet (sa) with regard to Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) Khilafat. It has been narrated by Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Umar that the Holy Prophet (sa) stated:

“I was shown in a dream that I was standing beside a well, and I used the bucket that was hanging there to draw water out. In the meantime, Abu Bakr (ra) came and he drew one or two buckets of water in such a manner that it seemed as if he had done so with great difficulty due to weakness, but that Allah would cover up his weakness and forgive him. Then, Umar (ra) bin Khattab arrived and the bucket became larger, and I never saw such a mighty person as Umar who could perform such a monumental task. He drew so much water that everyone was satiated and then went back to their own dwellings.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Fada‘il Ashab al-Nabi (sa), Bab Manaqib ‘Umar bin a-Khattab (ra), Hadith 3682)

When the mischievous hypocrites and rebels caused a revolt in Medina against Hazrat Usman (ra), unfortunately out of his naivety Hazrat Ammar bin Yasir (ra) was also misled and deceived by them, although he did not physically support them in any way.

Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II (ra) says, “There were only three residents of Medina who supported the rebels; one was Muhammad bin Abi Bakr, who was the son of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). Historians are of the view that since people showed him respect due to his father, he began to think that he held a position of rank as well. Other than this [factor], neither did he hold any worldly precedence, nor did he benefit from the company of the Holy Prophet (sa) and nor did he gain special religious education afterwards. He was born in the days of Hajjatul-wida [the last Hajj performed by the Holy Prophet (sa)] and was still a suckling baby at the time when the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away. He was only four when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) passed away and was unable to benefit from the upbringing of this exemplary man.

“The second person was Muhammad bin Abi Huzaifah. He was not from among the Companions either. His father had been martyred in the battle of Yamamah and Hazrat Usman (ra) had taken his upbringing upon himself. He had nurtured him from childhood. When Hazrat Usman (ra) became Khalifa, he asked him for a post but Hazrat Usman (ra) refused. He then asked for permission to go out and take up some form of work. Hazrat Usman (ra) granted him permission, so he went to Egypt. Upon reaching there, he joined the supporters of Abdullah bin Saba and began inciting people against Hazrat Usman (ra). When the rebels of Egypt attacked Medina, he came along with them. However, after having come some distance, he returned, and was not present in Medina at the time of this conflict.

“The third person was Ammar bin Yasir (ra), who was one of the Companions. The reason he fell to deception was because he was not very informed in the field of politics. When Hazrat Usman (ra) sent him to Egypt so that he could return with a report on the administration of its governor, Abdullah bin Saba welcomed him and turned him against the governor of Egypt. Moreover, since the governor had bitterly opposed the Holy Prophet (sa) in his days of disbelief and had accepted Islam after the victory of Mecca, Ammar bin Yasir (ra) was quickly ensnared by them”, meaning that since the Governor was once a hostile enemy of the Holy Prophet (sa) and due to his own love for the Holy Prophet (sa), he became influenced by those who were conspiring against Hazrat Usman (ra) and his governor. Ammar bin Yasir (ra) thought that since he [i.e. the governor] was opposed to Islam previously, his heart may not have accepted Islam fully and for this reason he was acting in the manner that he was.

“Nevertheless, after creating suspicion against the governor, Abdullah bin Saba slowly made him suspicious of Hazrat Usman (ra) as well. However, Ammar bin Yasir (ra) did not practically participate in the rebellion. Although he was present in Medina when it was attacked, apart from sitting quietly at home and not taking part in opposing the rebels, practically, he did not take any part in the rebellion. (Thus, his only weakness was that he did not actively oppose the rebels that attacked Medina.) However, he was completely innocent of the crimes committed by the rebels.”

Then, whilst refuting an aspect of Shia beliefs, the Promised Messiah (as) says:

“Those Shias who believe that Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) and Umar Farooq (ra) usurped the rights of Ali Murtaza (ra) and Fatima al-Zahra (ra) and were cruel to them have abandoned justice, adopted cruelty and followed the path of the transgressors. Surely, these people were such that abandoned their beloved homeland, friends and wealth for the sake of their Prophet, and they endured hardships at the hands of the disbelievers and were expelled from their homes by mischief mongers, but they remained patient like good and virtuous people.

“Then, they were later made Caliphs, but they did not fill their homes with riches, nor were their sons and daughter’s heirs to gold and silver. Instead, they gave whatever they received to the treasury. They did not make their sons their successors, just as worldly and misguided people do. They lived this life in poverty and destitution rather than being inclined towards worldly comforts like other leaders.

“Can it even be considered that such people would be capable of stealing the wealth of others, or were inclined towards usurping rights, looting or destruction? Was this the impact of having remained in the blessed company of the Chief of this world, the Holy Prophet (sa)? On the contrary, Allah the Almighty, the Lord of All the Worlds has praised them.

“The reality is that Allah purified their souls and cleansed their hearts. He enlightened their beings and made them an example for future pious people. We cannot find any weakness or superficial thought which would lead to any indication of deviation in their intentions or point towards any sort of evil in them, unless, someone is intent on attributing injustice and cruelty to them.

“By God, they were just people. Even if they were given a valley full of unlawful wealth, they would not so much as spit on it, nor would they turn towards it like greedy people, no matter if the gold was as high as mountains or enough to fill the earth seven times over. If they came across lawful wealth, they would surely spend it in the way of the All-Powerful God and religious endeavours. Thus, how can we even fathom that they would upset Fatima al-Zahra (ra) over a few trees and cause harm to the dear child of the Holy Prophet (sa) like the mischievous ones; rather, they were noble and righteous in their intentions and were firmly established upon the truth, and Allah showered His mercy upon them, and Allah knows the righteous full-well.”

(Sirrul Khilafah, Urdu translation, pp. 37-39)

The Promised Messiah (as) further states:

“The truth is that Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) and Umar Farooq (ra) were both from among the eminent companions. They both never showed any weakness in fulfilling the rights they owed. Righteousness was their way of life and establishing justice was their objective. They would carefully ponder over the matters and delve deep into its intricacies. Fulfilling worldly desires was never their objective. They devoted themselves in obedience to Allah. I have never seen anyone partake of such immense blessings and support the religion of the Holy Prophet (sa) than the Sheikhain, i.e. Abu Bakr and Umar, may Allah be pleased with them both. In their subservience to the spiritual Sun for the whole of mankind, [i.e. Muhammad] peace be upon him, they were even more swift than the moon. They were wholly devoted in their love for him and in order to establish the truth, they happily endured every hardship. For the sake of the Holy Prophet (sa), like whom there is no other, they willingly and gladly endured every humiliation.

“At the time of battle against the army of disbelievers, they stood courageously like lions to the point that Islam triumphed and the enemy ranks suffered defeat. Shirk was abolished and totally eradicated and the spiritual sun of the nation and faith began to illuminate forth. They both rendered such exemplary service to their faith and afforded the Muslims with such excellence and favours that their final resting place was in the company of the most excellent of Prophets (sa). This was owing to the grace of Allah the Almighty, from Whom no righteous person is hidden and indeed all grace belongs to Allah and He grants it to whomsoever He pleases.

“One who develops a bond with God Almighty with utmost devotion is never made to face ruin, even if the entire world were to oppose him. Those who seek to establish a bond with Allah never experience hardship or loss and Allah does not abandon His truthful servants. Allah is the Greatest! How great was the sincerity and devotion of these two men” i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)and Hazrat Umar (ra).

“Both were buried in such a blessed grave that if Moses (as) and Jesus (as) were alive today, they would express their earnest desire to be buried there. However, such a rank is never bestowed owing to one’s heartfelt longing or desire; rather, this is an eternal mercy bestowed from the Lord of Honour. And this mercy is only granted to those who are granted His Divine favours from the very beginning. These are the people who at the very end are shrouded in the cloth of divine grace.”

(Sirrul Khilafah, Urdu translation, pp. 77-79)

The Promised Messiah (as) then states:

“Whatever became of Islam after the Holy Prophet (sa) was due to the three companions. Whatever Hazrat Umar (ra) accomplished – which was a great deal – it cannot overshadow what Siddiq Akbar [Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)] accomplished, for it was Siddiq Akbar (ra) who laid the path to success and who dispelled a great dissension. The trials that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had to face in his time were never faced by Hazrat Umar (ra). Hence, [Abu Bakr] Siddiq (ra) cleared the path, upon which Hazrat Umar (ra) then opened the doors to further success.”

(Malfuzat, Vol. 6, pp. 414-415)

He was also amongst those six companions whom Hazrat Umar (ra) had appointed to be part of the committee to elect the next Khalifa. Regarding these individuals, Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, “At the time of his demise, the Holy Prophet (sa) was pleased with them.”

(al-Isabah Fi Tamyeez al-Sahabah, Vol. 4, p. 290, Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1995)

What were the services and status of Hazrat Uthman (ra) during the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) Khilafat and what was his rank in the eyes of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)? During the Khilafat of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Uthman (ra) was among those companions and a part of the consultative body with whom Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would seek consultation regarding important matters. After having suppressed the rebellion of the apostates, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) decided to launch an attack against the Byzantines and also decided to send the Mujahideen to various fronts. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sought consultation from the people on this matter and upon this some of the companions presented their suggestions. When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sought further consultation, Hazat Uthman (ra) submitted, “You are a well-wisher of the believers of this faith and show benevolence to them. Thus, whatever you decide is beneficial for the people, you should make firm resolve regarding it because no one can think ill about you.” In other words, Hazrat Uthman (ra) stated that no one could ever think ill of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). Upon this, Hazrat Talha (ra), Hazrat Zubair (ra), Hazrat Saad (ra), Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra), Hazrat Saeed bin Zaid (ra), as well as the other Muhajireen and Ansar members who were present in this gathering agreed with Hazrat Uthman (ra) that he had indeed spoken the truth.

[Hazrat Uthman (ra) further stated], “Do whatever you deem appropriate; we will neither oppose you nor lay any blame on you.” After this, Hazrat Ali (ra) spoke and then Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stood among the people and praised Allah the Almighty which He is most worthy of and invoked salutations [Durood] upon the Holy Prophet (sa). Thereafter, he stated, “O people! Allah the Almighty has bestowed His blessings upon you through the religion of Islam; He has granted you honour through Jihad; and through this faith, He has granted you superiority over all other faiths. Thus, O servants of Allah! Prepare an army to go to battle against the Byzantines in the land of Syria.”

(Tarikh Dimashq al-Kabir li Ibn Asakir, Vol. 1, p. 46, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabiyy, Beirut, 2001)

When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sought consultation from his companions as to who should be appointed as the governor of Bahrain in place of Hazrat Abanra bin Saeed, Hazrat Uthman (ra) bin Affan submitted, “Send the person who was appointed as the governor over the people of Bahrain by the Holy Prophet (sa) himself. He subsequently became the means of them accepting Islam and demonstrating their obedience. He is also well-aware of its people and the area. That is, Alaa bin Hadrami.” Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) expressed his agreement to this suggestion and appointed Alaa bin Hadrmi as the governor of Bahrain.

(Kanz al-Ummal, Vol. 3, Ch. 5, p. 248, Kitab al-Khilafa ma‘a al-Imarah, Hadith 14089, Dar al-Kutun al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2004)

The Promised Messiah (as) further states regarding the status of Hazrat Ali (ra):

“Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, was righteous and pious. He was a beloved of Allah, the Gracious God. He was the elect of Allah and the chief of his era. He was the victorious lion of Allah, the Benevolent, a pure-hearted and generous youth who belonged to God. He was peerless and his bravery was such that he would remain resolute in the battlefield, even if an army from among the enemy stood in front of him.

“He lived his life with great humility, reaching the highest peak of piety that a mortal can attain. He would sacrifice his money and wealth and was the foremost in consoling and helping the destitute, orphans and his neighbours. On the battlefield, he demonstrated extraordinary feats of bravery and displayed a miraculous skill in handling the sword and spear.

“At the same time, he was soft-spoken and an eloquent orator. His words would penetrate the hearts of the listeners and remove the corrosion of their minds. His countenance shone bright with the light of truth. He was an outstanding orator; whosoever competed with him in this field would themselves step down, overpowered and defeated [by his eloquence]. His every attribute was outstanding and he was flawless in his speech and eloquence. He who denies his perfection adopts the way of the shameless.

“He would encourage others to remove the difficulties of the helpless. He would command to feed the poor and needy. He was among those who were honoured with the nearness of God and the foremost people who drank from the fountain of the Quran’s wisdom and was gifted with a deep understanding and insight of the intricacies of the Quran.

“I have seen him (i.e. Hazrat Ali (ra)), but not in a dream, rather in a state of wakefulness. I met him in a vision [kashf] and whilst in this state, Hazrat Ali (ra) bestowed upon me the commentary of the Book of Allah, the Knower of the Unseen, and said:

“‘This is my commentary, and now it is bestowed upon you; rejoice over that which has been bestowed upon you.’” In other words, Hazrat Ali (ra) gave this commentary to the Promised Messiah (as).

“He stated, ‘May this be a blessing for you.’ Thus, I stretched forth my hand and took the commentary and thanked Allah, the Mighty and Bestower of All Things. I found Hazrat Ali (ra) to be of proportionate build, possessing moral excellence, humble, strong, and had a radiant countenance.

“I affirm, on oath, that Hazrat Ali (ra) met me with great love and affection. It was conveyed to me that he knew me and was aware of my beliefs and he was also aware that my views and beliefs were opposed to the beliefs held by the Shias. But he never expressed any sort of displeasure or disapproval at this, nor did he turn away from me. Instead, he met like one’s beloved and showed me great affection just like a true and sincere friend would do so.

“He was accompanied by both Hasan (ra) and Husain (ra) and by the Chief of the Messengers, the Seal of the Prophets (sa). Also in their company was a very beautiful, righteous young woman of high status; she was blessed, pure, dignified and worthy of honour: her inner and outer qualities were infused with spiritual light. I found her to be in a state of grief, which she was trying to suppress. It was conveyed to me that she was Fatimah al-Zahra.

I was lying down as she approached me and sat down next to me. She placed my head upon her thigh and was most kind to me. I noticed that she was sorrowful and anxious on account of my troubles, as mothers are anxious on account of the tribulations of their children.”

Certain non-Ahmadis raise allegations on this stating that how wrong it is to say such a thing in that he placed his head on her thigh. However, the Promised Messiah (as) has given the example of a mother. If one reads the entire extract from the beginning and the qualities he has mentioned in relation to her and then reads this particular sentence, in which it states that she showed kindness to him like that of a mother, then it leaves no room for any allegation. However, since their minds are polluted, therefore they raise such allegations. In any case, the Promised Messiah (as) states:

“It was then conveyed to me that my relationship with her” i.e. with Hazrat Fatimah (ra) “was like that of a spiritual son. It passed through my mind that her sorrow was an indication of the persecution that I was to undergo at the hands of my people, countrymen and enemies. Then Hasan (ra) and Husain (ra) approached me and expressed their affection towards me like that of brothers and met me like kind well-wishers. This vision was one of those that I experienced while I was awake and this took place many years ago. I have a unique relationship with Hazrat Ali (ra) and Hazrat Husain (ra), of which only God, the Lord of East and West, knows its true reality. In fact, I have deep love for Hazrat Ali (ra) and his sons. I am an enemy of the one who is an enemy of them. However, I am not unjust, nor am I from among the oppressors. It is not possible for me to turn away from what Allah the Almighty has revealed to me and I am not of the transgressors. However, if you fail to accept this, then for you are your deeds and for me, my deeds and Allah will judge between us for He is the best of judges.”

(Sirr al-Khilafah, Ruhani Khaza‘in, Vol. 8, pp. 358-359, Urdu Tarjumah of Sirr al-Khilafah, pp. 108-112, Nazarat Ishaat)

In a narration, it is mentioned that at the time of his demise, Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “If Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) was alive today, I would have appointed him as Caliph. If my Lord would have asked me as to why I did so, I would say, ‘I heard Your Prophet (sa) say that Abu Ubaidah is the Custodian of this Ummah and as such, I have made him my successor.’”

(Ibn Sa‘d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012] 315.)

There is also a narration by Hazrat Ammar (ra) regarding the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali (ra), which is related to a prophecy made by the Holy Prophet (sa). Hazrat Ammar bin Yassir (ra) narrates, “Once, during the Battle of Zaatul-Asheerah, I was travelling alongside Hazrat Ali (ra). When the Messenger of Allah (sa) camped at a certain place, we saw some people from the clan of Mudlij, who were working near the springs of their orchards. Hazrat Ali (ra) said to me, ‘Let us go to these people and observe how they work.’ Thus, we went closer to them and observed how they worked for a short while. Then we became tired. Hazrat Ali (ra) and I then retired to an orchard and laid down to rest on the ground. By Allah! It was the Messenger of Allah (sa), who woke us up. He was waking us up with his foot as we were completely covered with dust. That day, the Holy Prophet (sa) said to Hazrat Ali (ra), ‘O Abu Turab [Father of Dust]!’ This was due to the dust that could be seen on him that he called him Abu Turab. The Holy Prophet (sa) then said, ‘Shall I inform you about two of the most unfortunate individuals from among the people?’ We said, ‘Indeed, O Messenger (sa) of Allah!’ He said, ‘One is the fair-skinned individual with reddish complexion from the people of Thamud, who crippled the camel [of Prophet Saleh (as)] and the second individual, O Ali, is the one who will strike your head and cause your beard to be smeared with blood.’”

(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 6, p. 261, Ammar bin Yassir, Hadith 18511, Aalam-ul-Kutub, Beirut, 1998)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states in another place:

“When a Byzantine king learnt of the war between Hazrat Ali (ra) and Hazrat Muawiyah (ra), he wished to launch an attack against the Islamic states. Hazrat Muawiyah (ra) wrote to him and said, ‘Beware! Do not be deceived by our internal dispute. If you launch an attack, I will be the first general to march against you and fight under the army of Hazrat Ali (ra).’”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 4, p. 430)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has mentioned this in more detail in another place:

“There was a time when seeing the conflict between Hazrat Ali (ra) and Hazrat Amir Muawiyah (ra), a Byzantine king wished to send an army to attack the Muslims. At the time, the Byzantine Empire wielded the same power that USA holds today. Upon learning of his intentions to launch an attack, a Christian priest, who was very intelligent, said, ‘Your Majesty, take my advice and refrain from launching an attack. Even though they have disagreements amongst themselves; however, they will all unite against you, leaving aside all their differences.’”

He then gave an example; either he did it in a contemptuous manner or perhaps he felt that this was a better example to give; in any case, he said:

“‘If you bring some dogs and starve them for a while and then place some meat before them, they will begin to fight one another. However, if you were to set a lion against the same dogs, they both will set aside their differences and launch a joint attack on the lion.’ Through this example, he conveyed [to the king] that he wanted to take advantage of the disagreement between Hazrat Ali (ra) and Muawiyah (ra); however, he should know that if ever there was a question of an external attack, they both would cast their differences aside and will unite against the enemy. And this is precisely what happened.

When Hazrat Muawiyah (ra) learnt of the Byzantine King’s intentions, he sent him a message, stating, ‘You seek to take advantage of the disagreements between us and attack the Muslims; however, let it be known that even though there is discord between me and Hazrat Ali (ra), but if your army launches an attack, then I will be the first general to set out against your army from Hazrat Ali’s (ra) side.’”

(Majlis Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya Markaziyyah ke Jalsa Salana Ijtima 1956 mein Khitabat, Anwar al-Ulum, Vol. 25, p. 416-417)

“Even at his death he was restless and troubled. He was not satisfied with all the services that he had rendered for the betterment of his people and for advancing the cause of Islam. He had given such tremendous service for his people that not only his own people, but others also recognised them. His services were appreciated during his own time but also thirteen hundred years later and by people who were otherwise inclined to attacking his master. Yet, all of these services were nothing in Umar’s (ra) own eyes and he restlessly pleaded to God:

اَللّٰهُمَّ لَا عَلَيَّ وَلَالِيْ

‘I was given a trust but I do not know if I fulfilled that trust as it was meant to be fulfilled. Therefore, I beseech You to forgive my faults and save me from punishment.’”

(The Economic System of Islam, pp. 12-15, Islam International Publications Ltd. UK [2013])

With regard to Hazrat Umar’s (ra) reaction when the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away, Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) narrates that as the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa) was drawing near, there were some people gathered at his home, including Hazrat Umar (ra) bin Khattab. The Holy Prophet (sa) said, “Come, let me write something down for you, after which you will never go astray.” This took place in the final days of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) illness. Upon this, Hazrat Umar (ra) said to the people who were present at the time, “The Holy Prophet (sa) is extremely ill and you have the Quran; the Book of Allah is sufficient for you.”

The others present in the home did not agree with this and objected. They began to disagree with one another; some said that a paper and pen should be brought so that the Holy Prophet (sa) could write something down so that they would not go astray. Then there were others who agreed with what Hazrat Umar (ra) had said, that the Holy Prophet (sa) should not be caused any difficulty. As this conversation continued and they continued to disagree with one another, the Holy Prophet (sa) instructed them to leave.

(Sahih Muslim, Kitab-ul-Wasiyyat, Hadith no. 4234)

This narration is from [Sahih] Muslim, and there is also some detail of this in [Sahih] Bukhari as well.

Ubaidullah bin Abdillah narrates on account of Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) who said:

“When the Holy Prophet (sa) was severely ill, he said that he should be given something to write with so that he may write something which would never be forgotten. Hazrat Umar (ra) said to those present that “the Holy Prophet (sa) is very ill; we have the Book of Allah” meaning they had the Holy Quran which was sufficient and thus there was no need to trouble the Holy Prophet (sa).

Following this, a disagreement arose and the noise became loud. The Holy Prophet (sa) instructed them all to leave and that people should not quarrel around him. Upon this, Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) left. He used to say that the greatest loss of it all was that the Holy Prophet (sa) was hindered from writing something.

(Sahih Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Ilm, Hadith no. 114)

I will briefly mention what has been written in the commentary of this [hadith] by Hazrat Syed Zainul Abideen Walliullah Shah Sahib (ra):

“لَا‭ ‬تَضِلُّوْا‭ ‬بَعْدَهُ [after which you will not go astray]” – these are the words from the hadith – “clearly show that even in his final moments, the Holy Prophet (sa) was concerned about‭ ‬لَا‭ ‬تَضِلُّوْا‭ ‬بَعْدَهُ‭ ‬that is, he wished to write something down for them lest they forgot. ‘Dilal’ can also mean to forget and to go astray as a result of forgetfulness. And the words, ‭ ‬غَلَبَهُ‭ ‬الْوَجَعُmeaning he was overcome by illness means that Hazrat Umar (ra) did not wish for the Holy Prophet’s (sa) discomfort to increase. These were the words of Hazrat Umar (ra).” ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Shah Sahib (ra) further writes:

“Hazrat Umar (ra) could not even fathom the demise Holy Prophet (sa). When Hazrat Umar (ra) said, عِنْدَنَا‭ ‬كِتَابُ‭ ‬اللّٰهِ‭ ‬حَسْبُنَا [we have the Book of Allah, that is sufficient for us], he said it because Allah Almighty states:‬‬‬

مَا‭ ‬فَرَّطْنَا‭ ‬فِي‭ ‬الْكِتٰبِ‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬شَيْءٍ‬‬‬‬‬

“[We have left out nothing in the Book’ (6:39)].” This is from Surah al-An‘am. “Then:

تِبْيَانًا‭ ‬لِّكُلِّ‭ ‬شَيْءٍ‭ ‬‬‬‬

“[to explain everything (16:90)], meaning this Book clearly explains everything and nothing has been left out.”

Shah Sahib then writes:

“لَا‭ ‬يَنْبَغِيْ‭ ‬عِنْدِيْ‭ ‬التَّنَازُعُ, meaning some who were extremely emotional at the time like Hazrat Umar (ra), said that at such a time, the Holy Prophet (sa) should not be caused any trouble, while others said that his command should be followed”; in other words, to bring a pen and ink. ‬‬‬

“However, the Holy Prophet (sa) instructed them to leave”, when they began to disagree amongst each other “and he said, ‘Do not make noise around me.’ This shows that even in the condition of illness, the Holy Prophet (sa) had such a great deal of respect and honour for the Book of Allah, that after hearing Hazrat Umar (ra) saying this, he no longer asked for a pen, ink and paper to be brought. As is evident from other narrations in Bukhari, the Holy Prophet (sa) remained alive after this incident for a few days and on that same day he also gave a few other instructions as well. However, he did not repeat this”, meaning he did not ask for this again. “This shows that whatever he had wished to write down was present in the Book of Allah.

“It seems that he wished to urge Muslims to remain attached to the Holy Quran and the Holy Prophet (sa) agreed with Hazrat Umar (ra) and thus remained quiet. This is the level of respect which the so-called [Muslim] scholars have no concern for.”

It was the Holy Prophet’s (sa) respect for the Holy Quran that these so-called scholars show no regard for.

Shah Sahib further writes, “They express one opinion and deem it to be akin to divine revelation.”

He further writes, “We should never forget his pure and noble example” i.e. the pure example of the Holy Prophet (sa). “In comparison to the Book of Allah, everything else is worthless.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Ilm, Hadith no. 114, translated by Syed Zain-ul-Abideen Waliullah Shah, Vol. 1, p. 190, Nazarat Ishaat, Rabwah)

Urwah bin Zubair has narrated on the authority of Ummul Momineen, Hazrat Aisha (ra), that when the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was in Sunh. Sunh was a place situated two miles from Medina. Ismail said that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was in the outskirts. When Hazrat Umar (ra) heard this news, he stood up.

At the time of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) demise, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had gone to the environs of Medina. When he heard the news of the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Umar (ra) stood up and said, “By Allah! The Messenger (sa) of Allah has not passed away.” Hazrat Aisha (ra) says, “Hazrat Umar (ra) would often say: ‘By God! Deep down I thought’, i.e. Hazrat Umar (ra) thought ‘that Allah the Almighty would certainly raise the Holy Prophet (sa), so that some people’s hands and feet would be cut.’”

In the meantime, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) came; Hazrat Umar (ra) was not ready to accept that the Holy Prophet (sa) had passed away. He had said that the Holy Prophet (sa) would be given life again.

During this time Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) arrived. He removed the cloth from the face of the Holy Prophet (sa) and kissed it. He then said, “May my mother and father be sacrificed for you; you were pure in this life and when death has overtaken you. I swear by Him in Whose hands is my life! Allah will never allow two deaths to overcome you,” and upon saying this, he went outside to where the people were and said, “Wait a moment, O ye who is making vows in God’s name!” That is, he addressed Hazrat Umar (ra) and said, “Wait a moment, O you who is making vows in God’s name.” When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) began speaking, Hazrat Umar (ra) sat down. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) praised and glorified God Almighty and then said:

اَلَا‭ ‬مَنْ‭ ‬كَانَ‭ ‬يَعْبُدُ‭ ‬مُحَمَّدًا‭ ‬صَلَّى‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬عَلَيْهِ‭ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‭ ‬فَإِنَّ‭ ‬مُحَمَّدًا‭ ‬صَلَّى‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬عَلَيْهِ‭ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‭ ‬قَدْ‭ ‬مَاتَ،‭ ‬وَمَنْ‭ ‬كَانَ‭ ‬يَعْبُدُ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬فَاِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬حَيٌّ‭ ‬لَا‭ ‬يَمُوْتُ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“Whosoever worshipped Muhammad (sa) should know that Muhammad (sa) has indeed passed away, and whosoever worshipped Allah should remember that He is living and can never die.”

Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then recited the verse:

اِنَّكَ‭ ‬مَيِّتٌ‭ ‬وَّ‭ ‬اِنَّهُمْ‭ ‬مَّيِّتُوْنَ‬‬‬‬

“Surely thou wilt die, and surely they [too] will die” (Ch.9: V.31). He then recited the following verse:

وَ‭ ‬مَا‭ ‬مُحَمَّدٌ‭ ‬اِلَّا‭ ‬رَسُوْلٌ‭ ‬قَدْ‭ ‬خَلَتْ‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬قَبْلِهِ‭ ‬الرُّسُلُ‭ ‬اَفَائِنْ‭ ‬مَّاتَ‭ ‬اَوْ‭ ‬قُتِلَ‭ ‬انْقَلَبْتُمْ‭ ‬عَلٰٓى‭ ‬اَعْقَابِكُمْ‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬مَنْ‭ ‬يَّنْقَلِبْ‭ ‬عَلٰى‭ ‬عَقِبَيْهِ‭ ‬فَلَنْ‭ ‬يَّضُرَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬شَيْـًٔا‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬سَيَجْزِي‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬الشّٰكِرِيْنَ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“And Muhammad is only a Messenger. Verily, [all] Messengers have passed away before him. If then he die or be slain, will you turn back on your heels? And he who turns back on his heels shall not harm Allah at all. And Allah will certainly reward the grateful.” (Ch.3: V.145)

Sulaiman states, “Upon hearing this, people began to weep so profusely that they began to have hiccups.”

(Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Fazail Ashaab-ul-Nabi, Hadith no. 3667) (Furhang-e-Sirat, p. 157, Zawar Academy, Karachi, 2003)

Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) states:

“By Allah! When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) recited the [aforementioned] verse, it seemed as if the people were not even aware that such a verse had been revealed by Allah and it was as if everyone had learnt this verse from him. Thereafter, wherever I would go, I would hear this verse being recited.”

Zuhri states, “Saeed bin Musayyib told me that Hazrat Umar (ra) said, ‘By Allah! When I heard Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) recite this verse, I became so nervous out of fear that my legs would not support my weight and I fell to the ground. When I heard Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) recite this verse, I knew that the Holy Prophet (sa) has passed away.’”

(Sahih Bukhari, Kitab-ul-Maghazi, Hadith no. 4454)

On one occasion, the Promised Messiah (as) stated this and quoted the Arabic wording of the hadith; at present, I will read the translation, when the sermon is published, the words of the ahadith can be published then as well; the Promised Messiah (as) states:

“Sahih Bukhari, which is referred to as the most authentic book [of traditions], has the following narration:

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللّٰهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ اَنَّ اَبَا بَكْرٍ خَرَجَ وَ عُمَرُ يُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ فَقَالَ اِجْلِسْ يَا عُمَرُ فَاَبٰى عُمَرُ اَنْ يَجْلِسَ فَاَقْبَلَ النَّاسُ اِلَيْهِ وَتَرَكُوْا عُمَرَ فَقَالَ اَبُو بَكْرٍ اَمَّا بَعْدُ مَنْ مِنْكُمْ يَعْبُدُ مُحَمَّدًا فَاِنَّ مُحَمَّدًا قَدْ مَاتَ وَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ يَعْبُدُ اللّٰهَ فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ حَيٌّ لَا يَمُوْتُ۔ قَالَ اللّٰهُ وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ اِلَّا رَسُوْلٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ۔ اِلَى الشَّاكِرِينَ۔ وَقَالَ وَاللّٰهِ كَاَنَّ النَّاسَ لَمْ يَعْلَمُوْا اَنَّ اللّٰهَ اَنْزَلَ هَذِهِ الآيَةَ حَتّٰى تَلَاهَا اَبُوْ بَكْرٍ فَتَلَقَّاهَا مِنْهُ النَّاسُ كُلُّهُمْ فَمَا اَسْمَعُ بَشَرًا مِنَ النَّاسِ اِلَّا يَتْلُوهَا اَنَّ عُمَرًا قَالَ وَاللّٰهِ مَا هُوَ اِلَّا اَنْ سَمِعْتُ اَبَا بَكْرٍ تَلَاهَا فَعَقِرْتُ حَتَّى مَا يُقِلُّنِي رِجْلَايَ وَحَتَّى اَهْوَيْتُ اِلَى الْاَرْضِ حَتَّي سَمِعْتُهُ تَلَاهَا اَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّي اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَدْ مَاتَ

“‘Ibn Abbas (ra) narrates that’”, on the day of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) demise, “‘Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) went outside, Hazrat Umar (ra) was speaking to some people’”, i.e. saying that the Holy Prophet (sa) had not passed away and was in fact alive. “‘Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, “O Umar! Sit down,” but Umar (ra) refused to sit down. Thus, people turned their attention to Abu Bakr (ra) and moved away from Umar (ra). Abu Bakr (ra) praised and glorified Allah and then said, “Whosoever worshipped Muhammad (sa), should know that Muhammad (sa) has indeed passed away and whosoever worshipped Allah should know that He is living and can never die. And proof of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) demise is that God has stated, ‘Muhammad was but a messenger, all messengers before him have passed away (i.e. have died)’”, and then he recited the verse up to اَلشَّاكِرِيْن.’”

The Promised Messiah (as) further writes:

“The narrator states, ‘By God, before this time, it was as if the people were unaware that God had even revealed such a verse and it seemed to them as if they heard it for the first time when Abu Bakr (ra) recited it to them.’ Thus, all the Companions learnt [the meaning of] this verse from Abu Bakr (ra) and there was no companion or other person who did not recite this verse. Umar (ra) said, ‘By God! I heard this verse for the first time from Abu Bakr (ra). When I heard him recite this verse, I was moved and pained to such an extent that my legs were unable to carry my own weight, and I fell to the ground as soon as I heard this verse recited and heard the words that the Holy Prophet (sa) had passed away.’”

The Promised Messiah (as) further states:

“In Qastallani’s commentary of Sahih Bukhari, it is written:

وَعُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ يُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ يَقُوْلُ لَهُمْ مَا مَاتَ رَسُوْلُ اللّٰهِ وَلَا يَمُوْتُ حَتّٰى يَقْتُلَ الْمُنَافِقِيْنَ

“i.e. Hazrat Umar (ra) would tell the people that the Holy Prophet (sa) had not passed away, and that he could not pass away until he had killed the hypocrites.”

The Promised Messiah (as) further states:

“In Malil wa Nahal by Shahrastani, the following extract is mentioned regarding this incident:

قَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ مَنْ قَالَ اَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا مَاتَ فَقَتَلْتُهٗ بِسَيْفِيْ هٰذَا۔ وَاِنَّمَا رُفِعَ اِلَي السَّمَآءِ كَمَارُفِعَ عِيْسَي ابْنُ مَررْيَمَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامَ وَقَالَ اَبُوْبَكْرٍ بْنُ قُحَافَةَ مَنْ كَانَ يَعْبُدُ مُحَمَّدًا فَاِنَّ مُحَمَّدًا قَدْ مَاتَ وَمَنْ كَانَ يَعْبُدُ اِللٰهَ مُحَمَّدٍ فَاِنَّهٗ حَيٌّ لَا يَمُوْتُ وَقَرَءَ هَذِهِ الْاٰيَةَ وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ اِلَّا رَسُوْلٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ اَفَائِنْ مَّاتَ اَوْ قُتِلَ انْقَلَبْتُمْ عَلٰٓى اَعْقَابِكُمْ (آل عمران 145) فَرَجَعَ الْقَوْمُ اِلٰي قَوْلِهٖ

“‘Umar (ra) bin Al-Khattab used to say, “Whoever says that the Holy Prophet (sa) has passed away, I will kill him with this sword of mine. In fact, the Holy Prophet (sa) has been raised to the Heavens, just like Jesus son of Maryas.” Abu Bakr (ra) said, “Whosoever worshipped Muhammad (sa) should know that Muhammad (sa) has indeed passed away, and whosoever worshipped the God of Muhammad (sa) should know that He is living and can never die.” That is, to live forever and remain is an attribute of God alone. No human or animal before this ever lived forever that one would assume that the Holy Prophet (sa) will survive for eternity.’” It could not be assumed that they would be eternal because they will all pass away. “‘Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then recited the following verse’”, the translation of which is:

“And Muhammad is only a Messenger. Verily, [all] Messengers have passed away before him. If then he die or be slain, will you turn back on your heels?”

(Ch.3: V.145).

“‘And it was only after hearing this verse did the people abandon this concept.’ Now ponder that if from this verse of the Quran, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) did not believe that all prophets had passed away – furthermore, if this proof was not absolutely conclusive – then why is it that 100,000 companions who were present at the time according to you” (the Promised Messiah (as) is answering the questioner) “accepted something [as an argument] that was doubtful and inconclusive? Why was this argument not put forth [to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)]. The proof you have given is inconclusive and that you do not possess any absolute or clear verse of the Quran.

“In fact, the verse رَافِعُكَ‭ ‬اِلَيَّ states that Prophet Jesus (as) was raised to the Heavens with his physical body? Also have you not heard of the verse ‭ ‬بَلْ‭ ‬رَفَعَهُ‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬اِلَيْهِ. Then why is it a far-fetched notion that the Holy Prophet (sa) could be raised physically to the heavens? On the contrary, the Companions, who possessed knowledge of the expressions of the Holy Quran, upon hearing this verse and the words‭ ‬خَلَتْ and the explanation of the words ‮‬اَفَاِنْ‭ ‬مَّاتَ‭ ‬اَوْ‭ ‬قُتِلَ, immediately abandoned their initial beliefs [of the Holy Prophet (sa) being alive]. Indeed, their hearts grieved deeply at the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa) and they were immensely saddened and pained. Hazrat Umar (ra) said, ‘After hearing this verse, my state was such that I could not move a muscle and I fell to the ground.’ ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“Glory be to Allah! How fortunate were these individuals who obeyed the Quran to the letter! When they pondered over the verse and understood that all prophets before had passed away, then aside from crying and weeping over their grief, they did nothing else.”

(Tohfa Ghaznaviyyah, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 15, pp. 579-583)

Then, on another occasion, the Promised Messiah (as) said:

“From the following words of Hazrat Umar (ra), ‘Whosoever says that the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa) has passed away, I shall kill them with this sword of mine’, it is evident that Hazrat Umar (ra) had a mistaken view regarding the life of the Holy Prophet (sa) [in that he would not die] and he claimed that if anyone said that the Holy Prophet (sa) had passed away, then they had exhibited disbelief and become an apostate.

“May Allah bestow countless blessings on Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) as he was able to swiftly quell this strife and by presenting a clear and unambiguous verse of the Quran which declared that all the previous prophets had passed away. In fact, through this elucidation and consensus of the Companions (ra), he put an end to many false claimants during the Faej A‘waj [Era of darkness and misguidance]. And just as he [i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)] had Musailmah Kazzab and Aswad Ansi etc. killed, through this consensus of all the Companions, he finished off the false claimants during the Faej A‘waj.” Just as he killed a false claimant, he also finished off this false belief. “Thus, he did not kill four false claimants; he killed five, as it were.”

The Promised Messiah (as) then says:

“O Allah! Shower countless blessings upon him. If the meaning of ‘khalat’ meant that some prophets were raised physically to the Heavens, then in such an instance, Hazrat Umar (ra) would have been correct and instead of proving him wrong, this verse would have supported his viewpoint. However, the next part of the verse explains its meaning, i.e. اَفَائِنْ‭ ‬مَّاتَ‭ ‬اَوْ‭ ‬قُتِلَ‭ ‬which Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) recognised and through this, he explained that to believe this verse to mean that all prophets passed before, either through death or whilst alive, was a deceptive notion and a transposition and a great calumny against that which was intended by God; and only those people could intentionally fabricate this who had no fear of the Day of Reckoning and actively changed the meanings intended by God Almighty; they would undoubtedly be eternally cursed. ‬‬‬‬

“But until this time, Hazrat Umar (ra) was unaware of this verse and some other companions were also under a similar misconception and this error on their part was due to the decreed frailties of man. They believed that some prophets were alive and would return to the world; therefore, why then would the Holy Prophet (sa) not be included amongst them. But by reading the remainder of the verse [اَفَائِنْ‭ ‬مَّاتَ‭ ‬اَوْ‭ ‬قُتِلَ], Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) ensured that they understood that the word ‘khalat’ was exhibited through two aspects, i.e. natural death, or through being killed. It was then that those of an opposing view accepted their mistakes and all of the Companions unanimously accepted that all previous prophets had passed away, and the words اَفَائِنْ‭ ‬مَّاتَ‭ ‬اَوْ‭ ‬قُتِلَ‭ ‬affected them greatly and everyone abandoned their beliefs contrary to this. All praise is due to Allah for this!” ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

(Tohfa Ghaznaviyyah, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 15, pp. 581-582, footnote)

The Promised Messiah (as) mentioned this in Tohfa Ghaznaviyyah.

In another place, the Promised Messiah (as) states:

“On the occasion of the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), all of the Companions testified that all prophets had passed away. In regard to the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Umar (ra) stated that he had not passed away and stood up with his sword drawn out. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) then stood up and stated:

مَا‭ ‬مُحَمَّدٌ‭ ‬اِلَّا‭ ‬رَسُوْلٌ‭ ‬قَدْ‭ ‬خَلَتْ‭ ‬مِنْ‭ ‬قَبْلِهِ‭ ‬الرُّسُلُ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“[And Muhammad is only a Messenger. Verily, (all) Messengers have passed away before him.]

“The situation at the time was akin to the end of times as the Holy Prophet (sa) had departed from this world and all the Companions were gathered together; even the army of Usama (ra) did not leave.

“Upon these words of Hazrat Umar (ra), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) loudly proclaimed, ‘Muhammad (sa) has passed away’ and the argument he presented was:

مَا‭ ‬مُحَمَّدٌ‭ ‬اِلَّا‭ ‬رَسُوْلٌ‬‬‬

“[And Muhammad is only a Messenger]. Now, if even the slightest notion of Jesus (as) being alive in the Heavens was entertained by the Companions, they would have certainly spoken up. However, they all remained silent and then they went into the marketplaces and announced this verse as if it had just been revealed that very day. God-forbid, the Companions were not such that they would become overawed by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and would not refute what he said – that was certainly not the case; rather, what Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated was indeed the truth, hence everyone lowered their heads. This was the ijma [unanimous consensus] of the Companions.

“Hazrat Umar (ra) also claimed [at the time] that the Holy Prophet (sa) was going to return. Thus, if this argument [put forward by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)] was not a perfect one”, and this could only be perfect if there was no exception, because had Jesus (as) ascended into the Heavens alive, then he would have had to return – in such a case, this would not have been an argument, but rather a mockery and “Hazrat Umar (ra) himself would have refuted this.”

(Malfuzat, Vol. 1, pp. 440-441)

The Promised Messiah (as) has repeatedly mentioned this incident in various instances. The reason why I have narrated these various accounts is so that those who entertain the belief that Jesus (as) is alive in the Heavens, can remove such a thought from their minds because no mortal being has ever ascended to the Heavens alive, nor can they ever go. By virtue of this argument, Jesus (as) has also passed away.

Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) narrates:

“Once, during the era of Hazrat Umar’s (ra) Khilafat, I was walking along with him whilst he was going to tend to some work of his. There was no else with him at the time besides me and he was holding a whip in his hand. Hazrat Umar (ra) would be saying something to himself and would repeatedly strike the back of his feet with the whip. Hazrat Umar (ra) then turned towards me and stated, ‘O Ibn Abbas! Upon the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), do you know why I said that?’”, i.e. that the Holy Prophet (sa) had not passed away and that whoever stated that he had passed away, he would kill him with his sword.

Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) narrates, “I said, ‘O Leader of the Faithful! I do not know. Only you are aware as to why you said that.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) stated, ‘By Allah! The reason why I said that was because I would read the verse:

وَ‭ ‬كَذٰلِكَ‭ ‬جَعَلْنٰكُمْ‭ ‬اُمَّةً‭ ‬وَّسَطًا‭ ‬لِّتَكُوْنُوْا‭ ‬شُهَدَآءَ‭ ‬عَلَى‭ ‬النَّاسِ‭ ‬وَ‭ ‬يَكُوْنَ‭ ‬الرَّسُوْلُ‭ ‬عَلَيْكُمْ‭ ‬شَهِيْدًا‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“And thus have We made you an exalted nation, that you may be guardians over men and the Messenger of God may be a guardian over you.”

(Ch.2: V.144)

By Allah, I believed that the Holy Prophet (sa) would remain alive among his ummah as a guardian over their deeds. Thus, it was for this reason that I said this on that day.’”

(Sirat Ibn Hisham, p. 901, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001)

Whilst mentioning an incident, perhaps in one of his darses [lectures], Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IV (rh) stated that Hazrat Allamah Ubaidullah Sahib Bismil was a very distinguished Shia scholar. He was so learned and possessed such deep knowledge that even after becoming an Ahmadi, some of his books were not only being taught in the time of the Promised Messiah (as), but they were also being taught after the partition [of India] and continue to be taught in Shia schools today.

Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IV (rh) says:

“I remember that a Shia gentleman came to speak to me when I was serving in the Waqf-e-Jadid department. After our discussion, he expressed his contentment and by the grace of Allah, he became an Ahmadi. After making this decision, he told me that he was a Shia scholar; however, he had not disclosed this to me previously. I do not remember exactly what position he held, but he was from a village in Sheikhupura or Faisalabad or from some area nearby. He told me that he held such and such position among the Shias and that he was a scholar.”

Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IV (rh) was saying that the person who pledged his allegiance was a Shia scholar, who lived in Shekhupura.

Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IV (rh) continued by saying:

“He told me that he was a scholar and had held a high status among the Shias. He further said to me that even to this day, the books of Ubaidullah Sahib Bismil are still being taught in their schools.”

Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IV (rh) says:

“Such was the immense influence of his knowledge and yet, these Shias do not even tell us that they teach the books of Bismil Sahib. I only happened to find out through this scholar, but even whilst teaching these books, they do not mention who Bismil Sahib was and what happened to him later. He accepted the Promised Messiah (as) and relinquished all the honour he had attained from the time he spent whilst following the Shia faith.”

This is a reference from his book. Hence, the reference is not from any ordinary person.

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) gave a reference from this book after explaining its background and said that Al-Bazar had written in his Musnad that Hazrat Ali (ra) asked of his people, “Tell me who is the bravest person?” They replied, “You are the bravest.” Hazrat Ali (ra) then said, “I always fight one who is equal to me so how can I be the bravest?” He asked again, “Who is the bravest?” (Bismil Sahib has written this reference in one of his books.) The people answered, “We do not know. Please tell us.” Hazrat Ali (ra) then stated, “The bravest and most courageous person is Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).”

Hazrat Ali (ra) stated, “The most brave and courageous was Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). Hearken! During the Battle of Badr, we made a canopy for the Holy Prophet (sa) and began conferring amongst ourselves as to who would stay with the Holy Prophet (sa) under the canopy, lest an idolater attacks the Holy Prophet (sa). By God! None from among us had stepped forward yet when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) went with his sword drawn and stood beside the Holy Prophet (sa). Subsequently, no idolater dared to launch an attack. Had they dared to attack, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would have struck them immediately. That is why he was the bravest of all” i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). This incident was narrated by Hazrat Ali (ra).

Hazrat Ali, may Allah bestow him with honour, states:

“On one occasion, the idolaters surrounded the Holy Prophet (sa) and were dragging him around saying that he was the one who says that God is one. By God! No one had the courage to stand up to the idolaters (Hazrat Ali (ra) is narrating this). By God! No one had the courage to stand up to the idolaters, but Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) fought them and pushing them aside, he made them disperse. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) kept on repeating the words, ‘Woe be unto you! You harm a person who says that only Allah is his Lord.’”

Stating this, Hazrat Ali (ra) lifted his cloak over his face and wept so profusely that his beard became soaked and then said, “May Allah guide you! O people tell me, were the believers from the people of the Pharaoh [in the time of Moses (as)] better or Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)? Those from among the people of the Pharaoh who accepted belief did not sacrifice themselves for their prophet as much as Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) did.”

When the people heard this, they remained silent, upon which Hazrat Ali (ra) said, “O people! Why do you not respond? I swear by God! One moment [in the life] of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) is better and greater than a thousand moments of the believers from among of the people of Pharaoh. The reason for this is because the people in the time of the Pharaoh used to conceal their faith, whereas Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) professed his faith openly.”

(Dars al-Quran Hazrat Khalifatul Masih al-Rabi‘ (rh), 16 February 1994)

In relation to Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) leading the prayers during the final illness of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Aisha (ra) relates:

“During his illness, the Holy Prophet (sa) said, ‘Tell Abu Bakr (ra) to lead the people during the prayers.’” Hazrat Aisha (ra) states, “I then said, ‘Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) will not be able to be heard by the people due to [his] weeping whilst standing in your place. Therefore, instruct Hazrat Umar (ra) to lead the prayers.’” Hazrat Aisha (ra) then says, “I said to Hazrat Hafsahra, ‘Tell the Holy Prophet (sa) that if Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stands in his place the people will be unable to hear him from all his weeping, so he should instruct Hazrat Umar (ra) to lead the people in prayer.’ Hazrat Hafsahra did so, but the Holy Prophet (sa) expressed his displeasure and said, ‘Remain silent. You are behaving like the women in the time Joseph (as). Tell Abu Bakr that it is he who will lead the people in prayer.’”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Adhan, Bab Ahl al-‘Ilm wa al-Fadl Ahaqq bi al-Amanah, Hadith 679)

Prior to the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was not present, Hazrat Bilal (ra) told Hazrat Umar (ra) to lead the prayers. When the voice of Hazrat Umar (ra) reached the Holy Prophet (sa) in his room, he asked, “Where is Abu Bakr (ra)? Allah and the Muslims are not pleased that anyone other than Abu Bakr leads the prayers.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was then called and he arrived when Hazrat Umar (ra) had already completed the prayer. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then continued to lead the prayers during the illness of the Holy Prophet (sa) up until his demise.

(Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr, Al-Isti‘ab fi Ma’rifat al-Ashab, Vol. 3, Harf al-‘Ain [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], pp. 96-97)

Hazrat Aisha (ra) narrates:

“During the course of his illness, the Holy Prophet (sa) instructed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to lead the people in prayer, and he did so accordingly.” Urwah reports, “When the Holy Prophet (sa) felt some relief from his illness, he came into the mosque. He saw that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was standing in the front, leading the people in prayer. When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) saw the Holy Prophet (sa), he stepped back. Seeing this, the Holy Prophet (sa) indicated to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to remain in his place and the Holy Prophet (sa) took a seat beside him. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) followed the Holy Prophet (sa) in prayer, and the people followed the prayer of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Adhan, Bab man Qama ila Janb al-Imam, Hadith 683)

This is a narration of Sahih al-Bukhari. There is another similar narration in Bukhari. Hazrat Anas bin Malik Ansari (ra) narrates:

“Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) would lead the people in prayer during the illness of the Holy Prophet (sa) that led to his demise. It was on a Monday while people were praying in their rows when the Holy Prophet (sa) lifted the curtain to his chambers. The Holy Prophet (sa) was standing and looking toward us, and it was as though his blessed face was a page of the Holy Quran. He was happy and smiled, and we thought that we would happily take on any hardship upon seeing the Holy Prophet (sa). Meanwhile, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stepped backward to join the rows as he thought the Holy Prophet (sa) had come out for prayer, however, the Holy Prophet (sa) conveyed through an indication that we should complete our prayer, and then he let down his curtain. The Holy Prophet (sa) passed away that very day.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Adhan, Bab Ahl al-‘Ilm wa al-Fadl Ahaqq bi al-Amanah, Hadith 680)

With regard to whether or not Hazrat Talha (ra), Hazrat Zubair (ra) and Hazrat Aisha (ra) pledged their allegiance to Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) discusses this matter in one of his speeches in which he responds to the allegations of Khawaja Kamaluddin Sahib. This reference is of vital significance. Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) stated:

“Do not come under the impression that Hazrat Talha (ra), Hazrat Zubair (ra) and Hazrat Aisha (ra) did not take the pledge of allegiance and hold this as an argument in your favour.” Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) is responding to Khawaja Kamaluddin Sahib. “They did not reject his [i.e., Hazrat Ali’s] Khilafat, rather their issue was with regard to the killers of Hazrat Uthman (ra). I also say to you that whoever told you that these individuals did not pledge their allegiance to Hazrat Ali (ra) is mistaken. Hazrat Aisha (ra) went and sat in Medina as she confessed her error and Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Zubair (ra) did not pass away till they pledged their allegiance. In this regard, some historical references are presented below.”

It is mentioned in Khasa‘is Kubra, volume 2:

“Hakim narrates that Thaur bin Majzaa narrated an incident to me, saying, ‘On the day of the Battle of the Camel I passed by Hazrat Talha(ra) when he was in a state close to death.’ He asked me, ‘Which group are you from?’ I answered, ‘I am from the party of Hazrat Ali (ra), the Leader of the Believers.’ He then said, ‘Then extend your hand so that I may take the oath at your hand.’ So he pledged his allegiance at my hand and then passed away. I related the entire incident to Hazrat Ali (ra). Having heard this, he said, ‘Allahu Akbar [Allah is the Greatest]! The Messenger (sa) of Allah has spoken the truth! God Almighty did not wish for Hazrat Talha (ra) to enter paradise without first pledging his allegiance to me. He was among the ten people vouchsafed paradise.’

“… Once, the Battle of the Camel was mentioned in the presence of Hazrat Aisha (ra). She said, ‘Do the people speak about the Battle of the Camel?’ One person replied, ‘Yes, that is what we are discussing’. Hazrat Aisha (ra) then said, ‘Alas, if only I remained sat like the people who remained behind that day. This would have pleased me more than if I had 10 children from the Holy Prophet (sa), each of whom were like Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Harith bin Hisham.’

“… Furthermore, Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Zubair (ra) are from among the Ashara Mubashara who were given the glad tidings of entering paradise by the Holy Prophet (sa). Indeed, the Holy Prophet’s glad tiding is certain to be fulfilled. In addition to this they later repented for separating themselves.”

(al-Qaul-ul-Fasl, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 2, pp. 318-319)

Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) has also mentioned this account.

Details of Hazrat Umar’s (ra) final days during his illness, his advice to the subsequent Khalifa and to the electoral committee members are recorded in Sahih Bukhari as follows:

The people said, “O Leader of the Faithful! Appoint a successor after you as part of your will.” Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “I do not find anyone more suitable for the station of Khilafat than the following persons whom the Holy Prophet (sa) had been pleased with before he passed away.” Then Hazrat Umar (ra) mentioned the names of Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Uthman (ra), Hazrat Zubair (ra), Hazrat Talha (ra), Hazrat Saad (ra) and Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf and said, “Abdullah bin Umar (ra) will be a witness to you, but he will not be entitled to the station of Khilafat.”

I have narrated this previously, therefore I will only mention it briefly here. Nonetheless, after Hazrat Umar (ra) passed away and they completed the burial proceedings, all the six people named by Hazrat Umar (ra) gathered together. Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf stated, “Select any three candidates among you for Khilafat.” Hazrat Zubair (ra) said, “I give my vote to Hazrat Ali (ra).” Hazrat Talha (ra) said, “I give my vote to Hazrat Uthman (ra).” Hazrat Saad (ra) said, “I give my vote to Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf.”

Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) then said to Hazrat Uthman (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra), “Whoever of you withdraws their name, we will entrust him with this responsibility and Allah and Islam will be their guardian” i.e. the matter of choosing the Khalifa will be assigned to him, “and Allah the Almighty will choose the one Who He deems most worthy.” Upon hearing this, both noble men fell silent.

Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) then said, “Will you both leave this matter to me and I take Allah as my witness that I will not choose but the better of you?”

I.e. to then leave the matter to Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) and he would then become the chair of the committee. He first asked one of them to become the chair of the committee, but neither agreed to this. As a result, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) withdrew his name from this matter and took charge as the chair of the committee. Nonetheless, he said that his decision would be based on justice and that Allah would be his guardian.

Both of them agreed. So Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) took the hand of one of them and said, “You are related to Allah’s Messenger (sa) and you hold a lofty status within Islam, which you are aware of. Allah is your guardian – if I select you as our leader, will you do justice? And if I select Uthman (ra) as our leader, will you listen to him and obey him?” Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) took the hand of Hazrat Ali (ra) first, “Then Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) took the other aside”, this time it was Hazrat Uthman (ra), “and advised him in a similar manner. When Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) secured this covenant from both of them, he then said, “O Uthman (ra)! Extend your hand.” He [i.e. Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra)] then took the pledge of allegiance followed by Hazrat Ali (ra) and the members within the household also came and pledged their allegiance to Hazrat Uthman (ra).

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fada‘il Ashab al-Nabiyy (sa), Bab Qissat al-Bai‘ah, Hadith 3700)

Hazrat Miswar bin Makhrama relates that when Hazrat Umar (ra) was in good health and would be requested to appoint a Khalifa after him, he would always refuse to do so. However, one day, Hazrat Umar (ra) came to the pulpit and mentioned a few things and then said, “If I pass away, then I entrust your affairs to six individuals, whom the Holy Prophet (sa) was pleased with at the time of his demise. They are: Hazrat Ali bin Abu Talib (ra) and bearing similarity to him, Hazrat Zubair (ra) bin Awwam; Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf and bearing similarity to him, Hazrat Uthman (ra) bin Affan; Hazrat Talhah (ra) bin Ubaidullah and bearing similarity to him, Hazrat Sa’d (ra) bin Malik. Hearken for I instruct you to adopt Taqwa and justice whilst carrying out your decisions.”

Abu Jafar relates that Hazrat Umar (ra) bin Khattab told the members of the Electoral Committee, “Consult with one another and if your decision is equally split then consult again and if there are four votes to two, then go with the majority.”

Zaid bin Aslam relates from his father that Hazrat Umar (ra) stated that if there was a split in the votes, i.e. three on each side, then choose and show obedience to the one who Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf voted for.

Abdur Rahman bin Saeed states that when Hazrat Umar (ra) sustained an injury, he instructed that [after his demise] Hazrat Suhaib (ra) would be Imam-ul-Salat, i.e. he would lead them in prayer and Hazrat Umar (ra) repeated this three times. Hazrat Umar (ra) then stated that [after his demise] they would consult with one another to appoint the next Khalifa and entrusted this matter to six individuals. He also stated that anyone who disobeys their decision and opposes them, should be killed. Thus, these six individuals were entrusted with appointing the next Khalifa and during this time, Hazrat Suhaib (ra) was to lead the congregational prayers.

Hazrat Anas (ra) bin Malik narrates shortly before his demise, Hazrat Umar (ra) sent a message to Hazrat Abu Talha (ra) stating, “O Abu Talha, take 50 men from among your tribe of the Ansar and go to those six men who are part of the electoral committee and remain there for three days until they appoint someone from amongst themselves as the Khalifa. O Allah, You are my guardian over them.”

Ishaq bin Abdullah relates that Hazrat Abu Talha (ra) stood beside the grave of Hazrat Umar (ra) for a while along with his men and then remained with the members of the electoral committee. When members of the committee decided to entrust the responsibility of electing their leader with Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf, Hazrat Abu Talha (ra) along with his men stood guard at the house of Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf for three days until people took the Bai‘at of Hazrat Uthman (ra).

Hazrat Salma bin Abi Salma (ra) relates from his father that the first person to take the Bai‘at at the hands of Hazrat Uthman (ra) was Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf and after that it was Hazrat Ali (ra).

Umar bin Umairah, the freed slave of Hazrat Umar (ra) relates from his grandfather that the first person to take the Bai‘at of Hazrat Uthman (ra) was Hazrat Ali (ra) and after that everyone else took the Bai‘at.

(al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra li ibn Sa‘d, Vol. 3, pp. 44-46, Dhikr al-Shura wa maa kana min Amrihim, Dhikr Bai’ah Uthman, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990)

According to a narration of Bukhari, it is stated that when Hazrat Umar (ra) stood to lead the prayer and had just started it by saying “Allahu Akbar”, someone attacked him and in his state of injury, Hazrat Umar (ra) held the hand of Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf, who was standing close to him and directed him to lead the prayer. Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf led the prayer but kept it short.

(Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Fada‘il Ashab An-Nabi(sa), Bab Qissatul Bai‘ah wal-Ittifaq alaa Uthman bin Affan, Hadith 3700)

Mentioning the role of Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf during the election of Hazrat Uthman (ra), Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) states (in the earlier two narrations, except for one detail, all the other details that have been mentioned are the same):

“When Hazrat Umar (ra) was injured and realised that his demise was imminent, he nominated six persons and advised them to elect the Khalifa from among themselves. They included Hazrat Uthman (ra), Hazrat Ali (ra) Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf, Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) bin Abi Waqas, Hazrat Zubair (ra) and Hazrat Talha (ra). In addition to them, he included Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (ra) as an advisor, but did not declare him entitled to Khilafat. He also admonished that these people should give their verdict within three days, and Hazrat Suhaib (ra) should lead the prayer during that period of time.

“He appointed Hazrat Miqdad (ra) bin al-Aswad to oversee the consultation and election process and directed him to gather the Electoral College at one place and to guard them with his sword.”

In the earlier narrations, it was stated that Hazrat Talha (ra) was instructed to stand guard but after consulting various sources, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) has concluded that according to him, it was Hazrat Miqdad (ra) bin al-Aswad who was instructed to stand guard until the Khalifa was elected.

“Hazrat Umar (ra) then stated that the people should take the Bai‘at of the person who is elected by the majority of votes, and if any one declines to do so, then he should be killed. If there be three votes on each side, then Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (ra) would recommend who the Khalifa should be. If members of the Electoral College do not agree to the decision of Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (ra), then the person favoured by Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf should be appointed as Khalifa.

“These five companions discussed this matter (as Hazrat Talha (ra) was not in Medina at that time).”

According to Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra), Hazrat Talha (ra) was not in Medina at the time, hence there were five companions.

“However, they could not come to any conclusion. After a lengthy discussion, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf asked if anyone wanted to withdraw their name, but all of them remained quiet. On this, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf withdrew his name, then Hazrat Uthman (ra) withdrew his name and then two others did the same. Hazrat Ali (ra) remained quiet, however he then took a pledge from Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf that he (i.e. Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra)) would be completely impartial, and they all entrusted the responsibility of making the decision to Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf. For three days, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf visited every house in Medina to obtain the opinion of every man and woman in regard to who they thought should be elected as Khalifa. All of them expressed their agreement to the Khilafat of Hazrat Uthman (ra). Thus, he gave his verdict in favour of Hazrat Uthman (ra) and he became the Khalifa.”

(Khilafat-e-Rashidah, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 15, pp. 484-485)

There is another narration in reference to this, however it is quite lengthy, therefore I will separately mention it later, if needed, whilst continuing to relate the accounts of Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf, insha-Allah. Or it is possible this lengthy narration may be mentioned with reference to Hazrat Uthman’s (ra) Khilafat or in relation to the accounts of Hazrat Umar’s (ra) life. However, apart from this narration, there are a few more accounts in relation to Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf’s life, piety and character which I will insha-Allah narrate in the future sermon.

In accordance with the first narration, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Hazrat Aisha (ra) narrates, ‘when the Holy Prophet (sa) was unwell due to the illness that led to his demise, he was unable to lead the prayers because of severe weakness. For this reason, he instructed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to lead the prayers. When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) started the prayer, the Holy Prophet (sa) felt some relief and went out for prayer.’ Hazrat Aisha (ra) states, ‘After instructing Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to lead the prayer and after the prayer had started, the Holy Prophet (sa) felt some alleviation from his illness. Thus, the Holy Prophet (sa) emerged while two men supported him up.’ She continues to state, ‘At that time, I saw before my eyes that the feet of the Holy Prophet (sa) were dragging against the ground due to severe pain. Upon seeing him, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) intended on stepping back. The Holy Prophet (sa) became aware of this and indicated to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to remain in his place. Then, the Holy Prophet (sa) was brought there and he took a seat next to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). Following this, the Holy Prophet (sa) began to pray and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) followed him in prayer, and the rest of the people followed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) in prayer.’”

(Sirat al-Nabi (sa), Anwar al-‘Ulum, Vol. 1, pp. 506-507)

In accordance with the first narration, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Hazrat Aisha (ra) narrates, ‘when the Holy Prophet (sa) was unwell due to the illness that led to his demise, he was unable to lead the prayers because of severe weakness. For this reason, he instructed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to lead the prayers. When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) started the prayer, the Holy Prophet (sa) felt some relief and went out for prayer.’ Hazrat Aisha (ra) states, ‘After instructing Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to lead the prayer and after the prayer had started, the Holy Prophet (sa) felt some alleviation from his illness. Thus, the Holy Prophet (sa) emerged while two men supported him up.’ She continues to state, ‘At that time, I saw before my eyes that the feet of the Holy Prophet (sa) were dragging against the ground due to severe pain. Upon seeing him, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) intended on stepping back. The Holy Prophet (sa) became aware of this and indicated to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to remain in his place. Then, the Holy Prophet (sa) was brought there and he took a seat next to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). Following this, the Holy Prophet (sa) began to pray and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) followed him in prayer, and the rest of the people followed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) in prayer.’”

(Sirat al-Nabi (sa), Anwar al-‘Ulum, Vol. 1, pp. 506-507)

The decision of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) produced extraordinary results. Whilst mentioning this, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Despite the contrary view held by the companions, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sent Hazrat Usamah bin Zaid (ra) along with his army to Mu‘tah. Subsequently, this army fulfilled its mission and after 40 days, returned to Medina victorious. Everyone witnessed the succour of God and victory with their own eyes. After this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) turned his attention to the matter of the false claimants of prophets, and dealt with them in such a manner that he completely crushed this dissension and not a trace remained. Later, the same was the outcome for those who had become apostates. Even the opinions of the pre-eminent companions were contrary to that of Abu Bakr’s (ra); they said that how could he raise the sword against the people who professed the oneness of God and accepted the prophethood of the Holy Prophet (sa), but only refused to pay the Zakat. However, showing the utmost bravery and courage, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, ‘If, today, permission is granted to abstain from paying the Zakat, then slowly, people will abandon the prayer and fasting and only the mere name of Islam would remain.’ Thus, under such circumstances, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) waged war against those who refused to pay the Zakat. The result was the same, in that God Almighty granted Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) victory and succour. All those who had strayed off the right path returned.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 10, p. 478)

In relation to Hazrat Umar’s (ra) demise and of Hazrat Zubair’s (ra) nomination as part of the electoral committee and the subsequent election of Khilafat, there is a narration of Bukhari which is as follows:

“When Hazrat Umar (ra) was close to his demise, the people said, ‘O Leader of the Faithful! Appoint a successor after you as part of your will.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) said, ‘I do not find anyone more suitable for the station of Khilafat than the following persons whom the Holy Prophet (sa) had been pleased with before he passed away’. Then Hazrat Umar (ra) mentioned the names of Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Uthman (ra), Hazrat Zubair (ra), Hazrat Talha (ra), Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) and Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) and said, Abdullah bin Umar(ra) will be a witness to you, but he will not be entitled to the station of Khilafat. Hazrat Umar (ra) then said, ‘If Khilafat is granted to Sa‘d (ra), then he will be Khalifa, otherwise whoever becomes the Khalifa should continue to seek assistance from Sa‘d (ra) because I have not removed him from his office owing to any incompetence or dishonesty on his part.’

Hazrat Umar (ra) added, ‘I first and foremost recommend that my successor takes care of the Muhajireen [those Muslims who migrated to Medina]; to know their rights and to protect their honour. I also urge to show kindness to the Ansar, for they allowed faith to enter their homes in Medina even before the arrival of the Muhajireen. I recommend that he should accept the good deeds from among them and whoso is at fault from among them, they ought to be forgiven. I recommend that he should do good to all the people of the towns, as they are the protectors of Islam and the source of wealth and a means of frustrating the enemy. I also recommend that nothing be taken from them except from their surplus with their consent.

I also recommend that he do good to the Arab Bedouins, as they are the natives of Arabia and they make up the core following of Islam. He should take that from among their possessions which they are not in need of and distribute it amongst their needy. I also recommend him concerning those people who are under the protection of Allah and His Messenger (sa), to fulfil the covenants that have been established with them and to defend them and not to overburden them with what is beyond their ability.’”

When Hazrat Umar (ra) passed away and they completed the burial proceedings, all six people named by Hazrat Umar (ra) gathered together. Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) stated:

“Select any three candidates among you for Khalifat.” Hazrat Zubair (ra) said, “I give my vote to Hazrat Ali (ra).” Hazrat Talha (ra) said, “I give my vote to Hazrat Uthman (ra).” Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) said, “I give my vote to Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra).”

Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) then said to Hazrat Uthman (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra), “Whoever of you withdraws their name, we will entrust him with the responsibility [in regards to who will be granted leadership] and Allah and Islam will be their guardian and Allah the Almighty will choose the one Who He deems most worthy.” Upon hearing this, both noble men fell silent. Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) then said, “Will you both leave this matter to me, and I take Allah as my Witness that I will not choose, but the better of you?” Both of them agreed. So Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) took the hand of one of them and said, “You are related to Allah’s Messenger (ra) and you hold a lofty status within Islam, which you are aware of. Allah is your guardian – if I select you as our leader will you do justice? And if I select Uthman (ra) as our leader, will you listen to him and obey him?” Then Hazrat Abdur Rahman(ra) took the other aside and advised him in a similar manner. When Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra) secured this covenant from both of them, he then said, “O Uthman (ra)! Extend your hand.” He [i.e., Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra)] then took the pledge of allegiance followed by Hazrat Ali (ra) and the members within the household also came and pledged their allegiance to Hazrat Uthman (ra).

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fazail al-Sahaba al-Nabi, Hadith no. 3700)

With regards to the Khilafat of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), it is mentioned that when the noble companions learnt of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) demise, they gathered in the Saqifah [courtyard] of the Banu Sa‘idah. In this gathering, they were discussing the issue of Khilafat. The Ansar gathered in favour of Sa‘d bin Ubadah (ra), the leader of the Khazraj.

(Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) aur Karname [Pakistan: Maktabat al-Furqan], p. 174)

At the time, Hazrat Sa‘d bin Ubadah (ra) was unwell. After mentioning his considerable sacrifices and services for Islam, the Ansar declared him to be worthy of Khilafat. Nonetheless, after declaring him to be worthy of Khilafat, the Ansar had not yet pledged allegiance to him when a person from among the Ansar posed the question that what would happen if the Muhajirin did not accept their Khilafat. Upon this, a person suggested that there ought to be one Khalifa from among the Ansar and one Khalifa from among the Muhajirin. However, Hazrat Sa‘d bin Ubadah (ra) brushed this aside declaring it to be a weakness on part of the Aus tribe.

The Ansar were still debating the issue of Khilafat in the courtyard of the Banu Sa‘idah when Hazrat Umar bin al-Khattab (ra), Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah (ra) and other prominent companions were gathered in Masjid Nabawi, coming to terms with the tragic loss of the Holy Prophet (sa). Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Ali (ra) and other members of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) family were occupied with making the funeral preparations. No one had even thought about the matter of Khilafat and were unaware that the Ansar had gathered together to deliberate on the matter and wished to elect a leader from among them.

(Siddiq Akbar, Muhammad Husain Haikal, translated by Anjum Sultan Shahbaz, pp. 85, 86, Shirkat Printing Press Lahore)

In al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, it is written that Hazrat Umar (ra) came to Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah (ra) and said, “Extend your hand so that I can pledge allegiance. For you have been declared the ‘Custodian of the Faith’ by the Holy Prophet (sa) himself.” Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) said to Hazrat Umar (ra): “Ever since you have accepted Islam, I have never seen an oversight on your part like this. Will you pledge allegiance to me, whilst we have ‘Siddiq’ and ‘One of the two’ (i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)) present among us?”

(Ibn Sa‘d, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Dhikr Bai’at Abi Bakr (ra) [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1990], p. 135)

During this conversation, they learnt about the gathering of the Ansar. Upon this, Hazrat Umar (ra) sent a message to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) informing him that there was an important matter to resolve. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) refused to come outside since he was preoccupied with ensuring the funeral arrangements. Upon this, Hazrat Umar (ra) sent another message inside saying, “There is an urgent matter for which your presence is vital.” Upon this Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) came outside and asked Hazrat Umar (ra) what could be more important than the burial arrangements of the Holy Prophet (sa) for which he was calling him. Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “Do you know the Ansar have gathered in the courtyard of the Banu Sa‘idah, and have decided to elect Hazrat Sa‘d bin Ubadah (ra) as the Khalifa. A person from among them said that there ought to be one leader from among them and one leader from among the Quraish.” Upon hearing this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) reached the courtyard of the Banu Sa‘idah, where they were in the midst of the debate. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) went and sat among them.

(Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (ra) [Lahore, Pakistan: Shirkat Printing Press, 2007], pp. 86-87), (Al-Hajj Hakeem Ghulam Nabi, Sayyiduna Siddiq Akbar (ra) [Lahore, Pakistan: Adabiyyat], p. 72-73)

In one narration, Hazrat Umar (ra) stated:

“We went to the Ansar. When we reached near to them, we met with two righteous people, Uwaim bin Sa‘idah and Ma‘an bin Adi. They both informed us of the intentions of the Ansar. They then asked, ‘Where are you headed to?’ to which we said, ‘We are going to see our Ansar brothers.’ They said, ‘You do not need to go to them, you can solve the matter amongst yourselves.’ We said to them, ‘By God, we will certainly go to them.’”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Hudud, Bab Rajam al-Hubla min al-Zina…, Hadith 6830), (Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Maghazi, Hadith 4021)

Nonetheless, they went to them. Hazrat Umar (ra) further says:

“We reached the Ansar. In my mind, I thought of a speech that I would deliver before the Ansar. Thus, when we reached there and I was about to say what I had thought, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said to me, ‘Wait until I have spoken. After that, say whatever you wish to say.’ Then Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) began speaking and said everything that I had wanted to say, in fact, he said even more.”

(Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1987], p. 242)

With regards to what Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said in his speech, it is recorded briefly in the following narration; Abdullah bin Abdir Rahman states:

“After praising Allah and glorifying Him, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said: ‘Verily Allah sent Muhammad (sa) as a messenger and a guardian towards His creation so that they can worship Allah and affirm His Oneness. Prior to this, they would worship various gods, and would say that these gods would intercede on their behalf and bestow benefit on them, even though they were carved from wood and stone.’ Then Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) recited the following verse:

وَيَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللّٰهِ مَا لَا يَضُرُّهُمۡ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمۡ وَيَقُولُونَ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ شُفَعَـٰٓؤُنَا عِندَ اللّٰهِ ۚ

“‘And they worship, instead of Allah, that which neither harms them nor profits them; and they say, ‘These are our intercessors with Allah.’

مَا نَعۡبُدُهُمۡ إِلَّا لِيُقَرِّبُونَآ إِلَى اللّٰهِ زُلۡفَىٰٓ

“‘We serve them only that they may bring us near to Allah in station.’”

“He then stated, ‘Arabs would dislike it if someone abandoned the faith of their forefathers. Thus, from among the Holy Prophet’s (sa) tribe, Allah the Almighty primarily bestowed the opportunity upon the Muhajirin to attest to the truthfulness of Holy Prophet (sa) and accept his message and support him in time of need. They remained steadfast with the Holy Prophet (sa) throughout the terrible persecution and rejection by his own people.’

“Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) further said:

“‘Despite the fact that everyone opposed them and persecuted them. Yet, in spite of them being fewer in numbers, they never feared the oppression and the united front of their own people. They [i.e. the Muhajirin] were the first people on the face of the Earth to worship Allah [in Islam] and profess belief in Allah and His Messenger (sa). They are the friends and relatives of the Holy Prophet (sa) and after him, they are the worthiest of being granted this station. Except for a transgressor, no one would quarrel with them in this matter. O people of the Ansar! Your eminence and your acceptance of Islam first [collectively] cannot be denied. Your assistance of Allah’s faith and His Messenger (sa) is the reason why Allah was pleased with you. Furthermore, it was ordained for the migration of Allah’s Messenger (sa) to take place towards you. The majority of his wives and companions live here. After the initial Muhajirin, there is no equal to you in rank and status. The leader is from among us and you are the viziers. You will be consulted in every important matter and we will not make any important decision without consulting you first.’”

(Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1987], p. 242)

The speech delivered by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) in the courtyard of Banu Sa‘idah has been mentioned in Sirat al-Halabiyyah as follows:

Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated:

“As far as the matter of Khilafat is concerned, the Arabs will not accept anyone other than from among the Quraish. The Quraish, in terms of their lineage and tribe and in their land, which is Mecca, have always occupied a lofty and high status. Through our lineage we are connected with all the Arabs because there is not a single tribe which does not have a close relation in some way or another with the Quraish. We, the Muhajirin, were the first to accept Islam and belong to the same clan and family of the Holy Prophet (sa) and have close ties with him. We are from the family of the Prophet (sa) and thus have a greater right to Khilafat.”

(Ali bin Burhan al-Din al-Halabi, Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, Vol. 3, Bab ma yudhkaru fi Muddat Maradih… [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2002], pp. 504-505)

Whilst mentioning these same incidents, Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal writes in his Musnad about the role played by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). After mentioning about Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) arriving on the occasion of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) demise and delivering a speech to the Muslims and announcing the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), it narrates as follows:

“After delivering his speech and announcing the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra) quickly left for the courtyard of the Banu Sa‘idah. Upon reaching there, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) initiated the conversation and recited whatever had been revealed in the Holy Quran regarding the Ansar and did not leave anything out. He also mentioned all the excellences the Holy Prophet (sa) had said about the Ansar.

“Thereafter, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, ‘You all recall that the Messenger (sa) of Allah stated that if all the people walked through a valley and the Ansar walked through another valley, he would walk through the valley of the Ansar.’ Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then turned towards Hazrat Sa‘dra and stated, ‘O Sa‘d! Do you recall the time when you were also sat there and the Holy Prophet (sa) stated that the Quraish have a greater right to Khilafat and that the pious people will be led by the pious people of the Quraish and the rebellious ones will be under the rule of the rebellious people of the Quraish?’ Upon this, Hazrat Sa‘dra replied, ‘Yes, you indeed have spoken the truth. We are the viziers and you are the leaders.’”

(Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 1, Musnad Abi Bakr (ra), Hadith 18 [Cairo, Egypt: Dar al-Hadith, 1994], p. 185, 189)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has explained the events after the martyrdom of Hazrat Uthman (ra) in the following manner:

“When Hazrat Uthman (ra) was martyred, the rebels looted the treasury and announced that whosoever challenged them would be put to death. People were not permitted to congregate anywhere (people were not allowed to gather in groups and they had imposed a restriction similar to Section 144 that is imposed these days) and Medina was under complete siege, with no one allowed to leave, (or similar to the curfews that are imposed nowadays) to the extent that Hazrat Ali (ra) – whom the rebels claimed to love – was prevented from leaving, all the while the rebels ransacked Medina.

“On the other hand, the stone-heartedness of the rebels was such that they did not stop at having murdered a pious individual such as Hazrat Uthman (ra) – whom the Holy Prophet (sa) greatly praised – rather, they went even further and for three or four days, they prevented the body of Hazrat Uthman (ra) from being buried. Eventually, some companions went out at night and buried him secretly. Alongside Hazrat Uthman (ra), some servants were also martyred. They too were prevented from being buried and their corpses were fed to the dogs.

“Having perpetrated this act against Hazrat Uthman (ra) and his servants, the rebels granted respite to the people of Medina as they did not have any dispute with them. At this time, the Companions (ra) began to leave Medina. For five days, Medina remained without a ruler. The rebels wished to appoint a Khalifa of their choosing so that he would carry out their demands. However, no one from among the Companions (ra) of the Holy Prophet (sa) could ever imagine becoming the appointed Khalifa of those who had murdered Hazrat Uthman (ra).

“The rebels went to Hazrat Ali (ra), Talha (ra) and Zubair (ra) in turn and asked them to become the Khalifa, but they all refused. After hearing their refusal, the rebels knew that whilst these three individuals were alive, the Muslims would never accept a Khalifa who was not from among them, therefore they decided to resort to coercion in this matter as well. They thought that if a Khalifa was not appointed soon, they would face a great storm of opposition throughout the Islamic world. They announced that it would be wise to choose a Khalifa within two days, otherwise they would kill Ali (ra), Talha (ra), Zubair (ra) and all other prominent persons. At this, the people of Medina became fearful that the people who killed Hazrat Uthman (ra) would leave no stone unturned in their mistreatment of their families and children. They went to Hazrat Ali (ra) and pleaded with him to become the Khalifa. He refused and said, ‘If I become the Khalifa, everyone will assume that I had Uthman (ra) killed and I cannot bear such a burden.’ Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Zubair (ra) also gave the same response. Whoever from among the Companions (ra) was asked to become the Khalifa, refused.

“Ultimately, everyone went to Hazrat Ali (ra) again and said that he ought to take up this burden. Eventually he agreed on the condition that everyone should gather in the mosque and accept him. Thus, the people gathered in the mosque and pledged allegiance to Hazrat Ali (ra). Some, however, refused to accept any Khalifa until those who killed Hazrat Uthman (ra) were punished, while others, albeit very few in number, said that a Khalifa should not be chosen until the opinion of the people outside of Medina was ascertained. Hazrat Ali (ra) accepted the proposal to become the Khalifa in such circumstances, but the events unfolded just as he had feared and people throughout the Islamic world began to allege that Hazrat Uthman (ra) had been murdered on the order of Hazrat Ali (ra).”

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) writes:

“If we put all of Hazrat Ali’s (ra) attributes and qualities to one side, in my opinion, for him to accept the office of Khilafat in such precarious times was an extremely brave and courageous step and is worthy of immense praise and admiration. For the sake of Islam, he did not care at all about himself nor his honour and instead took upon himself a burden of such magnitude.”

(Waqi‘at Khilafat Alwi, Anwar al-Ulum, Vol. 4, pp. 635-637)

Then, with regard to the incidents following the martyrdom of Hazrat Uthman (ra), Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states at another instance:

“For about a day or two [after Hazrat Uthman’s (ra) martyrdom] pillaging and looting was rampant; however, when the rebels’ emotions subsided, they began worrying about their fates and were fearful for what would happen next. Hence, some thought that since Hazrat Muawiyah (ra) was a great man, he would surely seek retribution [for the martyrdom of Hazrat Uthman (ra)].

“Hence, they set out towards Syria and upon reaching there, they began lamenting over the martyrdom of Hazrat Uthman (ra) and the fact that no one was seeking retribution for it. Other rebels ran towards Mecca and met with Hazrat Zubair (ra) and Hazrat Aisha (ra) and said, ‘How grave it is that the Khalifa of Islam was martyred, yet the Muslims remain silent.’ Then there were others who ran towards Hazrat Ali (ra) and said, ‘This is a time of great adversity and we fear that the Islamic rule may collapse. Therefore accept our pledge of allegiance so that people’s fear may dissipate and peace and security may be established.’

“The Companions (ra) who were present in Medina also unanimously advised that it was best for Hazrat Ali (ra) to take on this responsibility [of Khilafat] for it would prove to be a source of great blessings and attaining the pleasure of God. Seeing as he was being compelled from all sides – though he refused many times – he finally conceded and accepted this responsibility, after which he allowed others to pledge allegiance to him. There is no doubt in the fact that this decision made by Hazrat Ali (ra) was full of wisdom; had he not taken bai‘at from the Muslims, then even more harm would have come to Islam than that which befell it as a result of the war between him and Hazrat Muawiyah (ra).”

(Anwar al-Khilafah, Anwar al-Ulum, Vol. 3, pp. 197-198)

With regard to events mentioned relating to Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) has elaborated on an extremely important matter.

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“As you are similar to the Companions [of the Holy Prophet (sa)], it is my desire to present historical events, demonstrating how Muslims fell into disarray and what were the reasons that led to this division. Therefore, take heed from this and educate those who join you in the future.” That is, they should be given correct moral training and religious education.

“The disorder that emerged during the time of Hazrat Uthman (ra) was not instigated by the Companions. Those who say that this mischief was caused by the Companions are mistaken. There is no doubt that many Companions stood in opposition to Hazrat Ali (ra) and many stood in opposition to Mu‘awiyahra. However, I say that the Companions were not the cause of this disorder; rather, it was those who joined [Islam] later and were not fortunate enough to have received the companionship of the Holy Prophet (sa) and never sat in his company.

“Hence, I draw your attention towards this and inform you of the method to abstain and protect yourselves from this disorder and that is to frequently and repeatedly come to Qadian” – Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) was in Qadian at that time – “so that your faith is rejuvenated and so that you increase in your fear of Allah.”

(Anwar al-Khilafat, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 3, p. 171)

In other words, it is so that you remain firmly attached with the Centre (Markaz) as well as with Khilafat. If this bond remains firm, then you will also receive the correct moral training. Nowadays, Allah the Almighty has blessed us with MTA. The sermons are listened to and broadcast across the entire world. There are also other programmes that are shown. Therefore, it is essential for your moral training that, apart from personally studying the books of the Promised Messiah (as), you also watch MTA regularly. You should particularly listen to the Friday sermons on MTA so that your relationship with Khilafat remains firm and continues to increase and strengthen.

Mutarrif states, “On one occasion, we said to Hazrat Zubair (ra), ‘O Abu Abdullah! With what purpose have you come here now? You have allowed one Khalifa to be harmed to the extent that he was martyred and now you seek retribution.’ Hazrat Zubair (ra) replied, ‘In the era of the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Uthman Ghani (ra), we would recite the following verse of the Holy Quran:

وَٱتَّقُواْ فِتۡنَةً لَّا تُصِيبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنكُمۡ خَآصَّةً

“And beware of an affliction which will not smite exclusively those among you who have done wrong,” [Surah al-Anfal, Ch.8: V.26]

(But instead this affliction will be commonplace). Yet we never thought that we would also be the ones on whom this verse would be fulfilled, to the extent that the trial has befallen us.’”

(Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 1, p. 451, Musnad Zubair bin al-Awwam, Hadith 1414, Alam al-Kutub, Beirut, 1998)

The Promised Messiah (as) states:

“I have been granted in-depth knowledge from my Lord regarding Khilafat. And just like any scholar, I have also been able to delve into the depth of the matter and my Lord has revealed to me that Siddiq [Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)], Farooq [Hazrat Umar (ra)] and Uthman (ra), may Allah be pleased with them all, were pious believers, who were among the chosen ones of Allah the Almighty and were favoured with the special bounties of the Gracious God.

“Furthermore, many of the wise have borne witness to their virtues. They left their lands for the pleasure of the Honourable and Glorious God, they entered the furnace of every battle, and they cared not for the scorching midday heat of every summer, nor the cold of the night of every winter; rather, they marched forward upon the paths of their faith like youthful men, inclining neither to their own people, nor to others and they bade farewell to everything, all for the sake of the Lord of all the Worlds. Their actions were imbued with a sweet fragrance and their deeds with an aroma.

“All of this points to the gardens of their rank and the orchards of their good deeds. Likewise, the aromatic breezes of their zephyr [soft, sweet-smelling wind] reveal their intricate qualities and their light becomes manifest to us with all its radiance. Thus, you ought to ascertain their illustrious rank from the aroma of their fragrance and do not show haste and follow those who think ill. And do not rely on just certain narrations because they are filled with poison and exaggerations and they cannot be trusted. Many of those narrations are like a powerful and destructive wind and like the lightning which deceives one into thinking there is going to be rain. Thus, fear Allah and do not follow such narrations.”

(Sirr-ul-Khilafah Urdu Tarjumah, pp. 25-26, Nazarat Ishaat Rabwah)

In regard to Hazrat Ali (ra), the Promised Messiah (as) states:

“Hazrat Ali (ra) initially held back from taking the bai‘at of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). However, upon reaching home, only Allah knows what thought crossed his mind that he immediately left without even putting on his turban and simply covered his head with a cap and came to perform the bai‘at. It was only later that he called for his turban to be brought. It seems that he deemed this to be a grave sin and thus left in such a hurry that he did not even tie his turban.”

(Malfuzat, Vol. 10, p. 183, 1984 Edition)

In other words, he did not even fully dress and came at once.

When the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away, the manner in which Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) controlled that entire situation and the condition of the Companions (ra) has been mentioned as follows, “After praising the Lord, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated, ‘Whoever worshiped Muhammad (sa) should know that Muhammad (sa) has surely passed away and whoever worshipped Allah should keep in mind that Allah is alive and shall never pass away.’ And Hazrat Abu Bakr then recited the following verse:

إِنَّکَ مَیِّتٌ وَإِنَّہُمْ مَیِّتُونَ

“Surely thou wilt die, and surely they too will die.”

“Then he recited the following verse of the Holy Quran:

وَ مَا مُحَمَّدٌ اِلَّا رَسُوۡلٌ ۚ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِنۡ قَبۡلِہِ الرُّسُلُ ؕ اَفَا۠ئِنۡ مَّاتَ اَوۡ قُتِلَ انۡقَلَبۡتُمۡ عَلٰۤی اَعۡقَابِکُمۡ ؕ وَ مَنۡ یَّنۡقَلِبۡ عَلٰی عَقِبَیۡہِ فَلَنۡ یَّضُرَّ اللّٰہَ شَیۡئًا ؕ وَ سَیَجۡزِی اللّٰہُ الشّٰکِرِیۡنَ

“And Muhammad is only a Messenger. Verily, all Messengers have passed away before him. If then he die or be slain, will you turn back on your heels? And he who turns back on his heels shall not harm Allah at all. And Allah will certainly reward the grateful.” (The Holy Quran, 3:145)

“Sulaiman mentions that upon hearing this, people began to weep profusely. Sulaiman further narrates that some Ansar companions gathered around Hazrat Sa‘d Bin Abaadah at the house of Bani Sa‘adah and said to him, ‘There shall be one leader amongst us, and one leader amongst you.’ Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Umar Bin Khattab (ra) and Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah came to them. Hazrat Umar (ra) was about to speak when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) instructed him to stop. Hazrat Umar (ra) would narrate [at a later stage], ‘I swear by Allah, I had prepared a speech for what I intended to say and I was pleased by it, but I was afraid that Hazrat Abu Bakr would not be able to deliver a similar speech. However, Hazrat Abu Bakr delivered a speech which was more eloquent than the speech of any other person.’ During his speech he also stated, ‘We are the leaders, and you are ministers.’ Upon hearing this Hubbab Bin Munzar said, ‘It can never be so, by God it can never be so.’

I am mentioning this because the name of Hubbab Bin Munzir has been mentioned in these accounts. Upon hearing this Hubbab Bin Munzir said, “It can never be so, by God! it can never be so. By God! We will never permit for this to happen. There will be one leader from us and one leader from amongst you.” That is to say that there would be one leader amongst the Quraish and one leader amongst the Ansar. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) replied, “No, we are the leaders and you are the ministers, because with respect to lineage and ancient tradition, the Quraish hold precedence over all other tribes of Arabia. Therefore, take initiation at the hand of Umar or Abu Ubaidah.” Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “No, rather we will take initiation at your hand because you are our chief, the best amongst us and you were dearer to the Holy Prophet (sa) than any of us.” After saying this, he held the hand of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and took initiation at his hand. Seeing this, others followed and eventually everyone took initiation at his hand.

(Sahih Al Bukhari, Kitabul Fazail Ashaab An Nabi, Hadith No.3668)

Hazrat Hubbab bin Munzir narrates, “Hazrat Jibrael (as) came to the Holy Prophet (sa) and said: ‘What is more preferred to you; that you remain in this world with your companions, or to return to your Lord, where you will be granted everlasting provisions in paradise that have been vouchsafed to you. Furthermore, all that which you desire and everything that is a means of providing satisfaction to you will also be granted.’ The Holy Prophet (sa) turned to his companions and asked: ‘What is your opinion?’ The Companions said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! We prefer that you stay with us so that you can inform us of the weaknesses of our enemies; then pray to God Almighty to grant His succour to defeat them; likewise, you can confer to us Divine revelation.’” The Holy Prophet (sa) then turned to Hubbab bin Munzir and said, “What is your opinion? You are very quiet.” At this Hubbab bin Munzir replied, “O Messenger of Allah! You should choose that path which God Almighty has preferred for you.” Hazrat Hubbab says that the Holy Prophet (sa) accepted this statement of mine.”

(Al-Mustadrak Ala Al-Sahihain, Vol. 3, p. 483, Darul Kutubul Ilmiyya, Beirut, 2002)

What services did Hazrat Ali (ra) render during the era of the three Khalifas before him? After the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), many of the Arab tribes became apostates and the hypocrites of Medina also began to grow bold in their opposition. Many people from among the Banu Hanifah and Yamamah joined with Musaylimah Kazzab, whilst many others from among the Banu Asad, Tayy and various other tribes joined with Tulaiha Asadi. Just like Musaylimah Kazzab , Tulaiha Asadi also declared to be a prophet. Disorder became widespread and the situation became increasingly grave. In such circumstances, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) sent an army under the command of Hazrat Usama (ra) and thus very few people were left behind with him. Subsequently, many of the Bedouins thought of capturing Medina and began to plot an attack. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) appointed guards at the various entrances into Medina, who along with their men, would guard Medina at night. Amongst those who were assigned to oversee these guards was Hazrat Ali (ra) bin Abi Talib, Zubair (ra) bin al-Awam, Talhara bin Abdillah, Saad (ra) bin Abi Waqas, Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf and Abdullah (ra) bin Mas‘ud.

(Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Vol. 7 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001] 307-308)

Thus, even during this time, Hazrat Ali (ra) was appointed to oversee this section of the army which was assigned to guard Medina.

The Promised Messiah (as) states:

“I know for certain that no one can be deemed a true believer, nor a Muslim until they instil within themselves the qualities of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra), Hazrat Uthman (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra), may Allah be pleased with them all. Their hearts were pure from the love of this world, instead they devoted their lives in the way of God Almighty.”

(Lecture Ludhiana, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 20, 294)

The Promised Messiah (as) further states:

“It is vital to believe that Siddiq-e-Akbar (ra) [Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra)], Hazrat Farooq-e-Umar (ra) [Hazrat Umar Farooq (ra)], Hazrat Dhun-Nurainra (i.e. Hazrat Uthman (ra)) and Hazrat Ali Murtaza (ra) were all the custodians of the faith. For Islam, Abu Bakr (ra) was the second coming of Adam; similarly, if Hazrat Umar Farooq (ra) and Hazrat Uthman (ra) did not show sincerity in the trust bestowed upon them, then it would be impossible for us to consider even one verse of the Quran to be from Allah the Almighty.”

(Maktubat-e-Ahmad, Vol. 2, p. 151, Maktub Number 2, Maktub Banam Hazrat Khan Sahib Muhammad Ali Khan Sahib, Rabwah)

The Promised Messiah (as) states:

“By God, Allah the Almighty enabled the Sheikhain” i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra) “and Dhun-Nurain [Hazrat Uthman (ra)] to be like the doors to Islam and they were at the forefront of every army of the Holy Prophet (sa), who was the best of the creation. Thus, one who denies their lofty honour and discredits the clear and irrefutable arguments in their favour and does not show respect to them but rather dishonours them and vilifies and speaks ill of them, then I fear that he may meet a terrible end and will become completely devoid of faith. And those who caused them grief and cursed them and levelled allegations against them, consequently their hearts became hardened and they incurred the wrath of the Gracious God. I have countlessly observed and have openly expressed this as well that to hold malice and enmity against these noble men is one of the main factors that severs man’s bond with God, Who is the Bestower of blessings. Whoever bears enmity against them becomes completely deprived of mercy and benevolence and the doors of divine cognisance and wisdom are never opened for them and they are left to partake in the desires and pleasures of the world and they are thrown into the abyss of carnal desires and He casts them away from His divine threshold and they remain deprived.”

(Sirr-ul-Khilafah Urdu Tarjumah, pp. 28-29, Nazarat Ishaat Rabwah)

The Promised Messiah (as) then states:

“Whatever progress of Islam was made after the Holy Prophet (sa) was through these three companions, that is Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Umar (ra) and Uthman (ra).”

(Malfuzat, Vol. 6, p. 414)

When the time of the demise of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) drew near, he called for Hazrat Abdur (ra) Rahman bin Auf and said, “Tell me about Umar (ra).” Hazrat Abdur (ra) Rahman bin Auf replied, “O Khalifa of the Messenger (sa) of Allah! By God, Hazrat Umar (ra) is even better than the opinion you hold about him, except for the fact that he is strict in his disposition.”

Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) replied, “He is strict because he sees that I am compassionate in nature. However, if he was entrusted with the leadership, he will give up many of his habits because I have observed that when I treat someone in a strict manner, he tries to convince me to be happy with them and when he sees that I am overly lenient with someone, he tells me to be strict with them.”

Thereafter, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) called for Hazrat Uthman (ra) and asked about Hazrat Umar (ra). Hazrat Uthman (ra) said, “His hidden qualities are even better than those qualities which are apparent. There is no one like him amongst us.”

Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then said to both these companions, “Whatever I have said to you should not be disclosed to anyone else. And if I do not choose Umar (ra), then I will look no further than Uthman (ra).”

(In other words, according to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), both of these individuals were worthy of doing justice to the station of Khilafat.)

“And they both will have the authority to govern your affairs in the most proper manner. It is my desire now to move away from governing your affairs and join those who have passed away from among you.”

During the days of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) illness, Hazrat Talha (ra) bin Ubaidillah approached him and said, “You have made Hazrat Umar (ra) the Khalifa of the people, even though you can see how he treats people in your presence. What will be the situation when he is alone and you will meet your Lord and He will question you about your subjects?”

Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) told him to sit up. Hence, they sat him up with some support and he said, “Are you making me fearful of Allah? When I will meet my Lord and He will question me, I will say, ‘I appointed the best among Your servants as their Khalifa.’”

Following this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) called Hazrat Uthman (ra) to see him in private in order to write a will in relation to Hazrat Umar (ra). Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then said, “Write: ‘In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful. This is the will of Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah for the Muslims.’”

Having said this much, he became unconscious and Hazrat Uthman (ra) wrote [further] on his own accord, “I have chosen Umar bin Khattab as your Khalifa and I have not left any shortcomings in providing good for you.”

Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then regained consciousness and said, “Read to me what you have written.” Hazrat Uthman (ra) read it to him upon which he said, “Allahu Akbar [Allah is the Greatest]!” He went on to say, “I believe that you became anxious about not causing divisions among the people if I had passed away in this [state of] unconsciousness.”

Hazrat Uthman (ra) replied in the affirmative and said that this was indeed the case. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, “May Allah reward you on behalf of Islam and the Muslims.”

(Al-Kamil Fi Al-Tarikh, Ibn Saad, Vol. 2, pp. 272-272, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut [2003])

In other words, the sentence Hazrat Uthman (ra) wrote of his own accord regarding Hazrat Umar (ra) becoming the Khalifa was not objected to by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).

In Tarikh al-Tabari it is written that Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Harith relates, “Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) called Hazrat Uthman (ra) alone and said to write, ‘In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful. This is the will of Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah for the Muslims. Following this […]’” – the narrator says after saying this much, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) became unconscious.

Following this, the same took place as has been mentioned earlier. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) regained consciousness, had the same conversation and asked Hazrat Uthman (ra) to read it out. After hearing what was written, as has been mentioned, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said “Allahu Akbar.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) further said, “May Allah reward you in the best manner on behalf of Islam and the Muslims for having written this sentence.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) kept the written statement intact and did not make any changes.

(Tarikh Al-Tabari, Vol. 2, p. 353, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut [1987])

In one narration it is mentioned that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) called for Hazrat Uthman (ra) and said, “Suggest to me a person to be chosen as the Khalifa. By Allah! In my eyes, you are worthy of giving me advice.” Upon this, he said, “Hazrat Umar (ra)!” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then told him to write this down and he began to write. As he reached the name, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) fell unconscious. When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) regained consciousness, he said to write, “Umar.”

In another narration it is mentioned that Hazrat Aisha (ra) relates:

“Hazrat Uthman (ra) was writing the will of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) became unconscious and Hazrat Uthman (ra) wrote the name of Hazrat Umar (ra). When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) regained consciousness, he enquired what he had written. He replied, ‘I have written Umar.’ Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, ‘You have written what I had intended to say to you. Even if you had written your own name, you would have been entitled to it.’”

(Sirat Umar bin Al-Khattab (ra), Ibn Juzi, pp. 44-45, Al-Azhar, Egypt)

In another narration it is mentioned that when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) fell ill, he sent a message to Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Uthman (ra) and to some individuals from among the Muhajireen and the Ansar, saying, “You can see that the time has come and there is no one in position to give you orders. If you wish, you may choose an individual from among yourselves and if you so desire, I will do so on your behalf.”

They replied, “You may do so for us.” Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) told Hazrat Uthman (ra) to write, “This is the will of Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah, which he made as his final will prior to departing from this world and as his first will entering the Hereafter, where a sinner will repent, a disbeliever will believe and a liar will testify to the truth. The will is as follows: ‘I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad (sa) is His servant and Messenger, and I appoint as the Khalifa […]’” Having said this, he fell unconscious and Hazrat Uthman (ra) wrote Umar bin Khattab of his own accord. When Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) regained consciousness, he asked, “Have you written anything?” In reply, he said, “Yes, I wrote Umar bin Khattab.” Upon this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, “May Allah have mercy on you. Even if you had written your own name, you were entitled to it. Nevertheless, write that I have chosen Umar bin Khattab as your Khalifa after me and I am content with him for all the Muslims.”

(Sahih Tarikh Al-Tabari, Vol. 3, p. 126, Dar Ibn Kathir, Damascus [2007])

Once the will had been written, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, “It should be read out to the people.” As such, Hazrat Uthman (ra) gathered the people and sent his freed slave with a letter. At that time, Hazrat Umar (ra) was with him as well. Hazrat Umar (ra) would tell the people to remain silent and listen to the words of the Khalifa of the Holy Prophet (sa), as he had not left any shortcomings in providing good for them. Subsequently, the people sat down quietly and the will was read out to them. They listened to it and obeyed.

At that time, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) turned towards the people and said, “Are you satisfied with whom I have appointed as Khalifa, as I have not chosen a relative? I have most certainly appointed Umar as your Khalifa! Hence, you should listen to him and obey him. By Allah, I have not been negligent in reflecting and pondering over this.” Upon this, the people replied, “We have heard and obeyed.”

Following this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) called Hazrat Umar (ra) and said to him, “I have appointed you as the Khalifa of the Companions of the Holy Prophet (sa) and have advised you”, i.e. Hazrat Umar (ra), “to be fearful of Allah.”

He further said, “O Umar (ra)! There are most certainly some rights due to Allah, which are fulfilled during the night and which He does not accept during the day, and there are some rights to be discharged during the day, which He does not accept during the night. Moreover, He most certainly does not accept voluntary deeds unless and until the obligations are fulfilled.

“O Umar (ra)! Do you not see that the scales of those very individuals are heavier [in the balance of good], whose scales will also be heavier on the Day of Judgement as a result of following the truth?” That is, those who follow the truth, their scales will be heavier on the Day of Judgement. He further said, “And in the times to come, something heavier will be placed upon these scales.

“O Umar (ra)! Do you not see that the scale of those very individuals will be lighter, whose scales will also be lighter on the Day of Judgement as a result of following falsehood?” In other words, they were not following the truth and performing virtuous deeds. As such, those who do not follow their scales will be lighter on the Day of Judgement.

“Moreover, it is certain that whenever falsehood is placed in the scale, it will be lighter. O Umar (ra)! Do you not see that the verses pertaining to glad-tidings were revealed alongside the verses relating to punishment, and likewise, the verses relating to punishment were revealed alongside the verses granting glad-tidings? And this was so that the believers remain in a state of hope as well as fear”. On the one hand, they aspire to perform virtuous deeds, and on the other, they instil the fear of Allah the Almighty within them, “and so they do not harbour any desire which has no connection with God and nor to fear from anything which Allah has established Himself.

“O Umar (ra)! Do you not see that Allah the Almighty has mentioned the inmates of the Hellfire owing to their ill deeds? Thus, when you mention them, then you should say, ‘I hope that I am not from among them.’ And Allah has mentioned the dwellers of Paradise owing to their virtuous deeds and Allah overlooked their ills. Thus, when you mention them, you should say, ‘Are my deeds the same as their deeds?’”

(Al-Kamil Fi Al-Tarikh, Ibn Saad, Vol. 2, pp. 273-274, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut [2003])

In other words, one ought to seek the answer from their heart.

When the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) demise drew close, he stated, “Whatever wealth of the Muslims was entrusted to me should be returned to them for I do not wish to take anything from that. And my land in such and such place is to be used to return the wealth of the Muslims which I took from the treasury [bait-ul-mal] to be used for my personal expenses.”

Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) land, camel, assistant and a cloak which was worth five dirhams were all given to Hazrat Umar (ra). When Hazrat Umar (ra) saw all of this, he stated, “He”, i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), “has placed the one who will come after him in great difficulty.”

(Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 143, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut [1990])

Hazrat Khalifatul Masih I (ra) states, “Someone once stated that Hazrat Umar (ra) no longer possessed a stern disposition as he did in the era of Jahiliyyah [era of ignorance prior to the advent of Islam]. Upon this, Hazrat Umar (ra) replied, “I still have that sternness in my disposition, but it is now used against the disbelievers.”

(Haqaiq-ul-Furqan, Vol. 1, p. 206)

Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) states:

“People said to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), ‘You have appointed Umar (ra) as your successor and this would cause a lot of unrest for he has a very sharp temper.’ Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) replied, ‘His temper will only be fiery whilst I am present, and once I depart [from this world], his temperament will soften.’”

(Anwar-e-Khilafat, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 3, p. 151)

The Promised Messiah (as) states:

“It is reported with relation to Hazrat Umar, Allah be pleased with him, that someone asked him about his anger and remarked that he was a man of fiery disposition prior to his acceptance of Islam. Hazrat Umar responded by saying that the anger was just as before, albeit, in the past it would manifest itself inappropriately, but now it is exercised at the appropriate occasion.”

(The Advent of the Promised Messiah (as), p. 45, Islam International Publications Ltd, UK [2016])

Jami‘ bin Shidad relates from one of his close relatives that he heard Hazrat Umar (ra) bin Khattab state:

“O Allah! I am weak, grant me strength and I am stern in my disposition, thus soften my temperament, and I am miserly, grant me the ability to spend with an open heart.”

There are varying narrations regarding the first address delivered by Hazrat Umar (ra) after becoming Khalifa. According to one narration, Humaid bin Bilal who was present at the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq’s (ra) demise narrates, “When Hazrat Umar (ra) returned from the burial of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), he cleaned the soil of the grave from his hands and then stood at his place and said, ‘Surely, Allah Almighty has tried you through me, and has tried me through you, and after my two friends, he has now placed this trust upon me. I swear by Allah, whenever your matters are brought to me, no one other than me will tend to them. If it is a matter which is distant from me, then I will appoint able and trustworthy people; they will be appointed to oversee your matters. If people treat me well, I will treat them well and if they misbehave, then I will punish them.”

Hasan (ra) says, “In our view of the first address delivered by Hazrat Umar (ra), he glorified Allah the Almighty and then said, ‘After this, I have been tried through you people and you have been tried through me. After the departure of my two friends, He has now placed this trust upon me. And so, any matter that is brought to me, I will tend to it myself, and any matter that is distant from me, I will appoint able and trustworthy people. Whoever does good, I will increase them in good and whoever does evil, I will punish them. May Allah forgive me and you.’”

Jami‘ bin Shidad relates on account of his father that when Hazrat Umar (ra) stood at the pulpit, the first thing he said was:

اَللّٰهُمَّ اِنِّيْ شَدِيْدٌ فَلَيِّنِيْ وَ اِنِّيْ ضَعِيْفٌ فَقَوِّنِيْ وَ اِنِّيْ بَخِيْلٌ فَسَخِّنِيْ

“O Allah, I am strict, so make me kind. I am weak, so make me strong. I am miserly, so make me generous.”

(Al-Tabaqaat-ul-Kubra, Ibn Saad, Vol. 3, p. 208, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut [1990])

Jami‘ bin Shidad relates on account of his father that when Hazrat Umar (ra) was chosen [as the Khalifa], he stood at the pulpit and said, “I am going to say a few things to which you should say, ‘Amin’.” These were the first words that Hazrat Umar (ra) said after becoming the Khalifa.

Hussain Murri states that Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “Arabs are like a reined camel which walks behind its leader, and it is the leader’s job to be mindful of where he is leading the camel. As far as I am concerned, by the Lord of the Ka‘bah, I will surely guide them on the straight path.”

(Tarikh Al-Tabari, Vol. 2, p. 355, Dar-ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut [1987])

In the previous narration it was said that they should say “Amin” to what he said, but there are no further details mentioned. Or perhaps this narration about the reins is the explanation [of the earlier narration]. In any case, on the third day after becoming the Khalifa, Hazrat Umar (ra) delivered a detailed address, which was that when Hazrat Umar (ra) learned that people were afraid of him, he had an announcement made in a loud voice, saying, “The prayer is about to commence”. Upon this, people gathered and he sat at the pulpit, in the same place where Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) used to put his feet.

When everyone had gathered, he stood up and glorified Allah in a befitting manner and then sent salutations upon the Holy Prophet (sa). Then he said, “I have been informed that people are afraid of my stern temperament and they say, ‘Umar was strict with us even when the Holy Prophet (sa) was present among us, and continued to be strict with us when Abu Bakr (ra) ruled over us. What will happen, now that all the matters are in his hands.’ Whoever has said this is correct. No doubt I was with the Holy Prophet (sa) and was his slave and servant and he was such that no one could match his kindness and kind-heartedness. Allah the Almighty had bestowed these qualities upon him and had given him two titles from among His attributes; the compassionate and the merciful. I was a wielded sword; if the Holy Prophet (sa) chose, he could put me in a sheath or he could let me loose and I would go forth smiting. Then the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away in a state of being pleased with me and I am grateful to God that I was honoured in this way. Then Abu Bakr (ra) became the leader, and he was from among such people whose benevolence, grace and kindness cannot be denied, and I was his servant and helper.

“I would combine my strictness with his tenderness. I became the unsheathed sword at his disposal; if he so willed, he could place me back in the sheath and if he so willed, he could unleash me to go forth smiting. Hence, I remained with him in this manner until God Almighty brought about his demise whilst he was pleased with me. All praise belongs to Allah that I remained so blessed in this regard!

“Then, O people, I have now been appointed as a guardian over your affairs. Know well that my anger has subsided, but it shall be manifested to those who wrong and oppress the Muslims. It has subsided for you, but shall be evident against the enemies. As for the pious-natured, devout and virtuous people, I shall be more tender towards them than what they show to one another. If I ever find a person who acts unjustly and oppresses, I shall place his cheek on the ground and my foot on his other cheek, until he fully understands what the truth is”, that is to say, he will be very stern. “And O people, you have many rights over me which I mention. You may call me to account over them. One right you have over me is that I hide not whatever wealth is to be spent for your sake, nor of the spoils which God Almighty has sent for you, unless it is that which I hold for the works of God Almighty. Another right of yours over me is that the wealth be spent at its appropriate occasion. Your right over me is that I continue to grant you your allowances. A right of yours over me is also that I do not place you into ruin and when you leave your homes to join the army, I shall be like a father to your children until you return. I say this and seek Allah the Almighty’s forgiveness for you.”

(Izaalatul Khafa An Khilafat Al-Khulafa, translated by Shah Walliullah Muhaddith Dehlvi, Vol. 3, pp. 226-228, Qadeemi Kutub Kahana Karachi)

This narration is found in Bukhari. With regard to the election of Hazrat Uthman (ra) as Khalifa, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) has stated the following:

“When Hazrat Umar (ra) was injured and realised that his demise was imminent, he nominated six persons and advised them to elect the Khalifa from among themselves. They included Hazrat Uthman (ra), Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf, Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) bin Abi Waqas, Hazrat Zubair (ra) and Hazrat Talha (ra). In addition to them, he included Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar(ra) as an advisor, but did not declare him entitled to Khilafat. He also admonished that these people should give their verdict within three days, and Suhaib (ra) should lead the prayer during that period of time.

“He appointed Miqdad bin al-Aswad (ra) to oversee the consultation and election process and directed him to gather the Electoral College at one place and to guard them. He issued more directions, the people should take the Bai‘at of the person who is elected by the majority of votes, and if any one declines to do so, then he should be killed. If there be three votes on each side, then Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (ra) would recommend who the Khalifa should be. If the members of Electoral College do not agree to the decision of Abdullah bin Umar (ra), then the person favoured by Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf should be appointed as Khalifa.

“These five companions discussed this matter (as Talha (ra) was not in Medina at that time) but could not come to any conclusion. After a lengthy discussion, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf asked if anyone wanted to withdraw his name, but all of them remained quiet. On this, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf withdrew his name, then Hazrat Uthman (ra) withdrew his name and then two others did the same. Hazrat Ali (ra) remained quiet, however he then took a pledge from Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf that he (i.e., Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra)) would be completely impartial, and entrusted the responsibility of making the decision to him. Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) to act accordingly and for three days, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf visited every house in Medina to obtain the opinion of every man and woman in regard to who they thought should be elected as Khalifah. All of them expressed their agreement to the Khilafat of Hazrat Uthman (ra). Thus, he gave his verdict in favour of Hazrat Uthman (ra) and he became the Khalifa.”

(Khilafat-e-Rashida, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 15, pp. 488-489)

Hazrat Musleh Maud(ra) has narrated this using various historical references.

Then whilst mentioning the Ahl-e-Tashi [Shias], the Promised Messiah (as) states:

“What can be said about your verbal abuse because save a few, you hurl abuse against all the companions. Moreover, you curse the wives of the Holy Prophet (sa), the Mothers of the Believers. You also claim that there has been some addition and abrogation in the Holy Quran and allege that the current Quran is the Quran of Uthman (ra) and not from God Almighty […] You consider Islam to be like an abandoned land which is completely dry and barren” i.e. it is completely empty of the righteous servants of God).

The Promised Messiah (as) further states:

“After having transgressed all bounds, what honour do you now possess?”

(Hujjat Allah, Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 12,184-185)

When news of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) demise spread, many of the Arab tribes became apostates and refused to pay the Zakat. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) decided to fight against them. Urwah relates that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) took the Muhajireen and the Ansar along with him and left Medina. When he reached a lake which was situated opposite the mountainous area of Najd, the Bedouins had fled from there along with their families. In actuality they did not completely become apostate, but still claimed to be Muslims and yet refused to pay the Zakat. Thus, it was for this reason that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) decided to fight against them and not because they had become apostates.

When these Bedouins fled from there, it was suggested to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) that he should return to the women and children left behind in Medina and appoint someone as the commander of the army in his place. Upon the persistent suggestions from others, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) appointed Hazrat Khalid (ra) bin Waleed as the commander of the army and said to him, “If they wish to accept Islam and pay the Zakat, (in other words, reaffirm their pledge of allegiance), then if anyone from among them wishes to return, then they can do so.” After this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) returned to Medina.

(Jalauddin Abdur Rahman bin Abi Bakr al-Suyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa, p. 61, al-Khalifa al-Awwal Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra), Fasl fi ma Waqa‘a fi al-Khilafah)

This was the conclusion reached by Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra). Then he further states, “It should be remembered that it is wrong to say that after pledging allegiance to Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Zubair (ra) broke their oaths.”

Some say that they pledged allegiance to Hazrat Ali (ra) with ease; however, it was not so simple. Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) writes in detail and addresses this notion that they went to Hazrat Aisha (ra) after breaking their oath and fought against [Hazrat Ali (ra)]; he writes:

“[Such a notion] is wrong and is proof of being unacquainted with history. This was not the case. History unanimously bears testament to the fact that Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Zubair (ra) did not willingly pledge allegiance to Hazrat Ali (ra); rather, they were compelled to pledge allegiance.

“Thus, it is related by two narrators in al-Tabari – Muhammad and Talha – that when Hazrat Uthman (ra) was martyred, the people consulted amongst themselves and decided that the next Khalifa should be appointed swiftly so that peace may be established and disorder may be done away with. Eventually, people went to Hazrat Ali (ra) and requested him to accept their pledge of allegiance. Hazrat Ali (ra) said to them, ‘If you wish to pledge allegiance to me, then you must remain obedient to me at all times. If you are willing to accept this, then I am prepared to accept your pledge of allegiance to me. If not, then you should appoint someone else as the Khalifa and I will remain obedient to whoever it is; in fact, I will be more obedient to the Khalifa than any one of you.’

“They replied by saying that they were willing to remain obedient to him. Hazrat Ali (ra) said, ‘Think about it once more and consult amongst yourselves.’ Thus they consulted one another and decided that if Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Zubair (ra) were to pledge allegiance to Hazrat Ali (ra), so too would everyone else. If they [Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Zubair (ra)] did not pledge allegiance to Hazrat Ali (ra), then peace could not be fully established. Thus, Hakim bin Jabalah, along with a few other men, were sent to Hazrat Zubair (ra), while Malik Ashtar along with a few men were sent to Hazrat Talha (ra). Both wielded their swords and called on them to pledge allegiance (meaning they drew their swords and stood before them saying that they must pledge allegiance to Hazrat Ali (ra), otherwise they would attack them). And so they [Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Zubair (ra)] were compelled to accept after which the two parties returned. The next day, Hazrat Ali (ra) stood at the pulpit and said, ‘O people, yesterday you sent me a message, to which I replied that you should ponder over it. Have you pondered over it? Are you still willing to accept what I said yesterday? If so, then remember that you must always remain obedient to me.’ Upon this, they went back to Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Zubair (ra) and forcefully brought them. It is clearly mentioned in the narration that when they went to Hazrat Talha (ra) and told him that he must pledge allegiance, he replied:

اِنِّىْ ‬اِنَّمَا‭ ‬اُبَايِعُ‭ ‬كَرْهًا ‬‬ “‘I am being forced to pledge allegiance, I am not doing so willingly.’ Similarly when a party went to Hazrat Zubair (ra) and told him to pledge allegiance, he replied in the same manner, saying:

اِنِّىْ اِنَِّمَا‭ ‬اُبَايِعُ‭ ‬كَرْهًا ‬‬ “‘You are forcing me to pledge allegiance; I am not pledging allegiance wholeheartedly.’

Similarly, Abdur Rahman bin Jundub narrates on account of his father that after the martyrdom of Hazrat Uthman (ra), Ashtar went to Talha (ra) and told him to pledge allegiance. He replied, ‘Give me some time as I wish to see what others decide.’ However, Ashtar did not accept this and:

جَاءَ‭ ‬بِهٖ‭ ‬يَتُلُّهٗ‭ ‬تَلًّا‭ ‬عَنِيْفًا ‬‬‬‬ ‘Harshly dragged him along the ground just as one drags a goat and brought him back with him.’”

(Khutbat-e-Mahmud, Vol. 18, pp. 300-302)

Urwah bin Zubair relates that Marwan bin Hakam said that the year in which there was an outbreak of a disease which caused [severe] nosebleeds, Hazrat Uthman bin Affan (ra) also suffered greatly from this, to the extent that it prevented him from performing the Hajj and he even wrote down his will. In that moment, one of the Quraish approached him and said, “Elect someone as the Caliph,” i.e., due to his severe condition. Hazrat Uthman (ra) asked, “Have people made this request?” To which he replied in the affirmative. Hazrat Uthman (ra) asked who they wish to be appointed as the Caliph, but to this he remained silent. Then another person came, who the narrator says he believes was Harith, and he also asked him to appoint a Caliph. Hazrat Uthman (ra) asked, “Is this what the people are asking?” to which he replied, “Yes”. Hazrat Uthman (ra) asked, “Who should be the Caliph after me?”, to which the man remained silent. Hazrat Uthman (ra) then said, “Perhaps they desire to elect Hazrat Zubair (ra).” To which he replied, “Yes”. Hazrat Uthman (ra) then said, “By Him in Whose Hands is my life, as far as I know, he is the best among the people,” i.e., referring to Hazrat Zubair (ra), “and was the dearest to the Holy Prophet (sa).”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fazail Ashab al-Nabi (sa), Bab Manaqib al-Zubair bin al-Awwam, Hadith 3717)

Whilst mentioning the era of Hazrat Umar (ra), Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states: “Muslims always kept in their minds the following verse:

تُؤَدُّوا‭ ‬الْاَمٰنٰتِ‭ ‬اِلٰٓى‭ ‬اَهْلِهَا‬‬‬

“That is, ‘Only those individuals should be given this trust who are worthy of it and have the capability to deal with administrative issues.’ The people who were given this trust always remained mindful of the Quranic injunction that they must rule with integrity and justice. They knew that if they were unmindful of justice and were not entirely honest, or betrayed their trust, they would be answerable to God and would be punished for their sin. The above-mentioned Quranic injunctions were so deeply instilled in the personality of Hazrat Umar (ra) that one will find it astounding. He was the second Khalifa of Islam, who made tremendous sacrifices for the progress of Islam and Muslims.

“Even those European writers who routinely criticise the Holy Prophet (sa) – accusing him, God forbid, of dishonesty in his dealings – cannot but admit that the way Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra) worked tirelessly and selflessly in the service of mankind is unparalleled in history. These authors are especially complimentary to Hazrat Umar (ra). According to them, he was a man who worked with total dedication day and night to spread the message of Islam and to advance the Muslim cause. However, despite his tireless effort, countless sacrifices and the pain and suffering he endured for the sake of Muslims, what was his assessment about himself? He remained mindful of the following:

اِنَّ‭ ‬اللّٰهَ‭ ‬يَاْمُرُكُمْ‭ ‬اَنْ‭ ‬تُؤَدُّوا‭ ‬الْاَمٰنٰتِ‭ ‬اِلٰٓى‭ ‬اَهْلِهَا‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“And:

وَاِذَا‭ ‬حَكَمْتُمْ‭ ‬بَيْنَ‭ ‬النَّاسِ‭ ‬اَنْ‭ ‬تَحْكُمُوْا‭ ‬بِالْعَدْلِ‬‬‬‬‬‬

“That is, ‘When you are appointed to an office of trust by the decree of God, and your countrymen and brethren appoint you to the responsibility of governance, it is incumbent upon you to rule with justice and spend all your efforts and faculties for the welfare of mankind.’

“How painful is the following episode of his life! When a person – out of foolishness and ignorance that Hazrat Umar (ra) had been unjust – fatally stabbed him, Hazrat Umar (ra) lay in anguish on his deathbed with the following words on his lips:

اَللّٰهُمَّ‭ ‬لَا‭ ‬عَلَيَّ‭ ‬وَلَالِيْ۔‭ ‬اَللّٰهُمَّ‭ ‬لَا‭ ‬عَلَيَّ‭ ‬وَلَا‭ ‬لِيْ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

“His only thought was, ‘O Lord! You gave me this authority and trust. I do not know if I truly fulfilled my duty. Now the time of my death is near and I am about to leave this world and return to You. O my Lord! I do not ask for any compensation for my services and I do not seek any reward. Instead, I only seek your mercy. If I have done any wrong in discharging the responsibilities that were assigned to me, I seek your forgiveness.’

“Hazrat Umar (ra) was a man of such high calibre that it is hard to find other examples in history that come close to his sense of equity and justice, yet he died under the weight of the Quranic injunction:

وَاِذَا حَكَمْتُمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ اَنْ تَحْكُمُوْا بِالْعَدْلِ

Narration 1

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Look to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and observe that he was just an ordinary merchant in Mecca. If the Holy Prophet (sa) was not raised as a prophet and the history of Mecca was still recorded, all that would be said about Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) is that he was a noble and honest Arab merchant. However, for his devotion to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa), he attained a rank that granted him respect and reverence around the entire world. When the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away and when the Muslims elected Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) as their caliph and king, this news spread to Mecca. A large gathering had formed in which the father of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Abu Quhafah, was also present. When he heard that the people had pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), he could not come to terms with it. In astonishment, he asked the news bearer about which Abu Bakr he was referring to. He replied, ‘None other than your son, Abu Bakr.’ He began to site the names of every Arab tribe and asked, ‘Have they also pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr?’ And when he was told that everyone had unanimously chosen Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) to be their caliph and leader, then Abu Quhafah could not help but to remark:

أَشْهَدُ‭ ‬أَنْ‭ ‬لَّا‭ ‬إِلٰهَ‭ ‬إِلَّا‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬وَحْدَهُ‭ ‬لَا‭ ‬شَرِيْـكَ‭ ‬لَهُ‭ ‬وَأَشْهَدُ‭ ‬أَنَّ‭ ‬مُحَمَّدًا‭ ‬عَبْـدُهُ‭ ‬وَرَسُوْلُهُ

“That is, ‘I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah the Almighty and that the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa) is His servant and messenger.’”

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) continues:

“This was despite the fact that Hazrat Abu Quhafah (ra) was already a Muslim and had pledged allegiance to the Holy Prophet (sa). The reason he recited the declaration of faith and reaffirmed the prophethood of the Holy Prophet (sa) was because the caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was a stark realisation and he understood this to be a substantial proof of the truthfulness of Islam. [He said], ‘Otherwise, my son was not someone under whom all of Arabia could have united.’”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 6, pp. 205-206)

Narration 2

Whilst mentioning this on another occasion, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Ponder over the condition of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) prior to his acceptance of Islam. His father was still alive when he became the Khalifa and someone congratulated him that Abu Bakr (ra) had become the Khalifa. Upon this, he asked, ‘Which Abu Bakr?’ to which he replied, ‘Your son’. Even then he was not convinced and said it was probably someone else. However, when he was informed that indeed it was Abu Bakr (ra), he proclaimed, ‘Allah is the Greatest! How lofty is the grandeur of Muhammad (sa) in that the son of Abu Quhafah has been accepted by the Arabs as their leader!’ Thus, Abu Bakr (ra) possessed no worldly rank, but he attained such honour owing to his subservience to the Holy Prophet (sa) that even today hundreds of thousands of people are proud to associate themselves with him.”

(Khitab Jalsa Salana 17 March 1919, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 4, p. 425)

In reference to the pledge of allegiance at Saqifah Banu Sa‘idah, it is further reported that the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa) took place on a Monday. The people began pledging allegiance at the hands of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra). The remainder of that Monday, and on the morning of Tuesday, the collective bai‘at took place in the mosque.

Hazrat Anas (ra) bin Malik reports:

“The day after the (initial) bai‘at took place at Saqifah Bani Sa‘idah, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was seated in the mosque when Hazrat Umar (ra) stood to speak prior to him. He praised and glorified Allah, and then said, ‘O People, yesterday I said something to you’”, i.e. that the Holy Prophet (sa) had not passed away, “‘which is not mentioned in Allah’s book anywhere, nor did the Holy Prophet (sa) disclose this to me. However, I believed that the Holy Prophet (sa) would watch over us.’”

The narrator continues, “Hazrat Umar (ra) said, ‘I thought that we would pass away before the Holy Prophet (sa) and that he would be the last of us. Undoubtedly, Allah the Almighty has left you such a thing [the Holy Quran] through which he guided the Holy Prophet (sa), and if you are resolute in adhering to it, then Allah the Almighty will also guide you as just He guided the Holy Prophet (sa). Allah the Almighty has now entrusted your matters to a man who is the best among you, and who was the companion of the Holy Prophet (sa); it was he about whom it was said:

ثَانِيَ‭ ‬اثۡنَيۡنِ‭ ‬إِذۡ‭ ‬هُمَا‭ ‬فِي‭ ‬الۡغَارِ

“‘“i.e. he was one among the two, when they were in the cave”. Therefore, hearken and pledge allegiance to him.’ And thus, following this, the people pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).”

Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) delivered an address on the day that the collective bai‘at took place. After praising and glorifying Allah, he stated:

“O People! Surely, I have been appointed as a guardian over you, but I am not the best among you. If I perform good works, then cooperate with me, and if I stray, then set me right. Upholding the truth is a trust, and falsehood is a breach of that trust. In my view, the weak among you are strong until I am able to afford them their rights from others. And the strong among you are weak in my sight until I am able to secure from them the rights of others – God willing. A nation that abandons jihad (struggle) for the sake of Allah is disgraced by Him, and a nation in which wrongdoings become prevalent is stricken with strife by Allah Himself. If I am obedient to Allah and His Messenger (sa), then follow me in obedience. However, if I am disobedient to Allah and His Messenger (sa), then it is not compulsory for you to be obedient to me. Now, stand for prayer. May Allah have mercy on you all.”

(Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, Vol. 6, Sanah 11 AH, Khilafat Abi Bakr (ra) [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001] pp. 298-299)

Prior to his demise, Hazrat Umar (ra) formed a committee for the election of Khilafat. With regard to this, there is a detailed account found in Sahih Bukhari:

“When the time of Hazrat Umar’s (ra) demise was near, the people said to him, ‘O Leader of the Faithful! Appoint a successor after you as part of your will.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) said, ‘I do not find anyone more suitable for the station of Khilafat than the following persons whom the Holy Prophet (sa) had been pleased with before he passed away’. Then Hazrat Umar (ra) mentioned the names of Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Uthman (ra), Hazrat Zubair (ra), Hazrat Talha (ra), Hazrat Sa‘d (ra) and Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf and said, ‘Abdullah bin Umar (ra) will be a witness to you, but he will not be entitled to the station of Khilafat. This was said in order to grant comfort to Abdullah bin Umar (ra). If Khilafat is granted to Sa‘d (ra), then he will be Khalifa otherwise whoever becomes the Khalifa should continue to seek assistance from Sa‘d because I have not removed him from his position owing to any incompetence or dishonesty on his part.’

Hazrat Umar (ra) added, ‘I recommend that my successor takes care of the early Muhajireen [those Muslims who migrated to Medina]; to know their rights and to protect their honour. I also urge to show kindness to the Ansar, for they allowed faith to enter their homes in Medina even before the arrival of the Muhajireen. I recommend that he should accept their good works, and I recommend that he should do good to all the people of the towns, as they are the protectors of Islam and the source of wealth and a means of frustrating the enemy. I also recommend that nothing be taken from them except from their surplus with their consent.

I also recommend that he do good to the Arab Bedouins, as they are the natives of Arabia and they make up the core following of Islam. He should take that from among their possessions which they are not in need of and distribute it amongst their needy. I also recommend him concerning those people who are under the protection of Allah and His Messenger (sa); to fulfil the covenants that have been established with them and to defend them and not to overburden them with what is beyond their ability.’ When Hazrat Umar (ra) passed away, we walked out whilst carrying him. Abdullah bin Umar (ra) greeted Hazrat Aisha (ra) and said, ‘Umar bin al-Khattab seeks permission to enter.’ Hazrat Aisha (ra) said, ‘Bring him in.’ He was brought in and buried beside his two companions.

When he was buried, the individuals who were named by Hazrat Umar (ra) gathered together. Abdur Rahman(ra) then said, ‘Select any three candidates among you for Khilafat.’ Hazrat Zubair (ra) said, ‘I give up my right to vote to Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf.’ Abdur Rahman then said to Hazrat Uthman (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra), ‘‘Whichever of you withdraws their name, we will entrust him with the responsibility [in regards to who will be granted leadership] and Allah and Islam will be their guardian and Allah Almighty will choose the one Who He deems most worthy.’ Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) said, ‘Will you both leave this matter to me, and I take Allah as my Witness that I will not choose, but the better of you?’ Both of them agreed. So Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) took the hand of one of them and said, ‘You are related to Allah’s Messenger (sa) and you hold a lofty status within Islam, which you are aware of. I ask you by Allah to promise that if I select you as our leader will you do justice? And if I select Uthman (ra) as our leader, will you listen to him and obey him?’ Then Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) took the other aside and said the same to him. When Hazrat Abdur Rahman secured this covenant from both of them, he then said, ‘O Uthman (ra)! Extend your hand.’ Thus, Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) took the pledge of allegiance followed by Hazrat Ali (ra) and the members within the household also came and pledged their allegiance.”

(Kitabul Fazail Ashabin Nabi, Hadith 3700)

There are varying narrations in regard to Hazrat Ali (ra) pledging allegiance [bai‘at] to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) because according to some narrations, Hazrat Ali (ra) did not immediately and wholeheartedly pledge his allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), whereas others state the contrary.

Nevertheless, Hazrat Abu Saeed Khudri (ra) relates that when the Muhajireen and the Ansar had pledged their allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), he stood at the pulpit and looked towards the people, but was unable to find Hazrat Ali (ra) among them. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then enquired about Hazrat Ali (ra).

Some men from the Ansar went and brought Hazrat Ali (ra) with them. Addressing Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) said, “O paternal nephew of the Holy Prophet (sa) and his son-in-law! Do you wish to destroy the strength of the Muslims?”

Hazrat Ali (ra) replied, “O Khalifa of the Messenger (sa) of Allah! Do not rebuke me for this.” Following this, he pledged initiation to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).

(Sirat Amir-il-Momineen Ali bin Abi Talib Shakhsiyyatuh wa Asruh, p. 119, Vol. 2, Ali bin Abi Talib fi Ahd al-Khulafa al-Rashidin … Dar al-Ma‘rifah, Beirut, Lebanon, 2006) (Ibn Kathir, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dhikr E‘tiraf Saad bin Ubadah bi Sihhat Ma Qalahu al-Siddiq Yaum al-Saqifah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2005], 693)

In Tarikh al-Tabari, it is mentioned that Habib bin Abi Thabit relates that Hazrat Ali (ra) was in his home when an individual came to him and informed him that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was about to take the pledge of allegiance. Hazrat Ali (ra) was wearing a loose upper garment at the time. He immediately left the house, in a state where he was not wearing a waist-wrapper or his cloak, in fear of being delayed by this. Hence, he pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and sat down beside him. Following this, he sent for his clothes and got dressed, but remained seated in the company of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).

(Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 3, Hadith al-Saqifah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2002], 257)

Allama Ibn Kathir says that Hazrat Ali (ra) pledged allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) the very next day or the second day after the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa). This indeed is the reality as Hazrat Ali (ra) never stopped his support of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), nor did he ever abandon offering his prayer behind Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).

(Ibn Kathir, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dhikr E‘tiraf Saad bin Ubadah bi Sihhat Ma Qalahu al-Siddiq Yaum al-Saqifah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2005], 694)

There is a dream of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) as well. It is narrated that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) once saw in a dream that he was wearing a garment made from a Yemeni cloth; however, it had two stains on the chest area. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) related this dream before the Holy Prophet (sa) and the Holy Prophet (sa) stated, “The Yemeni garment means that you will be granted a good progeny and the two stains mean leadership for a period of two years, in other words you will be the leader of the Muslims for two years.”

(Kanz-ul-Ummal, Vol. 3, p. 253, Kitab al-Khilafah ma‘a al-Imarah, Hadith 14111, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2004)

Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Abbas relates that one day, Hazrat Ali (ra) bin Abi Talib came out of the house, in which the Holy Prophet (sa) was staying during his final illness prior to his demise. People enquired, “O Abul-Hasan! How is the Holy Prophet’s (sa) health this morning?” Hazrat Ali (ra) replied, “Alhamdolillah [all praise belongs to Allah], he is feeling better this morning.”

Upon this, Hazrat Abbas (ra) bin Abd-il-Muttalib took hold of Hazrat Ali’s (ra) hand and said “By God! You will be under the guardianship of someone else after three days because, by Allah, I can see that the Holy Prophet (sa) will soon pass away owing to this illness. The reason for this is that from my experience, I can tell when the people of the Banu Abd-il-Muttalib are near to their demise simply by looking at the condition of their faces. Come, let us go the Holy Prophet (sa) and ask him who will be entrusted with this matter now”, i.e. Khilafat, “and whether it is granted to someone from amongst us or to someone other than us; in either case we will find out and the Holy Prophet (sa) will impart us with some guidance in relation to it.”

Hazrat Ali (ra) replied, “By God! If we ask the Holy Prophet (sa) about this and he does not grant us this honour, then people will also not grant it to us following his demise. By God! I will certainly not ask the Holy Prophet (sa) in relation to this.” This narration is also taken from Bukhari.

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab al-Maghazi, Bab Maradh al-Nabisa Wafatuh, Hadith 4447; Translation by Hazrat Syed Zain-ul-Abidin Waliullah Shahra, Vol. 9, pp. 337-338)

The Arabic words which are mentioned in this narration of Bukhari are as follows:

أَنْتَ‭ ‬وَاللّٰهِ‭ ‬بَعْدَ‭ ‬ثَلَاثٍ‭ ‬عَبْدُالْعَصَا ‬‬‬‬ [By God! In three days, you will be under the guardianship of someone else.]

In relation to this, Hazrat Syed Waliullah Shah Sahib (ra) has added the following note in his book:

“To say that he shall fall under the guardianship of someone else after the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa) has in fact been used to indicate that the Holy Prophet (sa) would pass away after three days.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Translation by Hazrat Syed Zain-ul-Abidin Waliullah Shahra, Vol. 9, p. 337)

The details of how Allah the Almighty granted success to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) in order to completely eliminate these precarious circumstances, calamities and disorder will be mentioned further on. However, a detailed extract of the “The Just Arbiter”, the Promised Messiah (as), will be presented in which the Promised Messiah (as) has mentioned the similarities between Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and the first successor of Prophet Moses (as), Joshua, son of Nun, and also the difficulties and challenges faced by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and the victory and success he was granted. The Promised Messiah (as) writes:

“The verse whereby the resemblance between the successors of the Mosaic dispensation and the successors of the Holy Prophet (sa) has been categorically and emphatically declared as follows:

وَعَدَ‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬الَّذِينَ‭ ‬اٰمَنُواْ‭ ‬مِنكُمۡ‭ ‬وَعَمِلُواْ‭ ‬الصّٰلِحٰتِ‭ ‬لَيَسۡتَخۡلِفَنَّهُمۡ‭ ‬فِي‭ ‬الۡأَرۡضِ‭ ‬كَمَا‭ ‬اسۡتَخۡلَفَ‭ ‬الَّذِينَ‭ ‬مِن‭ ‬قَبۡلِهِمۡ

“That is, ‘Allah has promised to those among you who believe and do good works that He will surely, make them Successors in the earth, as He made Successors from among those who were before them.’ [Ch.24: V.56]

“When we ponder over the word that signifies resemblance and thus makes it incumbent for there to be similarities between the successors of the Holy Prophet (sa) and the successors of Prophet Moses (as), we must accept that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was to establish the first foundation of this similarity and the final similarity was to be demonstrated by the Messiah, who was the last Khalifa of the Holy Prophet (sa).

“The similitude of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), who was the first Khalifa, is like that of Joshua, son of Nun. After the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), God chose him for the station of Khilafat and He breathed in him a spirit of wisdom more than He did to anyone else. To the extent that all doubts and difficulties that could have arisen in the time of the Seal of the Caliphs [i.e. the Promised Messiah], regarding the false belief that Jesus [son of Mary] was alive, had been removed by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) with the utmost clarity. The companions unanimously accepted that all previous prophets had passed away and not a single one of them believed otherwise. In fact, all the companions obeyed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) in all matters, just like the Israelites obeyed Joshua, son of Nun, after the death of Moses (as). God provided succour and help to Moses and Joshua, just as he supported the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) after him.”

“Yashu” son of Nun and “Yusha” son of Nun are the names of the same person.

(Qamus al-Kitab, p. 1144, Under the word “Yusha”)

The Promised Messiah (as) further states:

“In reality, just as He did with Joshua, son of Nun, God Almighty blessed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) so much so that no enemy could challenge him. Similarly, the unfinished matter of Usama’s (ra) army, which was similar to the tasks that remained unfinished in the time of Moses (as), was fulfilled by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).

“There is another extraordinary similarity between Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Joshua, and that is when Moses (as) passed away, the first person Allah the Almighty informed, by means of revelation, was Joshua. This was to save the Jews from falling into doubt or error with regard to the death of Moses (as), as has been mentioned in the opening chapter of the book of Joshua (as) [in the Old Testament]. In the same manner, the first person to accept wholeheartedly that the Holy Prophet (sa) had passed away was Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). He kissed the blessed body of the Holy Prophet (sa) and said, ‘You were pure in this life and even after death you remain pure.’ Then, before a large gathering, he removed all those doubts with regard to the Holy Prophet (sa) being alive that had persisted in the mind of some companions, by reciting a verse of the Holy Quran. At the same time, he uprooted the belief held by certain people – owing to not pondering over the sayings of the Holy Prophet (sa) – that the Messiah (as) [son of Mary] was alive. Just as Joshua (as), destroyed the enemies of the faith who spread falsehood and disorder, in the same way, many mischief-makers and false claimants of prophethood were killed at the hands of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).

“Prophet Moses (as) died in such a precarious time when the Israelites had not yet attained victory against the Canaanites, and were yet to accomplish many feats. All the while the cries of the enemies grew even more prominent after the death of Moses (as) which created an even more perilous situation. Likewise, a dangerous period followed the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa). Many tribes in Arabia abandoned their faith, some refused to pay the Zakat and many false claimants to prophethood rose up. Such perilous time required a strong, brave and valiant Khalifa, who had unwavering faith and determination, and thus Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was appointed the Khalifa. And as soon as he was appointed as the Khalifa, he had to face many great sorrows and hardship, as explained by the saying of Hazrat Aisha (ra) that ‘owing to dissension and rebellion, some tribes rose up as did certain false claimants to prophethood. They did this at a time when my father had been appointed as the Khalifa after the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa). So many trials and sorrows befell him, that had they descended upon a mountain, it would have broken into pieces and fallen to the ground.’ However, it is the law of nature that whenever a Khalifa is appointed after the demise of a prophet, a spirit is breathed into them, which instils them with bravery, courage, resolve, wisdom and a strong heart; just like Allah the Almighty says to Joshua son of Nun in the Book of Joshua, chapter 1, verse 6, ‘Be strong and of good courage.’ That is to say that since Moses (as) had passed away, now he must stand strong. The same was revealed upon the heart of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) not as an injunction of the Sharia, but as a divine decree. The equivalence and similarity in the incidents make it seem as though Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah and Joshua, son of Nun are the same person. The similarity of their successorship has become established with the utmost clarity. When looking at the similarities between two established communities, it is natural to look at the first person or the last person. Usually, people do not consider it necessary to look at the similarities during the middle period of both communities, which requires more careful investigation and research. Instead, it is based on the first and last. For this reason, the similarities between Joshua and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) – who were the first Caliphs of their respective communities – and also the similarities between Jesus, son of Mary, and the Promised Messiah of this Ummah – who were the last caliphs of their respective communities, have become manifest with full clarity. For example, the resemblance between Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Joshua is so striking that it is as if they are one person, like two pieces of the same gemstone. Thus, after the demise of Moses (as), all of the Israelites hearkened to the call of Joshua and none from among them quarrelled in this matter and instead obeyed him, so too did this incident take place in the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). Despite shedding tears at the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), everyone wholeheartedly accepted the Khilafat of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).

“Thus, from every aspect, the similarity of Joshua (as) with Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) can be proven. God supported Joshua (as) with His divine succour, as he would support Moses (as). In the same manner, God blessed the work of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) for all the companions to see, and his prestige grew just as it does in the case of prophets. Having been imbued with power and might from God Almighty, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) destroyed the false claimants of prophethood and those who tried to create disorder. This was so the companions, may Allah be pleased with them, understand that Allah is with Abu Bakr (ra), just as he was with the Holy Prophet (sa).

“Another remarkable similarity between Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Joshua (as), son of Nun is that after the demise of Prophet Moses (as), Joshua had to cross a dangerous river called the Jordan River, along with his army. The river was turbulent and to cross it seemed impossible. However, if they were not able to cross this dangerous river, it was plausible that the Israelites would perish at the hands of their enemies. Thus, after the demise of Prophet Moses (as), this was the first perilous situation faced by Joshua (as) in his ministry. During this trial, God Almighty saved Joshua (as), son of Nun and his army through the power of His miracle and caused the river to dry up, which enabled them to cross over easily. The reason it dried was due to the ebb and flow of the river or then an extraordinary miracle. Nonetheless, this is how God saved the Israelites from this danger and from perishing at the hands of the enemy. After the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), the rightful caliph – Abu Bakr (ra) – and the companions, who numbered more than 100,000 faced a similar grave situation, in fact, it was even more dangerous; that was in the form of a fierce rebellion which swept throughout the land. It was certain that those Arab Bedouins, regarding whom Allah the Almighty had said:

قَالَتِ الۡأَعۡرَابُ ءَامَنَّا ۖ قُل لَّمۡ تُؤۡمِنُواْ وَلٰكِنْ قُولُوٓاْ أَسۡلَمۡنَا وَلَمَّا يَدۡخُلِ الۡإِيمٰنُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمۡ

would show dissent, so that this prophecy would be fulfilled.”

The translation of the verse is: “The Arabs of the desert say, ‘We believe.’ Say, ‘You have not believed yet, but rather say, ‘We have submitted’, for true belief has not yet entered into your hearts.’”

Nonetheless, the Promised Messiah (as) continues:

“This is exactly what transpired and they all became apostates. Some of them refused to pay the Zakat and some claimed to be prophets and several hundreds of thousands of wretched individuals rallied behind them. The force of the enemies grew so much that the number of the companions was no match in comparison. A fierce storm of opposition swept throughout the land. This scenario was far more dangerous than the one faced by Joshua (as), son of Nun. After the demise of Moses (as), Joshua (as) was embroiled in a grave trial, whereby they faced a tempestuous river and had no boats with which to cross it; all the while the threat of the enemy lingered around them. Similarly, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was faced with the trial of the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), as well as a storm of opposition from the rebelling Arab tribes. A second trial – which was in the form of false claimants of prophethood – gave strength to the first trial. This trial was not anything less than the trial faced by Joshua (as), son of Nun, but in fact was much more dangerous. Thus, the Word of God gave strength to Joshua (as), wherein He stated, ‘the Lord your God will be with you wherever you go’, and, ‘Be strong and brave. Do not be discouraged.’ This gave strength to Joshua (as) and filled him with resolve and faith, the like of which develops when one is reassured by God. Likewise, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) drew strength from God when faced with a storm of rebellion. Anyone who is familiar with this period of Islamic history can concur that the trial faced by Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was so grave, that were it not for the Hand of God beside Abu Bakr (ra), and if Islam was not a religion sent by God and if Abu Bakr (ra) was not the true Caliph, then on that day, Islam would have been annihilated. So, as was the case with Prophet Joshua (as), Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) also drew strength from God’s pure word, because God Almighty had previously foretold of this trial in the Holy Quran. Thus, whosoever deliberates over the following verse, will become certain beyond any doubt that this trial had already been mentioned in the Holy Quran; and that prophecy was:

وَعَدَ اللّٰهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنكُمۡ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـٰلِحَٰتِ لَيَسۡتَخۡلِفَنَّهُمۡ فِي الۡأَرۡضِ كَمَا اسۡتَخۡلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ وَلَيُمَكِّننَنَّ لَهُمۡ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارۡتَضَىٰ لَهُمۡ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُم مِّنۢ بَعۡدِ خَوۡفِهِمۡ أَمۡنًا ۚ يَعۡبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشۡرِكُونَ بِي شَيۡـًٔا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ بَعۡدَ ذٰلِكَ فَأُوْلَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ الۡفٰسِقُوْنَ

“Meaning that ‘Allah has promised the pious believers that he would make them successors in the earth, similar to the successors He made in the past and would appoint vicegerents in this ummah, like he appointed vicegerents after Prophet Moses (as).’”

The Promised Messiah (as) has himself written this explanatory translation.

The Promised Messiah (as) further says:

“’He would appoint vicegerents in this ummah, like he appointed vicegerents after Prophet Moses (as) and he would establish for them their religion, (i.e. Islam) which He has chosen for them, He would reinforce this religion and give them in exchange security and peace after their fear. They will worship Me, and they will not associate anything with Me’. Deliberate over this verse which clearly states that there will be a period of fear wherein peace would fade away. However, God will transform this period of fear into a period of peace and security. Thus, this period of fear fell upon Joshua (as), son of Nun, and just as the Word of God assured him, in the same way, the Word of God assured Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra).”

(Tohfah Golarwiyyah, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 17, pp. 183-189)

In relation to what the condition was of those delegations who refused to pay the Zakat and were now returning from Medina after having seen Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) take this stand, one historian says:

“When these delegations saw Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) resolve, they left Medina and returned. However, as they were leaving Medina, they were contemplating two matters. Firstly, no discussion in relation to not paying the Zakat would be fruitful. The Islamic injunction in this regard was clear and it did not seem possible that the Khalifa would change his stance and resolve, especially as the Muslims agreed with his view and were ready to support him as the matter had become clear and evident to them. Secondly, in order to take advantage of the weakness and lack of numbers of Muslims they would launch such a severe attack on Medina, which would topple the Muslim government and put an end to this religion.”

(Muhammad al-Salabi, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) shakhsiyyat aur Karname [Muzaffar Garh, Pakistan: Maktabat al-Furqan], p. 278)

This was the view they held. They believed that in this way, they would be able to finish their religion and conquer them.

The Promised Messiah (as) states:

“It is vital to believe that Siddiq-e-Akbar (ra) [Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra)], Hazrat Farooq-e-Umar (ra) [Hazrat Umar Farooq (ra)], Hazrat Dhun-Nurain (ra) [Hazrat Uthman (ra)] and Hazrat Ali Murtaza (ra) were all the custodians of the faith.”

(Maktubat-e-Ahmad, Vol. 2, p. 151, Maktub Number 2, Maktub ba Nam Hazrat Sahib Muhammad Ali Khan Sahib)

I have previously spoken about Hazrat Uthman’s (ra) martyrdom and Hazrat Ali’s (ra) election as Khalifa in detail, but I will briefly mention it again. When Hazrat Uthman (ra) was martyred, everyone rushed towards Hazrat Ali (ra), among whom were the Companions as well as others. They unanimously proclaimed that Hazrat Ali (ra) was the “Leader of the Faithful”. They came to Hazrat Ali’s (ra) house and wished to perform the bai‘at. They asked Hazrat Ali (ra) to extend his hand for the bai‘at as he was most worthy.

Hazrat Ali (ra) responded, “This is not your job to decide; rather, this is a matter for the Companions of Badr. Thus, the Khalifa will be the one whoever the Companions of Badr choose.”

All of the people gathered around Hazrat Ali (ra) and said, “We do not see anyone more worthy than you for this office. Therefore, extend your hand so we can pledge allegiance.”

Hazrat Ali (ra) enquired of the whereabouts of Talha (ra) and Zubair (ra). The first person to verbally pledge allegiance was Hazrat Talha (ra) and the first person to pledge allegiance at the hands of Hazrat Ali (ra) was Hazrat Saad (ra). Subsequently, Hazrat Ali (ra) headed towards the mosque and stood up on the pulpit. Hazrat Talha (ra) was the first person to climb the pulpit and pledge allegiance to Hazrat Ali (ra), followed by Hazrat Zubair (ra) and the other companions.

(Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 4, Dhikr Ali bin Abi Talib (ra) [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2008], 107)

Hazrat Samurah bin Jundub narrates that a man said, “O Messenger (sa) of Allah! I saw a bucket hanging from the sky. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) came, held both ends of its wooden handle and drank a little from it. Next came Hazrat Umar (ra) who held both ends of its wooden handle and drank from it to his fill. Next came Hazrat Uthman (ra) who caught hold of both ends of its handle and drank of it to his fill. Next came Hazrat Ali (ra). He held both ends of its handle, but it sprayed out and some water from it fell on him.”

(Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab al-Sunnah, Bab fi al-Khulafa, Hadith 2637)

This was also an indication of the order of Khilafat. Hazrat Ali’s (ra) era of Khilafat was one of disorder and turmoil. There was an indication to this in that he was not able to drink from it properly.

On another occasion, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Hazrat Umar’s (ra) Khilafat was further away from the era of the Holy Prophet (sa) as compared to the Khilafat of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). The same was the case with Hazrat Uthman (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra). Undoubtedly their rank was lesser than that of the Caliphs before them. However, the incidents that occurred in the time of Hazrat Uthman (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra) were not as a result of them being lower in rank, but it was owing to the distance from the era of the Holy Prophet (sa). The reason for this is that the majority of the people present during the eras of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra) were those who had spent time in the company of the Holy Prophet (sa). However, later on, those who had not enjoyed the company of the Holy Prophet (sa) became more influential. Thus, a person once asked Hazrat Ali (ra) the reason why the conflict and discord witnessed in his time were not witnessed in the eras of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra)? To this, Hazrat Ali (ra) replied, ‘The fact of the matter is that the people serving under Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra) were like me and the people serving under me in this era are like you.’”

(Jamaat-e-Ahmadiyya aur Hamari Zimmadarian, Anwar al-Ulum, Vol. 5, p. 95)

Whilst explaining this in relation to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), the Promised Messiah (as) says:

“Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) has done such a great favour to this Ummah that it cannot be adequately thanked. Had he not gathered all the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, in the Prophet’s (sa) Mosque and recited this verse to them that all the previous Prophets had died, the Ummah would have perished. For, in that case, today’s mischievous ulema would have contended that the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, too believed that Hazrat ‘Isa is alive. But now, due to Siddique the Great presenting this aforementioned verse, an ijma‘ has formed among all the Companions that all past Prophets had died—even couplets were composed reflecting this consensus. May God shower thousands of blessings upon Abu Bakr’s soul. He saved all souls from perdition. All the Companions were included in this ijma‘, not even a single one of them was out of it. It was the first ijma‘ of the Companions and was an act deserving of the utmost gratitude. There is a mutual similarity between Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, and the Promised Messiah, namely, the promise of God, in the Holy Qur’an, regarding both of them was that they would appear at a time when a state of fear will prevail upon Islam and a chain of apostasy will start. So, that is exactly what happened in the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr, and in the time of the Promised Messiah. That is, in the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr hundreds of ignorant Arabs had turned apostate after the demise of the Holy Prophet, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and there remained only two mosques where prayers were held. Hazrat Abu Bakr re-established them on Islam. Similarly, in the time of the Promised Messiah hundreds of thousands of people renounced Islam and became Christians. Both these circumstances are mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, that is, they are mentioned by way of a prophecy.”

(Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya, Part 5, pp. 379-380 footnote, [English edition])

Whilst mentioning the conditions in which Hazrat Ali (ra) was elected as the Khalifa, Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) states:

“When Hazrat Uthman (ra) was martyred, seeing that the discord among Muslims was growing, the companions present in Medina went to Hazrat Ali (ra) and insisted that he ought to take the Bai‘at of the people. At the same time, some from among the rebels also went to Hazrat Ali (ra) and said that the Islamic government was close to being divided. They stated that he ought to take the Bai‘at of the people, so that the state of fear could be vanquished and peace could be restored. Thus, the people urged Hazrat Ali (ra) to take the Bai‘at and having refused on a number of occasions, he accepted this responsibility and began taking the Bai‘at of the people. At the time, some prominent Companions were outside of Medina. Some were forced to take the Bai‘at. In this regard, we find mention that Hakim bin Jabla and Malik Ashtar were sent along with a few men brandishing their swords in order to compel Hazrat Talha (ra) and Hazrat Zubair (ra) to take the Bai‘at, i.e. they stood around them with their swords drawn and told them to accept Hazrat Ali (ra) or else they will be killed.

With regard to Hazrat Uthman’s (ra) Khilafat, there is a prophecy of the Holy Prophet (sa). It has been mentioned briefly before regarding the wearing of a cloak and the hypocrites taking it off. This tradition is narrated by Hazrat Abu Bakarahra that one day, the Holy Prophet (sa) asked, “Has anyone among you seen a dream?” One person said that he had seen [a dream] that a scale descended from the Heavens and the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) were weighed against one another and the Holy Prophet (sa) was heavier. Then, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was weighed against Hazrat Umar (ra) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was heavier. Then Hazrat Umar (ra) was weighed against Hazrat Uthman (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra) was heavier. Then the scales were raised back up to the Heavens. We looked to the face of the Holy Prophet (sa) and saw that he was displeased by this.” The Holy Prophet (sa) was not overjoyed by this dream but instead he was greatly displeased.

(Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab al-Sunnah, Bab fi al-Khulafa, Hadith 2634)

Another narration is as follows: Hazrat Jabir bin Abdillah (ra) narrates that the Holy Prophet (sa) once said, “In the night, a righteous person was shown in a dream that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was joined with the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Umar (ra) was joined to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Uthman (ra) was joined with Hazrat Umar (ra).” Hazrat Jabir (ra) further narrates, “When the Holy Prophet (sa) stood up to depart, we said that the righteous person represented the Holy Prophet (sa) and for some of them to be joined to others meant that these people would be the rulers over this matter”, i.e. faith, “which Allah the Almighty established through His Prophet (sa).”

(Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab al-Sunnah, Bab fi al-Khulafa, Hadith 2636)

Whilst mentioning the Khilafat that followed after the Holy Prophet (sa), Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Observe how Khilafat was established after the Holy Prophet (sa), and how wonderfully so. After his demise, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) became the Khalifa. At the time, the Ansar desired for there to be a caliph from among them and one from among the Muhajirin. Having heard this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), Hazrat Umar (ra) and some other companions immediately made their way to where the Ansar had gathered. He said, ‘It is wrong for there to be two caliphs and that Islam would not progress through division. There will only be one caliph. If you create division there will be disorder, your honour will be lost and the Arabs will tear you apart, so do not do this.’

“Some of the Ansar began presenting some arguments to him. Hazrat Umar (ra) narrates, ‘I assumed that Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) did not possess the ability to deliver a speech, and so I should speak to the Ansar. However, when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) addressed them he presented all the points I had in mind.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) continues, ‘In fact, he presented even more points. Seeing this, I thought to myself that today, this elderly gentleman has surpassed me.’ In the end, the grace of Allah was such that people from among the Ansar themselves stood up and proclaimed that whatever Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had said was correct and that the Arabs would obey none other than the Meccans. One Ansari passionately said, ‘O my people, Allah the Almighty sent His Messenger (sa) to this nation. His kin drove him out of his city and we gave him a place in our homes, then as a result of this Allah Almighty granted us honour. We, of Medina, were without repute and lowly, but due to the Messenger (sa), we gained honour and repute. Hence, we should deem all of this sufficient for us and not become desirous for more, lest it harms us.’

“Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) then said, ‘It is vital to establish a Caliphate, so elect who you please as the Caliph, I myself have no desire to become the Caliph.’ Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) further said, ‘This is Abu Ubaidah (ra) bin al-Jarrah, he was granted the title of “Custodian of the Ummah” by the Holy Prophet (sa), so you may pledge your allegiance to him. There is also Umar (ra) who is an unsheathed sword of Islam, so you may pledge allegiance to him.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) said, ‘Abu Bakr (ra), that is enough, give your hand and accept our pledge of allegiance.’ Allah the Almighty instilled this courage in the heart of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and he accepted their pledge of allegiance.”

(Majlis Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya Markaziyyah ke Salanah Ijtema 1956 mein Khitabat, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 25, pp. 402-403)

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was the leader of the entire Muslim world, but what did he receive? Despite having complete control over the public funds, he never took any of it for himself. Although Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was a very successful merchant, since he had the habit that whatever wealth he received he would immediately spend it in the way of God Almighty, therefore it so happened that upon the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa) when he became the Khalifa, he did not have any money in cash at the time. The very next day after becoming the Khalifa, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) took a small bag of clothes and left in order to sell it. Hazrat Umar (ra) happened to meet him on the way and enquired what he was doing. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) replied that after all he had to do something in order to eat; if he did not sell those clothes, how would he provide for himself. Hazrat Umar (ra) stated that this would not be plausible, because if he spent his time selling clothes, who would fulfil the responsibilities of the Caliph? Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) replied, ‘If I do not do this, how will I survive?’ Hazrat Umar (ra) said that he should take some allowance from the bait-ul-maal. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stated that he could not bear to take anything from the bait-ul-maal because he had no right over it. Hazrat Umar (ra) stated that when the Holy Quran had permitted that the funds of the bait-ul-maal could be spent on those who served their faith then why could he not take it. And so, an allowance was fixed for Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) from the bait-ul-maal. The amount that was fixed was just sufficient enough to cover the expense for food and clothes.”

(Tafsir-e-Kabir, Vol. 8, p. 468.)

Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) name was Abdullah and his father’s name was Uthman bin Amir. His appellation was Abu Bakr, and Atiq and Siddiq were his titles. It is said that he was born in 573 CE, two and a half years after Aam-ul-Fil [Year of the Elephant]. As I have mentioned, Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) name was Abdullah. He was from the Quraish and belonged to the tribe of Banu Taym bin Murrah. In the period of jahiliyyah [era of ignorance prior to the advent of Islam], his name was Abdul Ka‘bah, which the Holy Prophet (sa) changed to Abdullah. His father’s name was Uthman bin Amir and his appellation was Abu Quhafah. His mother’s name was Salma bint Sakhar bin Amir and her title was Umm-ul-Khair. According to one tradition, the name of his mother was Laila bint Sakhar.

(Ibn Abd al-Barr, Al-Isti‘ab fi Ma‘rifat al-Ashab, Vol. 3, Abdullah bin Abi Quhafah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2002], pp. 91-92) (Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Wa min Bani Taym bin Murrah bin Kaab [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, 1996], p. 90) (Ali Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghabah fi Ma‘rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 3, Abdullah bin Uthman [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, 2003], p. 204) (Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Al-Isabah fi Tamyiz al-Sahabah, Vol. 4 [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2005], p. 145)

“The people said, ‘O Leader of the Faithful! Appoint a successor after you as part of your will.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) said, ‘I do not find anyone more suitable for the station of Khilafat than the following persons whom the Holy Prophet (sa) had been pleased with before he passed away’. Then Hazrat Umar (ra) mentioned the names of Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Uthman (ra), Hazrat Zubair (ra), Hazrat Talha (ra), Hazrat Saad (ra) and Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf. Hazrat Umar (ra) also stated,’ Abdullah (ra) bin Umar will be a witness to you, but he will not be entitled to the station of Khilafat.’ Hazrat Umar (ra) then said, ‘If Khilafat is granted to Saad (ra), then he will be Khalifa, otherwise whoever becomes the Khalifa should continue to seek assistance from Saad (ra) because I have not removed him from his office owing to any incompetence or dishonesty on his part.’

“Hazrat Umar (ra) further stated, ‘I first and foremost recommend that my successor takes care of the Muhajireen; to know their rights and to protect their honour. I also urge to show kindness to the Ansar, for they allowed faith to enter their homes in Medina even before the arrival of the Muhajireen. I recommend that he should accept the good deeds from among them and whoso is at fault from among them, they ought to be forgiven. I recommend that he should do good to all the people of the towns, as they are the protectors of Islam and the source of wealth and a means of frustrating the enemy. I also recommend that nothing be taken from them except from their surplus with their consent.

“I also recommend that he (i.e. the next Khalifa) do good to the Arab Bedouins, as they are the natives of Arabia and they make up the core following of Islam. He should take that from among their possessions which they are not in need of and distribute it amongst their needy. I also recommend him concerning those people who are under the protection of Allah and His Messenger (sa), to fulfil the covenants that have been established with them and to defend them and not to overburden them with what is beyond their ability.’

“When Hazrat Umar (ra) passed away, we took him and set out on foot. Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Umar greeted Hazrat Aisha (ra) and said that Umar bin al-Khattab sought permission to enter. Hazrat Aisha (ra) said he should be brought in, and so he was taken in and laid beside his two friends. After his burial, the men who had been named by Hazrat Umar (ra) gathered for the election of the next Khalifah and thus that process commenced.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fada‘il Ashab al-Nabi (sa), Bab Qissat al-Bai‘ah wa al-Ittifaq ala Uthman bin Affan, Hadith 3700) (Umdat al-Qari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 16, p. 292, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 2001) (Lughat al-Hadith, Vol. 1, p. 137, Barnas, Nu‘mani Kutub Khana, Lahore, 2005)

There are some details with regard to Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) allowance being fixed after he was appointed as the Khalifa. After becoming the Khalifa, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) came to Medina. Upon assessing his responsibilities, he realised that he would not be able to properly deal with the affairs of the people if he was still engaged in his trade business. Hence, it was essential for him to be completely free from all other tasks in order to remain completely focused [on the affairs of the people], but at the same time, he also had to provide for his household. And so, he left his trade business and would take some funds daily from the bait-ul-maal [treasury] in order to cover his and his family’s expenses. A yearly allowance of 6,000 dirhams was approved to be taken from the Bait-ul-Maal for his personal expenses.

(Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2, Sanah 13 AH [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1987], p. 354)

This was sufficient enough to cover his and his family’s needs. However, as the time of his demise drew near, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) instructed his family members that the money he had taken from the bait-ul-maal should be returned in its entirety. He instructed that such and such land of his should be sold and whatever he had taken from the wealth of the Muslims till that day ought to be repaid from the sale of that land. After the demise of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), when Hazrat Umar (ra) became the Khalifa, he received the money [from that land] and upon this he began to cry and said, “O Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra)! You have left a huge burden of responsibility upon the successor after you.”

(Muhammad Husain Haikal, Hazrat Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra)[Book Corner, Jhelum], p. 122)

The tribes of Asad, Ghatfan and Tayy gathered at the hand of Tulaihah bin Khuwailid, who had made a false claim to prophethood. Except for a few individuals, the people belonging to the tribe of Asad gathered at a place called Samira. This place has been named after an individual from the tribe of Aad, situated on the way to Mecca. This area is surrounded by black mountains, which is the reason for this place to be named as such. The people of Fuzarah and Ghatfan gathered in the south of Tiwah alongside their allies. [The people of] Tayy gathered at the outskirts of their area. The supporters from [the tribes of] Tha‘labah bin Saad, Murrah and Abs gathered at a place called Abraq in Rabazah. Rabazah is also a valley of Medina, located at a distance of three days. Abraq al-Zabadah was one of the places that belonged to the tribe of Zubyan. Some individuals from Banu Kinanah also joined them. However, those areas could not accommodate them and as such, two groups were formed. One group remained in Abraq, whereas the other group went to Dhul-Qassah, which is located at a distance of 40 miles from Medina. Tulaihah sent Hibal to their aid. Hibal was the nephew of Tulaihah. Nevertheless, in this manner, Hibal became the leader of the people in Dhul-Qassah, which also included supporters from the tribes of Asad, Lays, Beel and Mudlij. Auf bin Fulan bin Sinan was appointed as the leader of the tribe of Murrah, which was staying in Abraq. Haris bin Fulan, who belonged to the tribe of Subayh, was appointed as the leader of the tribes of Tha‘labah and Abs. All of these tribes gathered together and each tribe sent its respective delegation to Medina. These people stayed with the elders of Medina. All of them, with the exception of Hazrat Abbas (ra), accommodated them as their guests and brought them to Abu Bakr (ra). The condition that had been stipulated, however, was that they would continue to offer their prayers, but not give the Zakat. Allah had firmly grounded Abu Bakr (ra) on the truth and he said, “Even if they refuse to give so much as this rope [as Zakat], which they use to tie their camels, I will fight against them.”

(Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 2, 11 AH [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2012], pp. 254-255) (Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 2001], p. 434) (Yaqut Ibn Abd Allah al-Hamawi, Mu‘jam al-Buldan [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah], Vol. 3, 67, 290, Vol. 1, p. 89) (Sayyid Fadl al-Rahman, Farhang-e-Sirat [Karachi, Pakistan: Zawwar Academy Publications, 2003], p. 236)

In any case, these people returned to their tribes and said that there are very few people in Medina at this time and incited them to launch an attack. But on the other hand, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) was not unaware of this. After these delegations returned from Medina, he appointed guards to continuously keep watch at every post of Medina. Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Zubair (ra), Hazrat Talhah (ra) and Hazrat Abdullah (ra) bin Mas‘ud were appointed for this task. In one narration, Hazrat Saad (ra) bin Abi Waqas and Hazrat Abdur Rahman (ra) bin Auf are also mentioned to have been appointed to keep watch.

Aside from this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) instructed all the people of Medina to gather in the mosque. He then said to them, “All the people of the land have become disbelievers, and their delegations have left having seen your small numbers. You do not know if they will attack you during the day or the night. Their closest group among them is only one bareed away.” One bareed is equivalent to 12 miles. “Some among them desired for us to accept their terms and to accommodate them, but we refused this and rejected their terms. Therefore, you must prepare to fight.”

Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud (ra) states:

“The Promised Messiah’s (as) advent took place in the same manner as the advent of Prophet Noah (as), Prophet Abraham (as), Prophet David (as), Prophet Solomon (as) and the other prophets. And after the Promised Messiah (as), the institution of Khilafat was established just as it was established after the prophets who appeared in the past. If we carefully ponder over this and try to delve into its true reality, we will come to realise that this is an extraordinary institution” i.e. the institution of Khilafat. “In fact, I say that even if 10,000 successive generations of an offspring were to be sacrificed for its sake, it will amount to nothing in comparison. I cannot say for others, but at least when I study the history from the time of the Holy Prophet (sa) and read about the troubles and afflictions Hazrat Uthman (ra) was made to endure, and on the other hand, the faith and the spiritual light which the Holy Prophet (sa) had instilled within him, then I say that even if 10,000 generations from my future offspring in this world were all to be gathered and sacrificed at once, so that this disorder could be quelled, then I would deem this to be akin to [the proverbial expression of] purchasing an elephant in exchange of a lice.”

In other words, this [act of sacrifice] would be even less than giving something extremely small like an insect and in exchange acquiring an elephant.

“The fact is that we only realise the true value of something much later. It was only after the martyrdom of Hazrat Uthman (ra) that people realised the true importance of Khilafat.”

(Nubuwwat aur Khilafat apne Waqt par Zuhoor Pazeer ho jati hai, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 18, p. 246)

Hazrat Musleh Maud (ra) further states:

“After Hazrat Umar (ra), the gaze of all the companions fell upon Hazrat Uthman (ra) for the station of Khilafat and thus, he was appointed for this task through the consultation of the eminent companions. He was the son-in-law of the Holy Prophet (sa) and two daughters of the Holy Prophet (sa) were wedded to him one after another. When the second daughter of the Holy Prophet (sa) passed away, the Holy Prophet (sa) said that if he had another daughter, he would marry her to Hazrat Uthman (ra) as well. This shows that he held a special rank of honour in the sight of the Holy Prophet (sa). He held a very unique position in the sight of the people of Mecca and was a wealthy man according to the circumstances of Arabia at the time. After Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) accepted Islam, one of the people to whom he particularly chose to preach the message of Islam was Hazrat Uthman (ra). The view of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) with respect to Hazrat Uthman (ra) did not prove false and only after a few days of preaching, he accepted Islam. In this manner, he joined the ‘as-sabiqunal-awwalun’ or that pioneer group of Islam which the Holy Quran has praised in admirable words.

“The degree of honour and respect that he possessed in Arabia can be gauged from the incident when the Holy Prophet (sa) journeyed to Mecca on the basis of a vision, and the Meccans, blinded by their malice and enmity, refused to grant him permission to perform the Umrah, the Holy Prophet (sa) proposed that an esteemed person should be sent to the Meccans to negotiate the matter. When Hazrat Umar (ra) was selected for this, he replied, ‘O Messenger (sa) of Allah, I am prepared to go, but if there is anyone in Mecca who can negotiate with the Meccans, then it is Hazrat Uthman (ra) because he holds special regard in their eyes. Hence, if someone else was to go, there cannot be as much hope for success in him as opposed to if Hazrat Uthman (ra) went.’

“The Holy Prophet (sa) also considered this view as being correct and consequently sent Hazrat Uthman (ra) for the task. It can be understood from this incident that Hazrat Uthman (ra) was looked upon with special honour even by the disbelievers.

“The Holy Prophet (sa) held a great deal of respect for Hazrat Uthman (ra). On one occasion, the Holy Prophet (sa) was lying down when Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) arrived, but the Holy Prophet (sa) remained lying. After some time, Hazrat Umar (ra) arrived, but again, he remained lying. When Hazrat Uthman (ra) arrived, he instantly adjusted his clothes and said, ‘There is a great deal of modesty in the disposition of Hazrat Uthman (ra), and it is in consideration of his feelings that I have done this.’ He (i.e. Hazrat Uthman (ra)) was one of those rare men who had never consumed alcohol and had never approached adultery even prior to accepting Islam. In the country of Arabia, where drinking alcohol was thought to be a source of pride and adultery a daily indulgence, these were qualities [i.e. to abstain from these ills] which could not be found in more than a handful of people before Islam.

“Therefore, Hazrat Uthman (ra) was no ordinary man. He possessed very high moral qualities. With respect to worldly rank, he was exceptional. He was the foremost in Islam. The Holy Prophet (sa) was very pleased with him. Hazrat Umar (ra) has declared him as being among the six men who, up to the demise of the Holy Prophet (sa), held his utmost pleasure. Furthermore, he was from among the ‘ashrah mubashsharah’, meaning he was one of those 10 men about whom the Holy Prophet (sa) had given the glad tiding that they would enter paradise.”

(Islam Mein Ikhtilafat ka Aghaz, Anwar-ul-Ulum, Vol. 4, pp. 251-253)

Right from the outset of his Khilafat, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) had to face the following five trials.

  1. The grief of the Holy Prophet’s (sa) demise.

  2. The election of Khilafat and the fear and danger of disorder and division emerging amongst the Muslim ummah.

  3. The matter relating to the departure of Usama’s (ra) army.

  4. Those who called themselves Muslims and yet refused to pay the Zakat and planned to attack Medina. In history, this is known as “the disorder of those who refused to pay the Zakat.”

  5. The disorder of the apostates, i.e. by those rebellious people who openly declared to create disorder and initiate war. Among them were also those who falsely claimed prophethood.

It is stated in Fath-ul-Bari, the commentary of Sahih Bukhari that Hazrat Talha (ra) was not present when Hazrat Umar (ra) was giving his counsel. It is possible that he returned only when Hazrat Umar (ra) had passed away. On the other hand, there are narrations which state that he arrived when the consultation has not come to its conclusion yet. According to another narration, which is regarded as more reliable, Hazrat Talha (ra) returned after Hazrat Uthman (ra) had been elected as the Khalifa.

(Fath-ul-Bari Sharah Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 7, p. 69, Hadith no. 3700, Dar-ul-Marifah, Beirut)

There is a narration in regard to the very first address delivered by Hazrat Uthman (ra) upon being elected Khalifa. Ismail bin Ibrahim bin Abdir Rahman bin Abdillah bin Abi Rabiyyah Makhzumi relates from his father that when they performed the bai‘at at the hands of Hazrat Uthman (ra), he came before the people and delivered an address. After praising and glorifying Allah the Almighty, Hazrat Uthman (ra) stated, “O people! Doing something for the first time can be difficult.” It can be challenging when doing something for the first time. “There will be many days to come after this one. If I remain alive, then God-willing, I will deliver a more comprehensive address before you.”

In other words, he was only delivering a brief address at the time, but stated that there would be many days to come and he would deliver a more comprehensive address. Hazrat Uthman (ra) further stated, “I am not a speaker; however, Allah the Almighty will teach me” i.e. Allah the Almighty would teach him the ability to deliver a speech.

(Ibn Saad, Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Uthman bin Affan [Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabiyy, 1996], pp. 34-35)

Badr bin Uthman relates from his uncle that when the members of the electoral committee pledged their oath of allegiance [bai‘at] to Hazrat Uthman (ra), he came out in a state whereby he was the most emotional amongst them all. Hazrat Uthman (ra) then stood upon the pulpit of the Holy Prophet (sa) and delivered an address. Hazrat Uthman (ra) praised and glorified Allah the Almighty and invoked salutations [Durood] upon the Holy Prophet (sa). Thereafter, Hazrat Uthman (ra) stated, “Verily, you all dwell in an abode, which you will one day have to depart from”; in other words, the life in this world. “You are in the advanced years of your lives, therefore perform as many virtuous deeds as you can before your demise. Indeed, death is imminent and this enemy [i.e. death] can launch its attack at any moment in the day or in the night.

“Hearken! The life of this world is filled with deception and dishonesty, therefore let not the life of this world deceive you and nor let the deceptive ploys of Satan deceive you in matters relating to God. Take heed from the example of those who have gone before you. Strive to your utmost and do not become negligent because Allah is not unmindful of what you do. Where are the worldly people and their brethren who would dig up the earth and populated the land, remaining therein for a long period of time? Did Allah not cast them out from it?

“Thus, treat this world as Allah deals with it and seek the Hereafter, seek the Hereafter, for Allah gives an example of this world comparing it to something most excellent when He says:

وَ اضۡرِبۡ لَهُمۡ مَّثَلَ الۡحَيٰوةِ الدُّنۡيَا كَمَآءٍ اَنۡزَلۡنٰهُ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ فَاخۡتَلَطَ بِهٖ نَبَاتُ الۡاَرۡضِ فَاَصۡبَحَ هَشِييۡمًا تَذۡرُوۡهُ الرِّيٰحُ ؕ وَ كَانَ اللّٰهُ عَلٰي كُلِّ شَيۡءٍ مُّقۡتَدِرًا اَلۡمَالُ وَ الۡبَنُوۡنَ زِيۡنَةُ الۡحَيٰوةِ الدُّنۡيَا ۚ وَ الۡبٰقِيٰتُ الصّٰلِحٰتُ خَيۡرٌ عِنۡدَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَّ خَيۡرٌ اَمَلًا

“(These are verses of Surah Al-Kahf.) ‘And set forth to them the similitude of the life of this world: it is like the water which We send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth is mingled with it, and then it becomes dry grass broken into pieces which the winds scatter. And Allah has power over everything. Wealth and children are an ornament of the life of this world. But enduring good works are better in the sight of thy Lord in respect of immediate reward, and better in respect of future hope.’ [Ch.18: V.46-47]

“Subsequently, the people rushed forth to pledge allegiance to him.”

(Muhammad Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, Vol. 5, p. 87, year 24, Khutbat Uthman wa Qatl Ubaid Allah bin Umar al-Harmazan, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, 2002)

When the Muslims began to debate in regard to the election of the Khalifa, Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) addressed the Ansar and said, “O Ansar, you are the ones who were the very first to offer their support. Let it not be that now you become the very first to cause a disagreement.”

(Sheikh Shah Moinuddin Ahmad Nadvi, Siyar al-Sahabah, Vol. 2, [Karachi, Pakistan: Dar al-Isha‘ah Urdu Bazar] 126-127.)

The Promised Messiah (as) states in his book, Sirr-ul-Khilafah – this book was originally written in Arabic; however, its Urdu translation is as follows:

“Even if we assume that the most truthful person …” i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), against whom these people level allegations and claim that Hazrat Ali (ra) should have been the Khalifa first. Clarifying this matter, the Promised Messiah (as) states:

“Even if we assume that the most truthful person [i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)] was one of those who prioritised the pleasure of this world and its temptations and that he usurped the right of another, then we are forced to admit that Ali, the Lion of Allah, was a hypocrite (God-forbid) and did not cast aside his worldly desires and wholly devote himself to Allah and that he was beguiled by the world and desirous of its attractions and charms as he did not leave the company of ‘the apostates and disbelievers’”. These are the extremely harsh words they say in regard to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), for example that he was a disbeliever. “But instead, he adopted hypocrisy and chose taqiyya for approximately 30 years.

“If, in the eyes of Hazrat Ali, may Allah the Almighty be pleased with him, Al-Siddiq Akbar [i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)] was a disbeliever and had usurped his right, then why did he agree to pledge allegiance to him? Why did he not migrate from the land of oppression, tribulation and apostasy? Was not Allah’s earth vast enough for him to emigrate as has been the practise of the righteous?

“Look at the example of Abraham, who fulfilled the commandments; how powerful he was in bearing witness to the truth; when he saw that his father erred and had gone astray and his people worshiped idols instead of the Supreme Lord, he turned away from them. He was not afraid, nor did he care about the consequences. He was thrown into fire and yet he did not choose to conceal his faith out of fear of the evildoers.

“This is the way of the righteous. They do not fear swords or blades. They consider taqiyya to be a grave sin and an immoral and unjust act. And even if they were to commit an iota of such a despicable act, they turn to Allah seeking His forgiveness.

“We are amazed at how Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, swore allegiance to Al-Siddiq and Al-Faruq [i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra)] despite ‘knowing’ that they had ‘renounced Islam and usurped the rights of others’. Moreover, if he” i.e. Hazrat Ali (ra) “was aware of their alleged ‘corruption, disbelief and apostasy’, then why is it that he continued to spend among them a wholelifetime and followed them sincerely and devotedly. He did not tire or become weary, nor did he show any resentment, nor did he let any other reason become a hindrance in this, including his high level of righteousness.

“Moreover, there was nothing stopping him, nor was he held as a prisoner in that he could not go to the other Arab tribes. Thus, in such an instance, it was his duty to migrate to some other part of Arabia, to its east or to the west.”

If the circumstances had become so dire, then there was nothing stopping Hazrat Ali (ra) from migrating. The Promised Messiah (as) states that not only should he have migrated, but then also incited others to fight against them for they had become apostates and disbelievers. The Promised Messiah (as) continues:

“[He should have left] in order to urge people to fight and incite the Bedouins to battle. He should have aroused them with his eloquent words and then fought the rebellious apostates.”

The Promised Messiah (as) further states:

“About one hundred thousand Bedouins joined Musaylimah Kazzab. However, Ali (ra) was more deserving of this support than anyone else. Therefore, on what basis did he follow ‘the disbelievers’” i.e. the first three Khalifas, against whom these people level the allegation that they were disbelievers, “and why did he display his loyalty to them? If he was appointed as the leader, then why did he sit idly like the indolent and not rise like those who strive [in the cause of Allah]? What had prevented him from standing against them if he had seen the signs of his honour and high rank by Allah? Why did he not go forward to war in support of the truth and to call others towards this mission? Was he not the most eloquent among the people, the most articulate in speech and the one who could breathe life through his words? Thus, he could have gathered people around him within an hour or even less due to the strength of his speech and oration, which would have affected the listeners and attracted them. If people could gather around an imposter and liar [i.e. Musaylimah Kazzab], how is it that the Lion of Allah could not do the same while he was supported by Allah and was the beloved of the Lord of the Worlds?

“Above all else, the strangest thing is that Hazrat Ali (ra) did not only pledge allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) and Hazrat Umar (ra) [Sheikhain], but he also observed every Salat behind them and never missed a single prayer or turned away like those who harbour doubts.

Moreover, he participated with them in mutual consultation and believed in their claim. He helped them in every matter with all his effort and capacity and was not of those who remained behind. Thus, carefully ponder, is this how an oppressed one behaves? Look how he followed the so-called ‘liars’, despite his knowledge of their lies and slander, as if truth and falsehood were alike for him. Did he not know that those who trust in The Powerful never choose the way of hypocrisy, even if they are cast into the fire? Indeed, they do not leave the truth even if by upholding it they are cast into ruin and destruction.”

(Sirr-ul-Khilafah, Ruhani Khazain, Vol. 8, pp. 349-351, Urdu Tarjumah of Sirr-ul-Khilafah, pp. 86-91, Nazarat Ishaat)

Thus, the Promised Messiah (as) has clearly explained that Hazrat Ali (ra) never opposed any of the Khulafa before him; in fact, he pledged his allegiance to them. And those who claim that Hazrat Ali (ra) did not pledge his allegiance to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) commit a disservice to the honour of Hazrat Ali (ra) as opposed to honouring his status.

It is recorded in Sahih Muslim that Hazrat Ibn Umar (ra) narrates, “I was with my father when he was attacked. People praised him and said:

جَزَاكَ‭ ‬اللّٰهُ‭ ‬خَيْرًا

“‘May Allah the Almighty grant you the best reward.’ Upon this, Hazrat Umar (ra) replied, ‘I am hopeful, but also afraid’. The people asked him to appoint the next Khalifa. He said, ‘Shall I bear your burden in this life and when I have passed away as well? I desire for my contributions to be equal in both, meaning neither should I be held responsible, nor should I receive any reward. If I were to appoint a successor, then this would be similar to he who was better than me i.e. Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)for he did appoint a successor (even if he did then there would be no harm). If I were to leave you without appointing a successor, then you were also left without being appointed a successor by he who was better than me i.e. the Holy Prophet (sa)’.”

The second example he gave was of the Holy Prophet (sa), who did not appoint his successor. Hazrat Abdullah says, “When he mentioned the Holy Prophet (sa), I knew that he would not appoint a successor.”

(Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Imarah, Bab al-Istikhlaf wa Tarkih, Hadith 4713)

In another narration recorded in Sahih Muslim, Hazrat Ibn Umar (ra) says that he went to Hazrat Hafsah (ra) and she said, “Are you aware that your father will not appoint a successor?” He replied, “He will not do such a thing.” Hazrat Hafsah (ra) said, “He will do so.” Hazrat Ibn Umar (ra) stated, “I vowed that I would speak to Hazrat Umar (ra) again.”

He continues, “I remained silent until the next morning and did not say anything to him.” He further says, “I felt as if I was bearing the weight of a mountain because of this vow I had made. I returned and went to Hazrat Umar (ra), who asked about the state of the people. I told him the various things people were saying. Then I said, ‘I have heard something in particular that the people are saying, and I vowed to tell you. They think that you will not appoint a successor. If someone grazes your camels or shepherds your sheep, then he comes to you and simply leaves them, then you would think that he has abandoned them. Similarly, protecting people is even more important.’”

He says, “Hazrat Umar (ra) agreed with what I said and looked down for a short while. Then he looked up, turning towards me, and said, ‘Allah the Most High will protect His faith. If I do not appoint a successor, then it would be similar to the Holy Prophet (sa) who did not appoint a successor. If I do appoint a successor, it would be similar to Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)who did appoint a successor.’”

Hazrat Ibn Umar (ra), the son of Hazrat Umar (ra) said, “By God, when Hazrat Umar (ra) mentioned the Holy Prophet (sa) and Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra), I knew that he would not hold anyone in the same esteem as the Holy Prophet (sa) and thus, he would not appoint a successor.”

(Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Imarah, Bab al-Istikhlaf wa Tarkih, Hadith 4714)

Hazrat Miswar bin Makhrama relates that when Hazrat Umar (ra) was injured, he was experiencing extreme pain. And in order to try and reassure him, Hazrat Ibn Abbas (ra) stated, “O Leader of the Faithful! If the situation has come to this, then you have stayed in the company of the Holy Prophet (sa) and were an excellent companion. The Holy Prophet (sa) departed in a state whereby he was happy with you. Thereafter, you stayed in the company of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)and were an excellent companion to him and he departed in a state whereby he was happy with you. Then, you remained in the company of the companions and were an excellent support for them and if you depart from them, then indeed you will depart them in a state whereby they will be happy with you.”

Upon this, Hazrat Umar (ra) replied, “You mentioned regarding the companionship with the Holy Prophet (sa) and him being pleased with me is purely owing to the grace of Allah the Almighty upon me. Then, you mentioned regarding my companionship with Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)and him being pleased with me and this was also owing to the grace of Allah the Almighty upon me. As for my state of concern which you can see at present is for you and your companions. I am not worried about myself, but I am concerned for you and your companions. By Allah, even if I had an entire land worth of gold, I would give it as fidya in order to save myself from Allah the Almighty’s wrath.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fada‘il Ashab al-Nabi (sa), bab Manaqib Umar bin al-Khattab (ra), Hadith 3692)

In 23 Hijri when Hazrat Umar (ra) was attacked with an attempt to take his life, people asked him to nominate someone for Khilafat [after him]. Upon this, Hazrat Umar (ra) appointed a board for the selection of Khilafat which included Hazrat Uthman (ra), Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auf (ra), Hazrat Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas (ra), Hazrat Zubair bin Awwam (ra) and Hazrat Talha bin Ubaidallah (ra). Hazrat Umar (ra) said that any one of these [companions] should be selected as the Holy Prophet (sa) had given them all the glad tidings of heaven.

Then he said, “If Khilafat is given to Sa‘d bin Abi Waqas, then he should be the Khalifa, otherwise whichever one of you becomes the Khalifa should continue to seek help from Sa‘d as I did not discharge him [from his duties] for being inept of doing work, nor due to any dishonesty.”

(Sahih al-Bukhari, Kitab Fazail al-Sahab al-Nabi, Hadith no. 3700) (Sahih al-Bukari, Kitab-ul-Janaiz, Hadith no. 1392)